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S,        V   ,     (O 


of  lnter*Commtwfcatfon 



11  When  found,  make  a  note  of." —  CAPTAIN*  CUTTLE. 











S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66.] 


LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  7,  1366. 

CONTENTS.— NO  236. 

NOTES  •  —  Dr.  Wilraot's  Polish  Princess,  1  —  Erskinc's 
"  Petition  of  Peter,"  &c.,  3  —  Noblesse  Oblige,  4  —  Ancient 
Heraldry,  Ib.—  Serjeant's  Robes,  5  —  Relic  of  Charles  I. 

—  Tombstone  Inscription  —  Mantel-piece  —  London  In- 
scriptions:   the  French  Chapel  —  Pulpit  Anecdotes  — 
Medical  Loyalty  —  The   Oldest   House  in   England  — 
Burusiana,  5. 

QUERIES:  — Ale  at  Breakfast  —  Anonymous  —  Dante  — 
W  Elder  —  Heraldic  —  Ilchester  —  Lynch's  "  Dictionary 
of  Illustrious  Irish  Characters  "  —  "  Marium  Vice-Praefec- 
tus  "—  Monumental  Devices  —  Naufragium  Joculare,  or 
Shipwreck  by  Drink  — "Origines  Parochiales  Scotise"  — 
The  Ostrich  Feather  Badge  —  Pope  and  Cardinals  —  Quo- 
tations wanted  — Ring  Inscription  —  Sandys's  "Ovid"  — 
Lost  Statues  —  Sir  John  Vanbrugh's  Plays,  7 

QUEBIES  WITH  ANSWERS:  — The  Hon.  Henry  Erskine's 
Convivial  Poems  —  The  Sacred  Name  "  Jah  "  in  the  Prayer- 
book  —  "  Give  a  Dog  an  ill  Name,  and  Hang  him "  — 
"  Beauty,  retire ! "  —  The  Fluke,  9. 

REPLIES:— The  Evangelistic  Symbols,  10  —  Cleland  of 
Cleland,  12  —  Caricature  Portraits,  13  —  Honorary  Canons, 
14  —  Horizon  —  Derby  Dolls  —  Algiers  —  Church  Porches 

—  "Nottingham   Ale"  — The  Regimental  Kettles  of  the 
Janizaries  —  Prelate  mentioned  by  Gibbon  —  Anglo-Saxon 
Guilds  —  Zoroaster  —  Feckle  :  Feck  —  Spanish  Sepulchral 
Inscription  —  Rodney  Triumphant  —  "  Lasciar  fare  a  Marc 
Antonio  "  —  Photographic  Canard  —  Quotation  —  Cursive 
Hebrew  —  Lammas  Lands  — The  Moon  — Fert:  and  the 
Arms  of  Savoy  —  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Barbauld  —  Norfolk  Wiles 

—  Cealchyth  —  "The  Scotch  Language,"  and  "The  Bar- 
barous Dialect  of  Yorkshire  "  —  Ring  in  Cake  —  W.  R. 
Spenser — Abracadabra,  &c.,  15. 

Notes  on  Books,  &c. 


There  is  one  chapter  in  the  Wilmot-Serres  ro- 
mance which,  though  slightly  touched  upon  by 
the  Attorney-General  in  the  late  cause  celebre, 
deserves  a  few  remarks ;  one  personage  who  every 
now  and  then  comes  on  the  scene,  "  like  a  shadow 
and  so  departs,"  of  whose  presence,  however,  for 
reasons  which 'will  appear  hereafter,  it  is  desirable 
some  record  should  be  preserved.  I  allude  to  the 
Princess  Poniatowski,  whom  Dr.  Wilmot  is  al- 
leged to  have  married,  and  by  whom  he  is  said 
to  have  become  the  father  of  the  supposed 
Duchess  of  Cumberland. 

This  Princess  is  like  Dame  Quickly,  one  "  don't 
know  where  to  have  her."  We  first  get  a  glimpse 
of  her  in  1813,  in  Mrs.  Serres'  Life  of  Dr.  James 
Wilmot  (an  impudent  and  foolish  attempt  to  prove 
him  the  writer  of  The  Letters  of  Junius),  where, 
in  a  note  at  p.  116,  we  read  — 

"  When  the  Princess  of  Poland  visited  England,  Dr. 
Wilmot  attended  her  to  the  University.  She  valued  our 
author  exceedingly  during  her  residence  in  England,  and 
invited  him  to  the  Court  of  Poland ;  she  frequently  cor- 
responded with  him  after  her  departure  from  this  king- 

In  1815  Lord  Warwick  communicated  to  Mrs. 
Serres  the  startling  and  agreeable  fact  that  she 
was  the  daughter  of  the  Duchess  of  Cumberland — 
and  not  only  to  Mrs.  Serres,  but  also  to  the  Duke 

of  Kent,  who  seems  to  have  been  no  sooner  let 
into  this  grave  secret,  than  he  was  seized  with  the 
same  mania  for  writing  certificates  and  declarations 
for  which  all  the  parties  to  it  are  so  remarkable  ;* 
a  mania  which  manifested  itself  in  making  its  vic- 
tims forget  their  grammar  and  orthography,  ^.pell 
"  offspring"  orf  spring ;  and  all  alike  endeavour  to 
hide  the  mysteries  with  which  they  were  familiar 
under  the  most  transparent  veil.  Thus  we  find 
Dr.  Wilmot  cautiously  concealing  the  names  of 
Junius,  Lord  Shelburne,  and  Wilkes,  under  the 

occult  symbols  of  Ju s,  L d  S >ne,  J. 

W • ;  while  Lord  Chatham,  in  a  document  in 

which  he  pledges  himself  not  to  betray  the  Duke 
of  Cumberland's  second  marriage,  writes  about 

"  the  laws  against  b y,"  and  the  Duke  of  Kent 

in  like  manner  writes,  "  F 1  M ge  "  and 

"R 1  birthright,"  for  fear  fany body  should 

guess  he  meant  " first  marriage"  and  "royal 

But  though,  in  1815,  Lord  Warwick  announced 
to  Mrs.  Serres  that  she  was  the  daughter  of  the 
Duchess  of  Cumberland,  he  seems  very  unac- 
countably to  have  omitted  the  additional  interest- 
ing fact  that  she  was  the  granddaughter  of  a 
Princess.  Strange  omission  this  of  Lord  War- 
wick ;  but  still  the  fact  must  have  been  forgotten, 
for  two  years  after  Mrs.  Serres  had  ascertained 
her  descent  from  the  Duchess  of  Cumberland,  we 
find  her,  in  a  pamphlet  published  in  1817,  entitled 
Junius,  Sir  Philip  Francis  denied,  asserting,  at  p.  6 — 
"Dr.  Wilmot  was  NEVER  MARRIED,"  and  draw- 
ing from  that  circumstance  additional  arguments 
in  favour  of  his  identity  with  Junius. 

As  far  as  we  have  been  able  to  ascertain,  Mrs. 
Serres  did  not  put  forth  any  claim  to  be  a  de- 
scendant from  a  Polish  Princess  until  1821,  when 
she  made  the  following  announcement  in  The 
British  Luminary,  which  was  understood  to  be 
the  Princess  of  Cumberland's  official  organ;  at 
which  time  also  she  declared  her  right  to  the 
throne  of  Poland  :  — 

"  Dr.  Wilmot,  in  early  life,  was  a  Fellow  of  Trinity 
College ;  he  was  a  high-spirited,  independent  character, 
of  great  talent,  and  the  friend  and  favorite  of  many  of 
the  young  nobility  then  at  Oxford.  Stanislaus,  after- 
wards King  of  Poland,  was  at  that  time  studying  at  Ox- 
ford, and  Dr.  Wilmot  became  intimate  with  him.  Stanis- 
laus had  a  SISTER  living  with  him  (Princess  Poniatousld), 
a  very  beautiful  young  creature ;  and  from  the  intimacy 
which  subsisted  between  the  Prince  and  the  Doctor,  he  was 
frequently  in  company  with  the  young  Princess ;  a  mu- 
tual attachment  took  place  between  them ;  but  the  Prin- 
cess was  not  rich ;  and  they  were  at  length  privately 
married.  Only  a  few  confidential  friends  were  acquainted 

*  Dr.  Smith,  the  Counsel  of  Mrs.  Ryves,  is  reported  in 
The  Times  of  June  2  to  have  stated  that  about  seventy 
documents  would  be  produced,  containing  forty-three 
signatures  of  Dr.  Wilmot,  sixteen  of  Lord  Chatham, 
twelve  of  Dunning,  twelve  of  George  III.,  thirty-two  of 
Lord  Warwick,  and  eighteen  of  the  Duke  of  Kent.  What 
an  ingenious  mode  of  keeping  state  secrets ! 


.  X.  JULY  7,  '66. 

with  the  transaction,  for  had  it  been  generally  known,  the 
Doctor  would  have  lost  his  fellowship  and  his  other  high 

Pf"  InTvetime  the  Princess  presented  Dr.  Wilmot  with 
a  daughter.  Some  family  and  political  matters  separated 
the  parties  for  a  while.  He  doated  upon  his  lovely  child, 
who,  we  believe,  was  placed  under  the  care  of  Mrs.  Payne, 
the  sister  of  the  Doctor  and  the  wife  of  Captain  Payne. 

"  All  the  time  the  Doctor  could  spare  from  his  studies 
and  different  occupations  he  devoted  to  his  beloved  and 
interesting  child,  who  grew  up  the  beautiful  image  of  her 
Royal  mother,  with  a  mind  as  superior  as  her  person,  and 
at  the  age  of  eighteen  the  Duke  of  Cumberland  and  the 
Earl  of  Warwick  became  her  admirers;  at  length  the 
Earl  gave  way  to  the  Duke,  and  on  March  4, 1767,  they 
were  married  'by  Dr.  Wilmot  at  the  house  of  his  friend, 
Lord  Archer,  in  the  presence  of  Lord  Brook  (aftenvards 
Lord  Warwick)  and  Mr.  Addez,  which  was  only  known 
to  a  few  persons  about  the  Court. 

"  The  apparently  happy  Duke  and  his  lovely  bride 
lived  in  hopes  that  they  should  soon  be  allowed  to  make 
their  marriage  public ;  but  in  the  year  1771  a  trans- 
action took  place  which  proved  a  cruel  death  blow 
to  the  young  Duchess,  for  she  never  recovered  the 
effect.  ...  !  ! ! 

"  Young,  amiable,  and  beautiful,  and  tenderly  attached 
to  the  Duke,  she  took  leave  of  him  and  went  to  Warwick 
in  a  state  of  misery  not  to  be  described.  A  premature 
birth  at  seven  months  was  the  consequence.  On  Tuesday, 
April  3,  1772,  she  gave  birth  to  the  Princess  Olive  at 
the  house  of  Mrs.  Wilmot,  in  Jury  Street,  in  the  town  of 
Warwick.  The  Earl  of  Warwick  and  Dr.  Wilmot  were 
both  present,  which  fact  is  confirmed  by  their  separate 

"  The  unfortunate  Duchess  was  conveyed  to  France  in 
a  state  scarcely  to  be  described,  where  she  afterwards 
died  in  a  convent  of  a  broken  heart." —  Gent.'s  Map., 
July  1822,  vol.  xcii.  Part  n.  pp.  35-6  (quoted  from  The 
British  Luminary  of  Dec.  16th,  1821). 

But  the  mystery  is  at  length  cleared  up.  We 
are  now  told  that  Lord  Warwick  did  not  reveal 
the  whole  story  of  her  "birth  and  connection  in 
1815,  but  delivered  to  her  a  sealed  packet,  which 
was  not  to  be  opened  until  after  the  death  of  the 
King;  but  which,  with  strange  disregard  to  so 
solemn  an  injunction,  was  opened  in  1819,  though 
the  King  did  not  die  till  1820 ;  and  that  packet 
for  the  most  part  related  to  the  marriage  of  Dr. 
Wilmot  with  the  Princess  Poniatowski. 

However,  as  Mrs.  Serres'  grandmother,  the 
Princess  Poniatowski,  gave  birth  to  a  daughter  on 
June  17,  1750,  we  are  tery  glad  to  find  for  the 
lady's  sake  that  she  was  married.  We  presume  this 
event  took  place  in  1749 ;  but  unfortunately  Dr. 
Wilmot,  fond  as  he  seems  to  have,  been  of  writing 
down  all  the  great  secrets  with  which  he  was 
entrusted,  seems  never  to  have  taken  sufficient 
care  of  the  Polish  interest  of  his  descendants,  and 
has  not  certified  where,  wlien,  or  whom  he  married. 

In  the  Appeal  for  Royalty  it  is  said  (p.  7)  Dr. 
Wilmot  "  contracted  a  private  but  legal  marriage 
with  the  Princess  of  Poland,  DAUGHTER  of  Stanis- 
laus, last  king  of  that  country."  As  the  author  of 
the  Appeal  had  access  to  all"  the  documents,  how 
comes  it  that,  while  Mrs.  Serres  in  1821  declared 
the  lady  to  have  been  a  SISTER  of  Stanislaus,  the 

Appeal,  published  in  1858  and  republished  in 
1866,  declares  her  to  have  been  his  DAUGHTER? 
Dr.  Smith,  Mrs.  Ryves's  counsel,  who  ought  to 
know,  having  doubtless  studied  the  case  very 
closely,  returns  to  the  original  version,  and  says 
the  lady  was  the  Princess  Poniatowski,  SISTER 
of  the  King  of  Poland. 

On  the  2nd  June  Dr.  Smith  produced  to  the 
Court  an  article  in  the  Biographic  Universcllc, 
for  the  purpose  of  proving  the  biography  of  Do- 
minic Serres.  Had  the  learned  Doctor,  in  turning 
over  the  leaves  of  that  useful  book,  glanced  his 
eye  at  the  Life  of  Stanislaus,  and  been  startled  by 
the  announcement  ?  — 

"  Ce  prince  rfavait  pas  ete  marie  !  " 

There  the  statement  is  at  any  rate ;  and  the  fact 
is  so.  Stanislaus  never  was  married.  But  this  is 
not  all.  The  favourite  of  Catherine  was,  no  doubt, 
a  remarkable  man;  but  he  would  have  been  a 
very  remarkable  man  indeed  if,  born  in  1732,  he 
was  the  father  of  a  marriageable  daughter  in  1749. 

So  much  for  Dr.  Wilmot's  marriage  with  a 
DAUGHTER  of  Stanislaus. 

Let  us  now  see  whether  the  story  which  Dr. 
Smith  adopted,  namely,  that  this  supposititious 
Princess  was  the  SISTER  and  not  the  DAUGHTER  of 
Poniatowski,  is  a  bit  more  consistent  than  the 
one  which  he  rejected. 

If  the  reader  will  refer  to  Niesiecki's  Herlarz 
Polski  (article  "  Poniatowski,"  vol.  vii.  pp.  376 — 
378,  ed.  1839-46),  the  best  authority  we  believe 
on  the  subject,  he  will  find  that  Count  Ponia- 
towski, afterwards  King  of  Poland,  had  four 
brothers  and  only  two  sisters.  Of  these  the  eldest, 
Louisa,  born  in  1728,  married  one  of  the  Zarnoy- 
ski  family,  and  left  a  daughter  married  to  a  Count 
Mniszech.  The  younger,  Isabella,  born  in  1730, 
married  Clement  Branicki,  and  died  without  issue. 

So  much  for  the  assertion  that  Dr.  Wilmot 
married  a  SISTER  of  the  King  of  Poland. 

We  have  thus  shown  that  the  whole  story  of 
this  pretended  marriage  is  clearly  a  pure  inven- 
tion, by  proving  that,  in  1813,  Mrs.  Serres  knew 
nothing  of  it;  that  in  1815,  according  to  The 
Appeal,  she  was  informed  of  "  all  the  particulars 
of  her  birth  and  connections;"  that  in  spite  of 
this,  in  1817,  she  declared  that  "  Dr.  Wilmot  was 
never  married ;"  that  in  1821  she  announced  his 
marriage  to  a  SISTER  of  Poniatowski;  that  in 
1858  and  1866,  this  sister  was  in  The  Appeal 
transformed  into  a  DAUGHTER  ;  who  in  the  Ky ves 
case  was  again  retransformed  into  a  SISTER  :  that 
Poniatowski  was  never  married,  and  consequently 
had  no  DAUGHTER;  that  neither  of  his  sisters 
could  have  been  married  to  Dr.  Wilmot.  It 
would  therefore  be  waste  of  time  and  space  to 
touch  upon  the  absurdity  of  converting  this  mythic 
daughter  or  sister  of  "Count  Poniatowski — who 
was  not  elected  King  of  Poland  till  1764— into 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66.] 


a  Princess  of  Poland  in  1749 ;  or  to  show  where 
Poniatowski  was  when  the  pretended  marriage 
took  place ;  or  to  prove  that  his  visit  to  England 
did  not  occur  till  live  years  after  the  date  which 
Mrs.  Serres  assigned  to  it. 

Parodying  what  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  said  of 
the  certificates  of  the  pretended  Lightfoot  mar- 
riage, that  they  were  "  gross  and  rank  forgeries," 
it  may  safely  he  declared  of  the  two  versions  of 
the  Wilmot-Poniatowski  marriage  —  they  are 
"gross  and  rank  fabrications;"  and  Mrs.  Serres' 
statement  in  1817,  that  "Dr.  Wilmot  was  never 
married,"  remains  one  of  the  few  statements  made 
by  her  entitled  to  credit,  WILLIAM  J.  THOMS. 

P.S.  Whilst  hurriedly  penning  these  lines,  our 
attention  was  attracted  to  the  date  mentioned 
above  as  that  of  the  birth  of  the  Princess  Olive — 
"  Tuesday,.April  3,  1772."  It  is  very  seldom  in 
connection  with  this  case,  that  one  gets  anything 
quite  so  precise  and  definite.  The  importance  of 
a  royal  birth  of  course  justifies  and  accounts  for 
the  minute  and  unwonted  particularity.  Hap- 
pening to  have  at  hand  Mr.  Bond's  excellent  Per- 
petual Calendar,  we  thought  we  would  test  this 
Tuesday,  the  third  of  April.  No  sooner  said  than 
done.  For  1772,  Mr.  Bond's  contrivance  at  once 
informed  us  that  D  was  the  Dominical  Letter,  and 
that  the  1st  April  was  on  a  Wednesday ;  the  3rd 
was  therefore  a  Friday,  and  not  a  Tuesday.  Could 
it  be  Tuesday,  the  13th  ?  No,  the  13th  was  on  a 
Monday.  Or  Tuesday  the  23rd  ?  No,  the  23rd 
was  on  a  Friday.  How  was  it  to  be  accounted 
for  ?  We  soon  discovered.  The  person  who  en- 
deavoured to  ascertain  the  day  of  the  week,  not 
having  Mr.  Bond's  little  chronological  machine  at 
hand,  and  not  being  a  very  profound  chronologer, 
calculated  the  date  according  to  the  old  style, 
under  which  the  3rd  of  April,  1772,  would  have 
been  a  Tuesday,  but  unfortunately  for  him  or  her, 
the  style  was  changed  in  1752,  twenty  years  be- 
fore the  date  assigned  to  this  illustrious  birth. 


The  following  verses,  which  tell  their  own  story, 
for  the  authenticity  of  which  I  can  vouch,  and 
which  ^  have  never,  I  believe,  been  in  print,  may 
prove  interesting,  both  from  their  intrinsic  merit, 
and  on  account  of  the  subsequent  fame  of  their 
author.  His  allusions  herein  to  the  English 
Courts  of  Law,  and  Lord  Coke,  some  years  before 
there  was  any  likelihood  of  his  quitting  the  mili- 
tary profession,  and  being  called  to  the  bar,  are 
curious :  — 

"To  the  Right  Hon.  Lady  Cecilia  Johnstone  (Wife 
of  the  Governor  of  Minorca).  The  Address  of  her 
Ladyship's  Monkey,  doomed  by  her  to  banishment, 
praying  that  England  might  be  the  place  of  his  exile. 
*'  Written  in  Minorca,  July,  1774,  by  Ensign  the  Honbl« 
Thomas  Erskine,  afterwards  Lord  Erskine. 

"  The  humble  Petition  of  sorrowful  Peter, 

With  submission  is  set  forth,  as  follows,  in  Metre. 
"  I  think,  if  I'm  rightly  informed  of  the  crime 
For  which  I  am  banished,  it  runs  thus  in  rhyme — 
For  tearing  of  books,  for  mischief,  and  stealing, 
And  tricks  of  all  kinds,  from  the  floor  to  the  ceiling. 
As  mankind  pretend  to  be  govern'd  by  Laws, 
I  claim  the  just  right  to  be  heard  in  my  cause, 
Which  I  found  npon  reason,  and  wrap  up  in  rhyme, 
Although  not  the  practice  of  Courts  in  our  time ; 
For  in  Law,  I  must  say,  though  perhaps  not  in  season, 
Proceedings  are  mostly  '  without  rhyme  or  reason.' 
All  Culprits  are  punished,  if  Lord  Coke  says  true, 
Not  from  love  of  revenge,  but  for  tli'  harm  that  they  do. 
On  this  common  maxim  my  pleadings  I  found, 
And  the  crime  of  the  books  will  soon  fall  to  the  ground. 
There  was  never  book  yet,  I'll  be  bound  to  engage — 
Above  all  in  our  days — but  mav  well  spare  a  page, 
And  the  Public  as  well  as  most  Authors  might  look 
With  smiles  on  a  monkey  devouring  their  book. 
'Tis  as  well  for  a  volume,  I'll  venture  an  oath, 
To  be  eat  b}^  an  Ape,  as  by  Critic,  or  Moth. 
And  then,  as  to  reading,  all  wits  have  confest  it, 
You  never  can  profit  unless  you  digest  it. 
And  monkeys  and  men,  from  the  north  to  the  south. 
Can  only  digest  what  they  put  in  their  mouth. 
Much  more  might  be  said",  if  I  chose  to  enlarge, 
But  I  now  shall  proceed  to  the  rest  of  my  Charge. 
"  To  blame  me  for  mischief,  and  tax  me  with  stealing, 
Is  surely  a  want  of  good  sense  and  fine  feeling, 
For  Nature,  who  ripens  the  figs  and  the  grapes, 
Is  no  nearer  relation  to  men  than  to  Apes. 
'Tis  because  you  are  stronger  you  seize  upon  all, 
And  the  weakest,  alas  !  must  e'en  go  to  the  wall. 
But  the  fair  teeming  earth,  our  bountiful  mother, 
Loves  Peter  as  dearly  as  Adam,  his  Brother. 
As  to  tricks  of  all  kinds,  for  which  I'm  accused, 
I  deny  they  are  tricks,  and  protest  I'm  abused. 
Equipt  as  I  am  in  my  shabby  old  grey, 
I  dare  not  adventure"  what  finer  fools  may. 
Each  pitiful,  ignorant,  gingerbread  varlet — 
Each  fop. of  eighteen  in  gold  lace  and  scarlet- 
Has  a  right,  to  be  sure,  on  all  subjects  to  chatter, 
Though  Peter,  perhaps,  may  know  more  of  the  matter; 
Could  Peter — I  speak  with  respect  and  submission — 
By  some  lucky  chance  get  an  Ensign's  commission — 
.  I  see  you  all  laughing ;  well,  titter  away, 
I'm  not  the  first  Monkey,  I'll  venture  to  say. 
'Tis  no  such  great  matter  to  play  well  at  cards, 
And  I  think  I  should  soon  be  '  the  Ton '  in  the  Guards. 
I'm  fit  for  all  duties,  except  a  Court  Martial ; 
There  my  likeness  to  men  might  make  me  too  partial. 
As  to  height,  to  be  sure,  I  confess  I'm  not  tall, 
But  Andrew  *  and  I  might  parade  through  the  Mall ; 
And  a  Bag  from  Miss  Bruce,  with  a  good  handsome 


Would,  I  think,  pretty  soon  set  on  foot  an  intrigue. 
What  might  not  be  done  with  my  air  and  my  shape, 
When  the  fashion  at  Court  is  to  look  like  an  Ape  ! 
What  challenges,  duels,  what  quarrels  and  slaughters  ! 
What  tears  would  be  shed  over  Spouses  and  Daugh- 

What  groups  in  the  anguish  of  cutting  a  horn 
Would  wish  in  despair  I  had  never  been  born, 
Though  (faith  !)  I'm  afraid,  to  my  shame,  I  should  see 
Some  hundreds  much  more  like  to  Monkeys  than  me. 
And  when,  for  some  fair,  I  might  steal  forth  to  meet 

I  should  find  her  eloping  with  some  other  Peter ! 

*  A  fictitious  name  for  a  verv  short  man  well  known  at 
th'  time 


S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66. 

Yet  in  spite  of  these  rubs,  I  should  have  the  renown 
To  be  one  of  the  finest  young  fellows  in  town. 

"  Then  if  exile's  my  fate,  I  implore  with  a  tear 

To  be  shipped  off  for  England— for  there  is  my  sphere ! 

"  If  to  this  last  request  you  shall  start  no  objection, 
My  Cousin,  Tom  Erskine,  has  pledged  his  protection 
(I  suppose,  like  the  Scotch,  on  account  of  connection). 
Strict  orders  are  sent  to  his  servants  at  home 
To  receive  me  with  honours  whenever  I  come. 
As  soon  as  for  England  he  spreads  forth  his  sail, 
Dear  Peter,  he  vows,  shall  partake  of  the  gale." 

T.  A.  H. 


At  a  meeting  of  the  Societe  de  1'histoire  de 
France,  held  on  the  4  April  1865,  it  was  sug- 
gested by  M.  le  comte  de  Laborde,  who  presided 
on  that  occasion,  that  in  addition  to  the  ordinary 
business  of  the  meetings  it  might  be  desirable 
that  QUERIES  on  points  of  history  and  literature 
should*  sometimes  be  stated  and  discussed.  The 
suggestion  was  received  with  favor;  and  the 
learned  archaeologist  could  do  no  less  than  give 
effect  to  it.  He  therefore  made  an  appeal  to  the 
members  then  present  as  to  the  period  which 
gave  birth  to  the  popular  saying  Noblesse  oblige. 
No  one  asserted  its  antiquity ;  and,  as  evidence  of 
their  sagacity,  the  subjoined  note  was  added  to 
the  minutes  of  the  meeting : 

"  Je  lisais  dernierement,  dans  un  ouvrage  serieux  e'crit 
re'cemment  par  un  erudit  qui  a  fait  quelque  etude  du 
moyen  age,  dans  les  Recherches  sur  la  vie  du  pere  Menes- 
trier  de  M.  A.  Allut, '  NOBLESSE  OBLIGE,  ce  vieux  dicton 
de  nos  peres,'  et  j'admirais  comment  un  esprit  fin  et 
precis  avait  pu  donner  &  sa  pensee  une  tournure  assez 
saisissante  pour  la  rendre  aussi  rapiclement  populaire  et 
tromper  les  plus  diserts. 

"  Je  desirerais  vivement  que  les  plus  consommes  dans 
la  connaissance  des  textes  du  moyen  age  me  montrassent 
tine  charte,  un  manuscrjt,  voire  meme  un  livre  imprime 
oil  se  trouve  ce  vieux  dicton  de  nos  peres,  je  voudrais 
qu'un  philologue,  rompu  &  toutes  les  habitudes  de  notre 
vieille  langue,  me  dit  a  quelle  epoque  du  moyen  age 
noblesse  et  oblige  ont  etc  pris  dans  cette  acception.  Je 
crois  les  entendre  d'a  van  ce  me  dire,  Nous  n'avons  jamais 
lu  ce  dicton  dans  aucun  de  nos  anciens  textes,  ni  rien  qui 
y  ressemble ;  il  n'est  ni  dans  les  ide'es  du  moyen  age,  ni 
dans  les  habitudes  de  la  langue  ;  et  je  leur  re'pondrais  : 
Vous  avez  d'autant  plu?  raison  qu'il  n'a  ete  imagine 
qu'au  commencement  de  ce  siecle. 

"  Voici  comment  je  1'entendis  pour  la  premiere  fois. 
Chaque  semaine  le  vieux  due  de  Levis  venait  chez  ma 
mere  _et  se  faisait  un  plaisir  d'eprouver,  au  contact  de  son 
intelligence  superieure,  les  pensees  que,  dans  1'intervalle 
d^une  visite  &  1'autre,  il  avait  trouvees  avec  beaucoup 
d'esprit,  forgees  avec  trop  d'art,  limees  avec  des  soins  in- 
finis,  sans  prejudice  d'autres  pense'es  plus  anciennes  qu'il 
ramenait  dans  la  conversation,  toujours  accompagnees  de 
cette  remarque  :  Cela  n'a  pas  encore  ete  dit.  Un  jour, 
lors  de  la  reconstitution  de  la  noblesse  de  1'ancien  regime, 
il  rappela  une  pense'e  qu'il  avait  publiee  en  1808,  lors  de 
1 etablissement  de  la  noblesse  de  1'empire  :  Tenez,  a  pro- 
posde  noblesse,  cela  n'a  jamais  ete  dit:  '  Noblesse  oblige ,' 
et  c'est  peut-etre  ce  qrfon  a  de  mieux  a  dire  a  nos  nobles  de 
I  ancien  et  du  nouveau  regime.  Tout  petit,  je  ne  fus  guere 
frappe'  de  la  portee  de  cette  pensee,  mais  sa  forme  se  fixa 
vivement  dans  ma  memoire,  seulement  par  suite  de  je  ne 

sais  plus  quelle  contrariete,  je  me  mis  en  colere,  on  m'em- 
porta  et  je  vois  encore  la  tete  et  la  figure  poudre'es  du 
vieux  due  se  pencher  vers  moi,  et  j'entends  ces  mots : 
Petit,  Thumeur  porte  sa  peine  ;  puis,  se  tournant  vers  ma 
mere  :  Comtesse,  cela  non  plus  n'a  pas  encore  ete  dit. 

"  Telle  est  1'origine  de  ce  mot,  de  ce  vieux  dicton  de 
nos  peres ;  gardons-le,  usons-en,  il  est  profond,  il  est  pra- 
tique; mais  laissons-en  1'honneur  a  1'homme  distingue 
qui,  en  concevant  cette  belle  pensee,  a  su  la  comprimer 
dans  un  moule  original. 

"  Le  comte  DE  LABORDE." 

I  transcribed  the  above  note  as  a  philological 

curiosity,  but  the   maxim  that  nobility  has  its 

i  duties  is  of  far  superior  importance  when  viewed 

•  under  its  moral  aspect — and  I  cannot  resist  the 

opportunity  of  recording  my  humble  opinion  that 

it  was  never  more  seriously  felt,  or  more  worthily 

exemplified,  than  at  the  present  time. 

Barnes,  S.W.,  30  June. 


My  attention  has  lately  been  attracted  to  the 
devices  displayed  upon  the  shields  of  warriors  and 
certain  other  personages,  who  are  represented  upon 
antique  Italo-Greek  and  Etruscan  vases ;  and  I 
have  found  these  ancient  heraldic  shields  so  cu- 
rious and  interesting  that  I  venture  to  hope  a 
brief  notice  of  a  few  of  the  more  remarkable  of 
their  charges  may  be  considered  not  altogether 
unworthy  of  the  regard  of  such  students  of 
mediasval  heraldry  as  may  not  hitherto  have 
extended  their  inquiries  into  the  heraldry  of 

In  form,  the  great  majority  of  these  shields  are 
circular,  and,  with  very  rare  exceptions,  they  have 
borders — many  of  these  borders  are  charged  with 
small  roundles  or  discs,  precisely  as  many  me- 
diaeval bordures  are  bezantee :  occasionally  these 
shields  appear  in  perspective  or  in  profile,  in 
which  case  a  central  boss,  perhaps  a  grotesque 
head,  is  represented  in  bold  relief.  Others  of 
these  shields,  which  have  been  distinguished  as 
Boeotian,  are  oval,  with  singular  Ci  flanches,"  that 
sometimes  are  pierced  and  cut  away :  and  again, 
Amazonian  warriors  have  their  own  crescent- 
shaped  pelta. 

The  most  remarkable  charge,  which  has  its 
well-known  counterpart  in  medieval  heraldry  in 
the  armorial  ensign  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  is  the 
device  formed  of  three  human  legs  conjoined.  In 
the  ancient  example,  the  limbs  are  nude,  couped 
at  the  hip,  and  flexed  in  triangle.  In  the  British 
Museum  collection,  I  found  five  fine  and  perfect 
examples  of  this  device,  painted  white  on  a  black 
field.  I  did  not  observe  any  special  association 
with  the  island  of  Sicily  indicated  in  any  other 
respect  by  these  vases.  In  the  same  collection 
are  no  less  than  nine  examples  of  another  device, 
scarcely  less  remarkable  than  the  last.  This  is  a 
single  human  leg,  couped  at  the  hip,  nude,  and 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '60.] 


bent  to  a  right  angle  at  the  knee :  as  before,  the 
device  is  white  on  a  black  field.  Upon  one  vase 
two  warriors  appear  in  the  act  of  arming:  one 
has  the  shield  just  described,  while  the  shield  of 
his  comrade  is  charged  with  a  white  bull's  head, 
couped  at  the  shoulder.  At  the  Louvre,  upon  a 
noble  prize  amphora,  the  goddess  Athene  is  re- 
presented with  a  large  black  shield,  charged  with 
the  same  device  of  a  human  leg. 

Amongst  other  devices  charged  upon  shields 
painted  on  vases,  in  the  British  Museum  collec- 
tions, are  the  following: — A  lion  sejant  reguard- 
ant,  having  the  sinister  fore  paw  elevated;  a 
demi-lion  rampant  couped,  three  examples ;  lion 
passant,  three  examples — one  of  them  remarkable 
for  fine  drawing  and  spirited  execution,  and  an- 
other very  curious;  two  lions  passant  guardant; 
and  two  others  passant  reguardant,  both  of  them 
very  remarkable  compositions ;  a  bull's  head  ca- 
bossed,  three  examples  ;  a  demi-horse  couped 
(hind  legs  and  tail),  two  examples  ;  a  bull  and  a 
demi-bull,  both  charging;  a  Pegasus,  six  ex- 
amples ;  a  centaur,  holding  a  branch  of  olive  over 
his  back,  two  examples;  a  derni- wild-boar ;  a 
bird  volant,  four  examples ;  two  birds  respecting 
each  other,  a  fesse  embattled  interposed  between 
them;  a  white  owl;  on  a  shield  of  A0ENE;  ser- 
pents, sometimes  two,  sometimes  a  single  one, 
seventeen  examples;  a  scorpion,  four  examples; 
a  crab ;  a  satyr ;  a  hind ;  a  dolphin ;  a  flying-fish ; 
two  fish  naiant  in  pale,  four  examples ;  a  chariot 
and  a  chariot- wheel,  two  examples  of  each ;  a 
votive  tripod,  seven  examples ;  a  throne  or  chair ; 
the  letter  M;  a  vase,  of  the  form  known  as  a 
cantharos;  a  device,  apparently  designed  to  re- 
present the  bow  of  a  galley,  two  examples  ;  and, 
on  a  small  vase,  is  a  representation  of  an  armed 
footrace — two  competitors  in  the  race  have  hel- 
mets and  shields,  but  in  other  respects  are  nude ; 
on  each  of  these  shields  appears  a  figure,  in  every 
point  a  counterpart  of  the  racers  themselves. 

In  the  Louvre,  upon  very  fine  vases,  I  observed 
these  charges  on  shields  :  —  A  demi-lion ;  a 
mounted  warrior;  a  white  greyhound  sejant;  a 
red  bull ;  a  demi-horse ;  six  examples  of  birds 
volant,  some  white  and  others  black;  a  cock; 
two  serpents ;  two  scorpions ;  a  dolphin ;  a  single 
fish,  certainly  not  a  dolphin ;  a  single  human  leg ; 
a  single  leaf,  and  a  cluster  of  three  leaves 
conjoined,  all  of  them  resembling  the  ivy  leaf; 
a  chariot;  and  various  roundles.  In  another 
fine  collection  I  found  the  figure  of  a  giant,  with 
a  black  shield  charged  with  a  white  griffin; 
a  similar  shield  borne  by  Cygnus,  in  a  group  of 
"Hercules  and  Cygnus;"  an  anchor;  a  thunder- 
bolt ;  on  the  pelta  of  an  Amazon,  a  bow ;  with 
other  examples  of  the  same  charges  that  I  have 
already  enumerated.  I  shall  be  grateful  for  any 
information  relative  to  other  devices  of  the  same 


In  the  series  of  illuminations  representing  the 
Courts  of  Law  and  Equity  in  the  time  of  Henry 
VI.,  published  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  the 
Serjeants  are  uniformly  represented  wearing  party- 
coloured  robes.  In  respect  to  this,  the  late  Mr. 
G.  R.  Corner,  after  quoting  George  Vertue's  state- 
ment that  in  1747  the  party-coloured  robe  was 
still  worn  for  one  year  upon  taking  the  degree  of 
serjeant-at-law,  gives  the  following  note  (Archeeo- 
logia,  xxxix.  363)  :  — 

"  I  have  made  application  to  many  of  the  learned  ser- 
jeants  to  ascertain  when  the  use  of  the  party-coloured 
gowns  was  finally  abandoned,  but  without  success  beyond 
the  fact  communicated  by  the  Lord  Chief  Baron  to  Dr. 
Diamond,  that  the  whole  Bar  went  into  mourning  for 
Queen  Anne,  and  they  are  said  never  to  have  come  out 
again,  but  have  mourned  ever  since.  Mr.  Serjeant  Atkin- 
son says  that  Vertue  is  wrong  in  saying  that  the  party- 
coloured  gown  was  worn  in  his  time  ;  and  that,  judging 
from  the  pictures,  the  change  to  the  present  robes  of  scar- 
let, purple,  and  black,  took  place  about  the  time  of  the 
Protectorate,  when  a  great  alteration  took  place  in  all 
dress.  Referring  to  the  purple  robes  of  the  Serjeants, 
the  learned  serjeant  quotes  an  epigram  of  the  facetious 
Jekyll:  — 

'  The  Serjeants  are  a  grateful  race, 

Their  robes  and  speeches  show  it ; 
Their  purple  robes  do  come  from  Tyre, 
Their  arguments  go  to  it.'  " 

By  the  following,  which  I  find  in  "  The  Knave 
of  Harts,  his  supplication  to  Card-makers,"  pub- 
lished by  William  Rowlands  in  1612  (Percy  So- 
ciety Publications,  vol.  ix.),  it  would  seem  that 
black  was  the  ordinary  dress  of  the  Serjeants  at 
that  period,  which  is  earlier  than  either  of  those 
named  by  the  Lord  Chief  Baron  or  Mr.  Serjeant 
Atkinson :  — 

"  Had  we  *  black  gownes,  upon  my  life  I  sweare, 
Many  would  say  that  we  foure  Serjeants  were  : 
And  that  would  bring  card-play  in  small  request 
With  gallants  that  were  fearefull  of  arrest : 
For  melancholy  they  would  ever  be 
A  Serjeant's  picture 'in  their  hands  to  see." 

I  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  question  when 
party-coloured  robes  ceased  to  be  worn  by  the 
Serjeants  will  not  long  fail  of  settlement  if  the 
correspondents  of  "N.  &  Q."  turn  their  attention 
to  it,  and  I  venture  to  ask  their  aid  in  the  matter. 

The  Temple. 

RELIC  OF  CHARLES  I.  —  At  the  beginning  of 
this  century,  Mr.  Smith,  a  long-established  and 
respectable  glover,  in  the  Parliament  Close,  Edin- 
burgh, possessed  a  large-sized  miniature  of  the 
Martyr,  in  a  massive  frame.  In  this  there  was  an 
opening,  precisely  like  that  for  the  slides  in  the 
magic  lantern,  by  which  was  introduced  over  the 
face  of  the  picture,  a  number,  six  or  eight,  I  think, 

*  That  is,  the  figures  of  knaves  in  a  pack  of  cards. 



[3rdS.  X.  Jur.r  7, '66. 

of  accessories,  cut  out  where  requisite,  and  painted 
on  talc  or  some  othgr  suitable  medium,  and  which, 
never  covering  the  countenance,  represented  the 
king  at  various  important  periods  of  his  life.  A 
holiday  with  his  family — his  equipment  for  battle 
— his  escape  prevented  at  Carisbrooke — his  ap- 
pearance on  his  trial — and  his  execution,  were 
elaborate  and  most  interesting  exhibitions  of  these 
scenes,  and  the  skill  of  the  artist  in  delineating 
them.  Mr.  Smith  has  long  been  dead,  and  I 
know  not  what  has  become  of  this  precious  relic. 
Having  recently  read  an  account  of  a  work  of  art 
of  a  similar  kind  has  recalled  this  remarkable 
production  (which  might  have  been  mine  by  gift) 
to  my  memory.  BFSHEY  HEATH. 

TOMBSTONE  INSCRIPTION.  —  The  following  epi- 
taph is  on  a  tombstone  in  the  parish  churchyard 
of  Keninay,  in  Aberdeenshire  :  — 

"  Here  lies Adam, 

Sometime  gardener  in  Paradise," 

Paradise  being  the  name  of  what  was  once,  and 
,<still  is,  though  now  neglected,  a 'beautiful  spot 
laid  out  as  a  pleasure-ground  near  the  village  of 
Monymusk.  PALLAS. 

MANTEL-PIECE.  —  The  etymology  of  this  word 
has  already  received  considerable  attention  and 
elucidation  in  the  1st  S.  of  «N.  &  Q.,"  ix.  302, 
385,  576;  x.  153,  334.  The  following  flight  of 
fancy  is  from  a  paper  by  the  Rev.  Prebendary 
Jackson  in  The  Churchman 's  Family  Magazine  for 
June.  He  is  describing  old  houses  in  York- 
shire :  — 

"  Heavy  beams  of  wood  sometimes  crossed  the  chimney 
to  which  were  suspended  hams  in  process  of  curing.  The 
shepherd  from  the  wold,  the  traveller  soaked  in  rain  and 
sleet,  hung  his  cloak  or  mantle  to  dry  within  the  chim- 
ney. Hence  the  wooden  or  marble  shelf  over  the  fire- 
place is  still  called  the  mantel-piece." — P.  515. 


There  is  an  historic  importance,  as  well  as  a  quiet 
dignity  and  pathos,  about  the  brief  inscription  on 
the  easterly  gable  of  this  edifice  that  render  it 
worth  recording.  It  is  as  follows  :  — 
"D.  o.  M. 



DEDICAUVNT A.D.  1798." 

This  inscription  is  probably  not  to  be  found  in 
any  published  work,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
lowly  and  too  mean  building  itself,  in  Little 
George  Street,  Portman  Square,  will  perhaps  not 
long  remain  standing. 

JOHN  W.  BONE,  F.R.S.L. 

PULPIT  ANECDOTES.  —  Most  of  the  stories  now 
current  about  Mr.  Spurgeon  were  told  in  the  last 
century  of  Rowland  Hill,  and  one  or  two  of  them 
may  be  traced  back  to  Friar  Gerund.  Most  popu- 
lar preachers,  whether  of  local  or  general  fame, 

acquire  the  reputation  of  having  slid  down  the' 
pulpit  banisters  to  show  the  ease  of  a  fall  from, 
and  of  having  slowly  ascended  the  steps  to  show 
the  difficulty  of  a  return  to,  holiness.  The  Gen- 
tleman's Magazine,  Ixxxv.  573,  in  an  account  of 
Dr.  Priestley's  brother  Timothy,  says  that  tin- 
latter — 

"  was  the  preacher  (though  others  have  borne  the  credit 
of  the  circumstance)  who  pulled  out  of  his  pocket  half-a- 
crown,  and  laid  it  down  upon  the  pulpit  cushion,  offering 
to  bet  with  St.  Paul  that  the  passage  where  lie  says  he 
could  do  all  things  was  not  true :  but  reading  on  '  by 
faith,'  put  up  his  money,  and  said, '  Nay,  nay,  Paul,  if 
that's  the  case,  I'll  not  bet  with  thee.'  " 

Now,  in  the  preface  to  Artemus  Ward,  His 
Book,  this  story  is  told  of  an  American  divine, 
Lorenzo  Dow.  CYRIL. 

MEDICAL  LOYALTY.  —  May  not  the  following 
be  used  as  a  strong  argument  in  favour  of  the 
loyalty  of  all  medical  men,  but  of  physicians  in 
particular  ?  — 


"  Can  you  explain  to  me, 

Why  all  Physicians  take 
A  guinea  for  their  fee, 

When  we  no  guineas  make  ? 

"  Oh  yes !  the  reason's  plain, 

They  are  loyal,  and  unwilling 
That  a  sovereign  e'er  again 

Should  be  left  without  a  shilling." 

S.  T.  P. 

THE  OLDEST  HOUSE  IN  ENGLAND. — The  follow- 
ing paragraph  from  The  Builder  may  be  worth 
preservation  in  "  N.  &  Q. :  " 

"  The  statement  made  in  our  last  number  respecting 
the  destruction  of  the  old  house  at  Sholing,  near  South-' 
ampton,  formerly  the  residence  of  King  John,  does  not 
appear  to  be  quite  correct.  The  house  has  not  been 
wholly  destroyed  by  the  recent  gales,  only  a  portion  of 
the  walls  being  injured.  The  palace  consisted  of  two 
structures,  and  the  portion  blown  down  belonged  to  the 
eastern  wall  of  the  larger  house,  and  contained  but  few 
architectural  features  to  regret.  Mr.  J.  Dutton  Smith,  a 
judicious  local  antiquary,  states  that  the  two  structures 
were  erected  early  in  the  twelfth  century,  and  are  ac- 
knowledged to  be  the  earliest  specimens  of  domestic  archi- 
tecture existing  in  England.  The  building  to  the  right 
(entering  the  postern)  is  50ft.  long  and  40ft.  broad ;  it 
has  in  the  north  wall  the  remains  of  a  fine  Norman  fire- 
place, and  to  the  west  a  doorway,  with  three  windows, 
with  a  window  and  door  on  the  north.  There  are  three 
ancient  fire-places  in  Southampton — one  in  this  palace 
(1130),  one  in  the  fine  vaulted  building  in  Simnel  Street 
(1200),  and  one  at  Netley  Abbey,  a  little  later  in  date 
(1233),  equalling  anything  of  the  same  kind  remaining 
in  England,  and  are  worthy  of  careful  investigation. 
They  are  all  rapidly  falling  to  pieces,  and  Mr.  Smith  sees 
no  chance  of  their  proper  restoration.  The  other  build- 
ing to  the  left  is  IGft.  long  on  the  western  side,  and  45ft. 
in  breadth,  with  a  Norman  doorway  on  the  south,  and  a 
window  and  door  of  the  same  date  on  this  side.  The 
lane  (10ft.  wide)  separating  the  houses  is  steep  in  its  de- 
scent, and  leads  direct  to  a  flight  of  steps  at  the  water's 

S"1  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66.] 


edge,  where  many  a  proud  galley  has  waited  for  its 
kindly  freight  and  the  beauty  of  courts  ;  but  the  beauties 
of  the  courts  adjoining  are  certainly  not  now  prover- 

T.  B. 

BURXSIANA. —  The  subscriber  is  collecting  all 
the  various  editions  of  the  Life  and  Works  of 
Kobert  Burns,  the  Ayrshire  bard.  The  list  at 
present  numbers  nearly  200  volumes,  comprising 
125  different  publications.  He  will  take  it  kind 
if  any  of  the  readers  of  "  N.  &  Q."  could  assist 
him  in  extending  the  collection,  and  to  such  cor- 
respondents he  will  gladly  forward  a  printed  proof 
of  his  "  Bibliotheca  Burnsiana." 


Kilmarnock,  July  2,  186G. 

ALE  AT  BREAKFAST. — I  have  seen  it  somewhere 
stated  that  Queen  Elizabeth  was  accustomed  to 
take  a  quart  of  ale  to  breakfast.  Did  ale  in  the 
days  of  Queen  Bess  form  a  part  of  the  first  meal  ? 

W.  D. 

ANONYMOUS.  —  I  shall  feel  greatly  obliged  for 
any  information  as  to  the  authors  of  the  following 
pamphlets :  — 

1.  "JuraCleri:  or  an  Apology  for  the  Rights  of  the 
long-Despised   Clergy,  &c.      By   Philo-Basileus    Philo- 
Clerus."    Oxford,  1661,  4to. 

2.  "  The  Doctrine  of  Xon-Kesistance  or  Passive  Obedi- 
ence no  way  concerned  in  the  Controversies  now  depend- 
ing between  the  Williamites  and  the  Jacobites.      By  a 
Laj'  Gentleman  of  the  Communion  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land, by  Law  establish'd."    London,  1689,  4to. 

[By  Edmund  Bohun.] 

3.  "  The  Pretences  of  the  French  Invasion  examined 
for  the  Information  of  the  People  of  England."    London, 
1(592,  4to. 

[  By  William  Lloyd,  successively  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph 
and  \Vorcester. } 

4.  "  An  Impartial  Inquiry  into  the  Advantages  and 
Losses  that  England  hath  received  since  the  Beginning  of 
the  Present  War  with  France."    London,  1693,  4to. 

5.  "  The  Conspiracy  of  Querini  and  Tiepolo.    An  His- 
torical Drama."  London  :  Smith,  Elder,  &  Co.,  1837,  8vo. 


DANTE. — Every  reader  of  Dante  must  have  been 
struck  by  the  grotesque  way  in  which  he  mixes 
up  heathen  myths  with  Christian  sentiment.  This 
strange — not  to  say  irreverent — confusion  reaches 
its  climax  in  a  passage  in  which  the  Saviour  is 
addressed  by  the  name  of  a  heathen  god.  The 
passage  to  which  I  refer  is  in  the  sixth  canto  of 
the  Purgatorio  :  — 

"  E  se  licito  m'  e,  o  sommo  Glove 
Chi  fosti  'n  terra  per  noi  crucifisso, 
Son  li  giusti  occhi  tuoi  rivolti  altrove  ?  " 
Is  any  other  instance  to  be  found  of  a  Christian 
poet   addressing   the   God   of  Christians  by  the 
name  appropriated  to  a  heathen  deity  ? 


W.  ELDER. — I  have  a  small  book,  published  in 
1G56  — 

"Pearls  of  Eloquence,  or  the  School  of  Complements  ; 
wherein  Ladies,  Gentlewomen,  and  Schollars  may  ac- 
comodate  their  Courtly  Practice  with  Gentile  Ceremo- 
nies, Complemental,  Amorous,  and  high  expressions  of 
speaking,  or  writing  of  Letters.  By  W.  Elder,  Gent. 
London  :  printed  for  J.  Lock,  and  are  to  be  sold  by  Henry 
Eversden  at  the  Grey-Hound  in  St.  Paul's  Church-Yard. 

In  the  epistle  to  the  reader  it  would  appear  to 
be  put  forth  as  an  original  work.  Is  it  so  ?  And 
who  was  W.  Elder/  F.  W.  C. 

Clapham  Park,  S. 

HERALDIC.  —  What  family  in  the  seventeenth' 
century  bore  for  a  crest  a  demi-eagle  or  denii- 
falcon  "displayed,  with  a  thistle  in  its  beak  ? 


Bottesford  Manor,  Brigg. 

ILCHESTER. — I  shall  be  obliged  if  any  of  your 
Somerset  correspondents  will  state  who  "is  at  pre- 
sent lord  of  the  manor  of  Brooke  juxta  Montague, 
near  Ilchester.  C. 

CHARACTERS."  —  In  the  year  1814,  Mr.  Patrick 
Lynch,  Secretary  to  the  Gaelic  Society  of  Dublin, 
and  well  known  as  the  author  of  sundry  publica- 
tions, issued  a  prospectus  (of  which  a  copy  lies 
before  me)  of  A  Biographical  and  Historical  Dic- 
tionary of  Illustrious  Irish  Characters,  in  one  large 
octavo  volume,  price  to  subscribers,  I/.  2s.  9r7. 
The  work  is  described  as  "preparing  for  the 
press/'  and  {{ speedily  to  be  published."  Did  it 
ever  appear,  either  complete  or  in  part?  and  if 
not,  where  is  the  MS.  ?  Some  one  of  your  Irish 
readers  may  be  able  to  give  the  required  informa- 
tion. ABHBA. 

"MARIUM  VICE-PR^FECTUS."  —  What  was  a 
"  Marium  Vice-Prccfectus  "  in  1680  ?  Copied  from 
the  monument  of  a  person  who  was  a  landsman,  to 
the  best  of  my  knowledge.  E.  K. 

MONUMENTAL  DEVICES.  —  I  have  carefully 
looked  over  the  various  articles  on  this  subject 
which  have  appeared  in  u  N.  &  Q."  from  its  com- 
mencement j  but  I  do  not  see  any  notice  of  the 
device  of  scissors,  or  shears,  and  the  sword. 
There  are  many  of  the  kind  in  the  ancient  tomb- 
stones in  the  diocese  of  Durham.  In  the  north 
porch  of  Gainford  church  several  fragments  of 
gravestones  bearing  these  devices,  and  multiform 
crosses,  were  inserted  in  the  walls  for  preserva- 
tion. They  were  taken  from  the  interior  of  the 
church  when  lately  restored.  The  staff  of  the 
cross  fairly  intersects  the  stones ;  and  the  shears 
or  scissors  are  traced  invariably  on  the  right  side  of 
the  stone,  and  the  sword  on  the  left.  They  vary 
in  dimensions,  and  in  some  cases  are  well  preserved, 
and  in  good  relief. 

It  is  said  the  shears  represent  a  female,  the 



[3rdS.X.  JULY  7, 

tfword  a  male  person.  Others  state  they  repre- 
sent the  trade  or  profession  of  the  deceased.  This 
latter  opinion  appears  to  rne  confuted  by  the  fact 
that  both  emblems  are  found  on  the  same  stone  in 
their  usual  positions. 

Perhaps  ventilation  through  the  pages  of 
"N.  &  Q."  may  waft  better  explanations  of  the 
emblems.  GEORGE  LLOYD. 


DRINK. — De  Quincey,  in  his  brilliant  and  masterly 
review  of  Goethe  as  reflected  in  his  Novel  of  Wil- 
helm  Meister,  gives  an  abstract  of  a  most  humor- 
ous scene  in  Hey  wood's  tragi-comedy  The  English 
Traveller :  — 

"  A  number  of  people  carousing  in  an  upper  room  of  a 
tavern  become  so  thoroughly  drunk  as  to  fancy  them- 
selves in  a  ship  far  out  at  sea ;  and  their  own  unsteady 
footing  in  '  walking  the  deck,'  they  conclude  to  be  the 
natural  effect  from  the  tumbling  billows  of  the  angry 
ocean,  which  in  fact  is  gathering  rapidly  into  every  sign 
of  a  coming  storm.  One  man  in  his  anxiety  therefore 
climbs  a  bed-post,  which  he  takes  for  the  mast-head,  and 
reports  the  most  awful  appearances  ahead.  By  his  ad- 
vice they  fall  to  lightening  ship :  out  of  the  windows 
they  throw  overboard  beds,  tables,  chairs,  the  good  land- 
lady's crockery,  bottles,  glasses,  &c.,  working  in  agonies 
•of  haste  for  dear  life.  By  this  time  the  uproar  and 
hurley-burley  has  reached  the  ears  of  the  police,  who 
•come  in  a  body  up  the  stairs ;  but  the  drunkards,  con- 
ceiving them  to  be  sea-gods — Neptune,  Triton,  &c. — begin 
to  worship  them.  What  accounts  for  this  intrusion  of 
Pagan  adorations  is  this,  viz.  that  originally  the  admir- 
able scene  was  derived  from  a  Greek  comic  sketch, 
though  transplanted  into  the  English  drama  with  so  much 
of  life-like  effect  as  really  to  seem  a  native  English 
growth."—  Works,  Edinb.  1863,  vol.  xii.  p.  201. 

What  is  the  "  Greek  comic  sketch  "  to  which 
De  Quincey  refers  ?  The  passage  in  Hey  wood  is 
given  in  Lamb's  Dramatic  Specimens.  It  sug- 
gested Cowley's  Latin  play,  Naufragium  Jocular -e. 


of  your  correspondents  tell  me  whether  there  is 
any  chance  of  this  most  interesting  and  valuable 
work  being  continued  ?  Surely  there  should  not 
be  much  difficulty  in  finding  the  means  for  pub- 
lishing at  least  the  Archdeaconry  of  Lothian. 
Many  of  the  noblemen  and  gentlemen  of  the  dis- 
trict would,  I  have  no  doubt,  contribute  largely, 
while  there  should  be  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  a 
goodly  list  of  subscribers  for  this  volume  at  least. 
I  trust  that  Mr.  Stevenson  or  some  other  enter- 
prising Edinburgh  bookseller  will  try  what  can 
be  done  for  at  least  one  other  volume.  Has  the 
map,  of  which  portions  are  given  in  the  published 
volume,  ever  been  completed  ?  LONDONIENSIS. 

known  to  be  in  existence  any  document,  or  any 
positive  evidence  of  whatsoever  kind,  which  may 
determine  or  illustrate  the  circumstances  that  led 
to  the  appropriation  of  the  Ostrich  Feather  Badge 

as  their  own  especial  ensign,  by  the  Princes  of 
Wales,  heirs  apparent  of  the  crown  of  England  P 
Also,  what  is  the  earliest  known  notice  of  this 
badge  as  the  badge  of  a  Prince  of  Wales  ?  Queen 
Elizabeth  used  the  group  of  three  ostrich  feathers 
as  a  royal  badge,  in  especial  association  with  the 
principality  of  Wales,  as  appears  from  her  judicial 
seal  for  the  counties  of  Caermarthen,  Glamorgan, 
and  Pembroke  (Archceologia,  xxxi.  495) ;  and  o,n 
another  seal  of  the  same  sovereign  the  royal  shield 
appears  supported  by  two  lions,  each  of  them 
holding  an  ostrich  feather.  CHARLES  BOTTTELL. 


"  Some  in  the  Romane  Church  write,  that  the  Cardi- 
nalls  of  that  Church  are  so  incorporated  into  the  Pope, 
so  much  of  his  body,  and  so  bloud  of  his  bloud,  that  in  a 
fever  they  may  not  let  bloud  without  his  leaue." 

What  Kornan  writers  make  this  statement,  and 
where  ?  CPL. 


"  Not  in  vain  the  strivings,  not  by  chance  the  currents 

Error  merged,  but  truth  directed,  to  their  certain  goal 

they  go." 
"  The  passions,  prejudices,  interests, 

That  sway  the  meanest  being — the  least  touch 

That  moves  the  finest  nerve  ! 

And  in  one  human  brain 

Causes  the  faintest  thought,  becomes  a  link 

In  the  great  chain  of  Nature." 

"  There,  like  a  shattered  column,  lies  the  man." 

M.  REED. 

A.  Description  of  the  Fates. 
"  Dash  we  cup  of  pity  to  the  tomb, 
And  quaff  our  fill  of  desolation — ere 
The  morning  breaks  in  brightness  o'er  the  Earth, 
And  deems  us  darkness  to  approaching  day. 
Oh,  never  cease  to  snap  this  fatal  thread, 
Bnt  gorge  and  glut  beyond  satiety 
The  blood  of  lovely  woman,  giant  man." 

dytie  gazing  on  the  Sun. 

"  Fair  and  sumptuous, 
Without  one  jot  of  prodigality 
In  form  or  feature.     Soft  in  step — 
More  gentle  than  in  earliest  infancy." 

E.  E. 

RING  INSCRIPTION. — A  short  time  ago  a  small 
diamond  ring  of  gold  was  turned  up  on  a  piece  of 
land  very  near  the  site  of  a  large  and  rich  priory 
in  Lincolnshire.  On  the  outside  of  the  ring  are 
engraved  the  names  of  the  three  kings  of  the 
magi,  and  in  the  inside  an  inscription  which  in 
modern  characters  runs  thus  :  — 

"  lj<  MAGA  .  OTRE  .  TO  .  TA  .  IIERCE  .  LIP  .  MIN." 

Will  some  one  of  your  readers,  who  is  conver- 
sant with  such  matters,  kindly  help  me  to  a  full 
interpretation  of  this  ?  MELCHIOR. 

SANDYS'S  "  OVID." — The  second  edition  of  this 
was  printed,  1621,  12mo.  I  should  much  like  to 
be  informed,  what  was  the  date  of  the  first  ? 


.  X.  JULY  7,  !66.] 


LOST  STATUES.  —  Statues  of  Alfred  the  Great 
and  Edward  the  Black  Prince,  by  Rysbrack,  were 
in  Lord  Burlington's,  Carlton  House,  after  the 
residence  of  the  Prince  Regent.  Can  any  corre- 
spondent tell  what  has  become  of  them  ? 

W.  J. 

SIR  JOHN  VANBRTJGH'S  PLAYS. — As  I  am  read- 
ing, for  the  Philological  Society's  projected  Dic- 
tionary, the  works  of  some  of  the  dramatists  of 
the  last  century,  may  I  ask  your  readers  to  ex- 
plain the  following  expressions  in  Vanbrugh's 
plays,  viz.  ? — 

1.  "  Rising  of  the  lights. 

"  Tis  a  sad  thing,  Flippanta,  when  wit's  confin'd ;  'tis 
worse  than  the  rising  of  the  lights  ."—Confederacy,  Act  I. 
vol.  ii.  p.  18,  ed.  1730. 

2.  "  He  scolds  one  Rubbers. 

"  Clarissa.  I  wish  he  would  quarrel  with  me  to-day  a 
little,  to  pass  away  the  time. 

"  Flippanta.  Why,  if  you  please  to  drop  yourself  in  his 
way,  six  to  four  but  he  scolds  one  Rubbers  with  you." — Id. 
Act  II.  p.  27. 

3.  "  A  crooked  stick. 

"  Ha !  her  strong  box !  and  the  key  in't !  'tis  so  :  now 
Fortune  be  my  friend.  What !  the  duce,  not  a  penny  of 
money  in  cash  !  not  a  chequer  note,  nor  a  bank  bill ! 
[searches  the  strong  box]  nor  a  crooked  stick  !  " — Id.  Act 
III.  p.  41. 

4.  "A  Scotch  pair  of  boots. 

"  I  see  his  man  and  confident  there,  Lopez ;  shall  I 
draw  him  on  a  Scotch  pair  of  boots,  Master,  and  make 
him  tell  all  ?  "—  The  Mistake,  Act  I.  p.  166. 

5.  "  To  keep  your  back  hand. 

"  Sir,  I  wou'd  advise  you  to  provide  yourself  with  good 
friends,  I  desire  the  honour  to  keep  your  back  hand  my- 
self."—/**. Act  V.  p.  207. 

6.  "Norfolk-nog. 

"  Sir  Francis here,  John  Moody,  get  us  a  tankard 

of  good  hearty  stuff  presently. 

"  J.  Moody.  Sir,  here's  Norfolk-nog  to  be  had  at  next 
door." — A  Journey  to  London,  Act  I.  p.  230. 

Surbiton  Hill. 


Was  there  ever  a  collection  of  these  made  and 
published  ?  I  have  a  couple  of  cuttings  from  some 
old  magazine  (name  lost),  containing  a  "  Parody 
on  Sappho's  Ode,"  and  an  "  Ode  to  Eight  Cats 
belonging  to  Israel  Mendez,  a  Jew  ;  "  both  ascribed 
to  Erskine.  The  first  begins  with  — 

"  Drunk  as  a  dragon  sure  is  he,"  &c.* 

The  second  is  of  considerable  length,  and  com- 
mences — 

"  Singers  of  Israel  !  0  ye  singers  sweet  !  " 
The  verses  are  a  little  free,  but  harmless,  and 

[*  From  the  Annual  Register,  xxviii.  150.] 

quite  presentable;  and  it  strikes  me  that  the 
writer  of  them  could  do,  and  did,  something  much 
better  in  the  way  of  vers  de  societe. 


[There  is  an  excellent  account,  accompanied  with  a 
portrait,  of  the  witty  Harry  Erskine,  in  Chambers's  Dic- 
tionary of  Eminent  Scotsmen,  ii.  243 — 246  ;  as  well  as  in 
John  Kay's  Series  of  Original  Portraits  and  Caricature 
Etchings,  edited  by  H.  Paton,  2  vols.  4to,  1838 ;  and  a  pleas- 
ing notice  of  him  by  his  relation,  Henry  David  Inglis,  in 
the  Edinburgh  Literary  Journal.  Few  men  have  enjoyed 
a  wider  reputation  for  wit  than  the  Hon.  Henry  Erskine, 
and  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  his  convivial  poems  and 
witticisms  have  never  been  collected  into  a  volume,  es- 
pecially those  composed  after  his  retirement  from  profes- 
sional life,  when  he  was  enjoying  otium  cum  diggin  a 
tatie  (potato).  "The  greatest  treat  to  me,"  says  Mr. 
Inglis,  "was  when,  after  dinner,  he  took  down  from 
the  top  of  his  bookcase,  where  it  lay  behind  a  bust,  I 
think  of  Mr.  Fox,  his  manuscript  book,  full  ofjeux  d'esprit, 
charades,  bon  mots,  &c.,  all  his  own  composition.  I  do 
believe,  that  all  the  puns  and  bon  mots  which  have  been 
put  into  his  mouth — some  of  them,  no  doubt,  having 
originally  come  out  of  it — would  eke  out  a  handsome  duo- 

In  his  latter  years  Mr.  Erskine  was  very  much  an- 
noyed at  the  idea  that  his  witticisms  might  be  collected 
together  in  a  volume.  Aware  of  this,  a  friend  of  his 
resolved  to  tease  him,  and  having  invited  him  to  dinner, 
he,  in  the  course  of  the  evening,  took  up  a  goodly-look- 
ing volume,  and  turning  over  the  pages  began  to  laugh 
heartily.  "  What  is  the  cause  of  your  merriment  ?  "  ex- 
claimed the  guest.  "  Oh,  it  is  only  one  of  your  jokes, 
Harry." — "  Where  did  you  get  it  ?  " — "  Oh,  in  the  new- 
work  just  published,  entitled  The  New  Complete  Jester, 
or  every  Man  his  own  Harry  Erskine!"  Mr.  Erskine 
felt  very  much  amazed,  as  may  be  supposed,  upon  the 
announcement  of  the  fictitious  publication. 

To  the  honour  of  Henry  Erskine,  he  was  never 
known  to  turn  his  back  upon  the  poor  man,  or  to  pro- 
portion his  services  to  the  ability  of  his  employers  to 
reward  them.  It  is  said  that  a  p»or  man,  in  a  remote 
district  of  Scotland,  thus  answered  an  acquaintance  who 
wished  to  dissuade  him  from  engaging  in  a  law-suit  with 
a  wealthy  neighbour,  by  representing  the  hopelessness  of 
his  being  able  to  meet  the  expense  of  litigation  :  "  Ye 
dinna  ken  what  ye're  saying,  maister ;  there's  no  a  puir 
man  in  a'  Scotland  need  to  want  a  friend  or  fear  an 
enemy  sae  lang  as  Harry  Erskine  lives  !  " 

Dean  Ramsay  has  printed  a  clever  impromptu  of  a 
judge's  lady,  produced  in  reply  to  one  made  by  our  witty 
advocate.  At  a  dinner  party  at  Lord  Armadale's,  when 
a  bottle  of  claret  was  called  for,  port  was  brought  in  by 
mistake.  A  second  time  claret  was  sent  for,  and  a 
second  time  the  same  mistake  occurred.  Henry  Erskine 
addressed  the  host  in  an  impromptu,  which  was  meant  as 
a  parody  on  the  well-known  Scottish  song,  "My  jo, 
Janet "  — 



[3'd  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66. 

•«  Kind  sir,  it's  for  your  courtesie 

When  I  come  here  to  dine,  sir ; 
For  the  love  ye  bear  to  me, 
-  Gie  me  the  claret  wine,  sir." 
To  which  Mrs.  Honeyman  retorted :  — 

"  Drink  the  port,  the  claret's  dear, 

Erskine,  Erskine  ; 
Ye'll  get  fou  on't,  never  fear, 

My  jo,  Erskine." 

With  all  the  liveliness  of  fancy,  however,  and  with  all 
these  shining  talents,  Mr.  Erskine's  habits  were  domestic 
in  an  eminent  degree.    His  wishes  and  desires  are  pleas- 
ingly depictured  in  the  following  lines  by  himself:  — 
"  Let  sparks  and  topers  o'er  their  bottles  sit, 
Toss  bumpers  down,  and  fancy  laughter  wit ; 
Let  cautious  plodders  o'er  their  ledger  pore, 
Note  down  each  farthing  gain'd,  and  wish  it  more  ; 
Let  lawyers  dream  of  wigs,  poets  of  fame, 
Scholars  look  learn'd,  and  senators  declaim ; 
Let  soldiers  stand,  like  targets  in  the  fray, 
Their  lives  just  worth  their  thirteenpence  a-day  : 
Give  me  a  nook  in  some  secluded  spot 
Which  business  shuns,  and  din  approaches  not — 
Some  snug  retreat,  where  I  may  never  know 
What  Monarch  reigns,  what  Ministers  bestow : 
A  book,  my  slippers,  and  a  field  to  stroll  in — 
My  garden  seat,  an  elbow-chair  to  loll  in  — 
Sunshine,  when  wanted — shade,  when  shade  invites — 
With  pleasant  country  laurels,  smells,  and  sights, 
And  now  and  then  a  glass  of  generous  wine, 
Shared  with  a  chatty  friend  of  '  auld  lang  syne  ;' 
And  one  companion  more,  for  ever  nigh, 
To  sympathize  in  all  that  passes  by, 
To  journey  with  me  in  the  path  of  life, 
And  share  its  pleasures,  and  divide  its  strife. 
These  simple  joys,  Eugenius,  let  me  find, 
And  I'll  ne'er  cast  a  lingering  look  behind."] 

BOOK. — In  a  copy  of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer 
in  12mo,  printed  at  the  Pitt  Press,  Cambridge,  in 
1834  (now  before  me),  the  word  "  yea  "  is  substi- 
tuted for  the  sacred  name  "Jah"  in  the  fourth 
verse  of  the  68th  Psalm,  the  reading  being: 
"Praise  him  in  his  name,  yea,  and  rejoice  before 

I  have  compared  this  with  several  other  editions 
of  the  Prayer-book,  but  do  not  find  the  same 
reading-  occur  in  any  other  instance.  Is  it  an 
error  of  the  press,  or  is  it  to  be  found  in  any  other 
edition  ?  WILLIAM  KELLY. 


[Lewis,  in  his  History  of  the  Translations  of  the  Bible, 
p.  129,  ed.  1818,  speaking  of  Cranmer's,  or  the  Great 
Bible  of  1539,  says,  "  According  to  this  translation  were 
the  Psalms,  Epistles,  and  Gospels,  in  our  Liturgy,  with 
very  little  variation,  of  which  this  is  one,  that  whereas  in 
this  edition  of  1539,  Psalm  Ixviii.  4,  is  rendered  '  Praise 
Him  in  his  name  JAH,  and  rejoice  before  Him,'  by  some 

mistake  or  other  the  word  Jah,  in  the  after  editions,  is 
printed  Yea."  Consult  "  N.  &  Q.,"  1*  S.  x.  105,  133, 
and  the  British  Magazine,  Oct.  1834,  vi.  424.] 

What  is  the  origin  and  meaning  of  this  well- 
known  proverb  ?  C.  S.  W. 

[The  earliest  English  version  of  the  proverb  we  have 
met  with  is  in  Ray,  where  it  runs — "  He  that  would  hang 
his  dog  gives  out  first  that  he's  mad  ;  "  and  is  thus  ex- 
plained— "  He  that  is  about  to  do  anything  disingenuous, 
unworthy,  or  of  evil  fame,  first  bethinks  himself  of  some 
plausible  pretence."  The  Spanish  proverb  .  corresponds 
exactly  with  Ray's — "  Quien  a  su  perro  quiere  matar 
rabia  le  ha  de  levantar ;  "  and  so  does  the  Italian  "  Chi 
vuol  ammazzar  il  suo  cane,  basta  che  dica  ch'  e  arrab- 
biato ;  "  while  the  French  is  not  very  dissimilar,  "  Qui 
veut  noyer  son  chien,  1'accuse  de  la  rage."  The  German 
"  Wenn  man  den  Hund  schlagen  will,  find't  man  bald  ein 
Stecken,"  comes  nearer  to  our  other  English  proverb,  "  It 
is  easy  to  find  a  stick  if  you  want  to  beat  a  dog."] 

"  BEAUTY,  RETIRE  ! " — Is  Pepys's  favourite  song 
of  this  name,  which  he  mentions  so  often,  still 
extant  ?  And  if  so,  where  can  it  be  seen  ?  A 
copy  would  much  oblige ;  and  would  be  paid  for, 
if  desired,  by  E.  KING. 

Lymington,  Hants. 

[The  words  of  the  song,  those  spoken  by  Solyman  to 
Roxalana,  are  in  The  Siege  of  Rhodes,  Part  II.  Act  IV. 
Sc.  2,  and  are  printed  in  Pepys's  Diary,  ed.  1854,  ii.  332 
(Dec.  6, 16G5).  We  have  never  met  with  the  music  of 
the  song.  3 

THE  FLUKE.  —  What  is  the  fish  which  Manks- 
men  call  by  this  name  ?  ST.  SWITHIN. 

[This  is  the  flounder,  one  of  the  most  common  of  the 
flat  fish,  and  is  found  in  the  sea  and  near  the  mouths  of 
large  rivers  all  round  our  coast.  All  the  bays,  creeks,  and 
inlets  of  Orkney  produce  it,  and  it  is  taken  in  abundance 
in  different  parts  of  Scotland,  where  it  is  called  Fluke  and 
Mayock  Fleuke — a  term  having  reference  to  the  flat- 
tened form  of  the  fish.  At  Berwick  and  Yarmouth  it  is 
called  a  Butt — a  northern  term.] 

(3rd  S.  ix.  510.) 

It  is  true  that  there  has  been  'much  discrepancy 
in  the  application  of  the  four  living  creatures  seen 
by  the  prophet  Ezechiel  and  by  St.  John ;  but  for 
centuries  it  has  been  customary  to  follow  the  in- 
terpretation of  St.  Jerome,  St.  Gregory  the  Great, 
Venerable  Bede,  and  others,  who  assign  the  Man 
to  St.  Matthew,  the  Lion  to  St.  Mark,  the  Calf  to 
St.  Luke,  and  the  Eagle  to  St.  John,  for  reasons 
which  will  appear  later.  The  explanation  of  St. 
Ireneus  was  different ;  but  as  Home  does  not 

S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66.] 



translate  his  words  very  closely,  I  give  them  here 
in  the  original.  The  Holy  Father  is  showing  that 
there  could  be  but  one  Gospel,  in  four  forms  ;  and 
then  he  observes  that  the  Cherubim  were  four- 
formed,  and  that  their  forms  typified  the  various 
Attributes  of  the  Son  of  God;  and  he  goes  on 
thus :  — 

Tb    (lev  yap   irpwrov  £&ov,  (frriffl,  'O/JLOIOV  AeofTt*  rb  ffj.- 

rb  5f  Sti'rrfpov  ouoiov  uoffXV)  rriv  IfpovpyiKijv  Kal  tfpari- 
Kt]v  rd£tv  euQali'ov'  rb  8e  rpirov  exoi/  Tp6o~uTrov  avBpuirov, 
TI\V  Kara  avQpcanov  avrov  irapovo~iav  <f)avep(f>rara.  Siaypd- 
<pov '  rb  Of  reraprov  ouoiov  aery  ireriauevcf,  T?V'  T°v 
irvevuaros  eVl  rrjv  tKK\v)(riav  f<pnrra/j.evov  SoW  (raQyvi^ov. 
Kal  rd  fvayyf\ia  ovv  rovrois  o~vu<£uva,  eV  ois  eyitadeatrai 
Xpio-ros. — Adv.  Hares.,  lib.  iii.  cap.  11. 
Literally  thus :  — 

"  For  the  first  living  creature,  he  says,  was  like  a  lion, 
signifying  his  efficacious  power,  and  his  principality,  and 
royal  dominion ;  but  the  second  was  like  a  calf,  showing 
forth  his  sacrificial  and  sacerdotal  order ;  the  third  having 
the  face  of  a  man,  describing  manifestly  his  coming  as 
man;  but  the  fourth  was  like  an  eagle  flying,  manifesting 
the  grace  of  the  Spirit  flying  down  upon  the  Church. 
And  therefore  the  Gospels  agree  with  these,  in  which 
Christ  is  enthroned." 

St.  Ireneus  proceeds  to  develope  these  symbols, 
understanding  the  Lion  to  typify  St.  John,  the 
Calf  St.  Luke,  the  Man  St.  Matthew,  and  the 
Eagle  St.  Mark. 

St.  Augustine  explains  the  four  living  creatures 
otherwise.  He  observes  that  interpreters  before 
him  have  for  the  most  part  understood  them  to 
represent  the  four  Evangelists ;  but  he  assigns 
the  Lion  to  St.  Matthew,  the  Calf  to  St.  Luke, 
the  Man  to  St.  Mark,  and  the  Eayle  to  St.  John. 
See  his  Tract  xxxvi.  on  the  8th  Chapter  of  St. 
John1  s  Gospel. 

St  Jerome,  however,  is  the  great  authority  on 
this  point,  whose  interpretation  has  been  almost 
universally  adopted.  In  the  following  passage 
from  his  Commentary  on  tJie  Jirst  Chapter  of  Eze- 
t:hiel  will  be  found  his  explanation,  and  likewise 
the  reasons  for  it. 

"  Quidam  quatuor  Evangelia,  quos  nos  quoque  in  prooo- 
mia  commentariorum  Matthrei  secuti  sumus :  horum  ani- 
malium  putant  nominibus  designari :  Matthan,  quod  quasi 
hominem  descripserit :  Liber  generation! sJcsu  Christi,  Jilii 
David,  filii  Abraham.  Leonis  ad  Marcum  referunt : 
Initium  Evangelii  Jesu  Christi  filii  Dei,  sicut  scriptum  est 
in  Esaia  propheta :  Vox  clamantis  in  deserto,  parate  viam 
Domini,  rectos  facite  semitas  ejus.  Vituli  ad  Lucre  Evan- 
gelium,  quod  a  Zacharias  incipit  sacerdotio.  Aquilae,  ad 
•loannis  exordium  :  qui  ad  excelsum  evolans  coepit :  In 
principio  erat  Verbum,  et  Verbum  erat  apud  Deum,  et 
Deus  erat  Verbum.  Super  quo  quid  nobis  videretur,  in 
supra  dicto  opere  diximus :  pleniusque  in  Apocalypsi 
Joannis  horum  animantium  species,  ac  nomina  referuntur 
ad  quatuor  Evangelia." 

Of  the  many  other  interpretations  of  these  four 
living  creatures,  I  will  mention  only  that  of  the 
learned  Bishop  Walmesley,  in  his  'General  His- 

\  tory   of  the   Christian   Church,   deduced  from   the 
|  Apocalypse,  and  published   under  the  name    of 
I  Signor  Pastorini.     He  considers  these  living  crea- 
tures to  represent  the  four  greater  prophets.     The 
Lion,  he  says,  represents  Isaias,  of  the  royal  race 
of  David  j  the  Calf,  the  prophet  Jeremias,  in  his 
character  of  a  priest ;  the  Man,  the  prophet  Eze- 
chiel,  always  addressed  as  the  Son  of  Man ;  and 
the  Eagle,  the  prophet  Daniel,  on  account  of  his 
sublime  oracles,  soaring  to  the  highest  objects. 

I  presume,  however,  that  the  object  of  the  in- 
quirer, J.  T.  F.,  is  to  ascertain  the  generally  re- 
ceived application  in  symbolical  representations  of 
the  four  Evangelists.  Certainly  the  explanation 
of  St.  Jerome  may  be  said  to  have  been  generally, 
if  not  universally,  followed  for  ages,  in  every  kind 
of  ecclesiastical  and  artistic  decoration.  It  is  found 
on  innumerable  fonts,  windows,  crosses,  banners, 
and  illuminated  manuscripts;  and  any  attempt 
at  a  different  appropriation  of  these  symbols  would 
now  be  rejected  as  a  novelty,  only  calculated  to 
create  confusion.  F.  C.  H. 

For  the  information  of  J.  T.  F.  I  copy  the  fol- 
lowing from  the  Handbook  of  English  Ecdesioloqy, 
p.  195. 

When  placed  in  square  they  run  thus  :  — 


S.  MARK.  S.  LUKE. 

When  placed  in  saltire  thus  — 

S.  JOHN. 


S.  MAKK. 

The  reason  of  these  symbols  is  thus  explained  :  — 
"  Formam  viri  dant  Matthsco 
Quia  scripsit  sic  de  DEO 
Sicut  descendit  ab  eo, 

Quern  plasmavit,  homine. 
Marcus  leo  per  desertum 
damans,  rugit  in  apertum  : 
Iter  Deo  fiat  certum, 
Mundum  cor  a  crimine. 

"  Lucas  bos  est  in  figura, 
Ut  pncmonstrat  in  Scriptura, 
Hostiarum  tangens  jura 

Legis  sub  velamine. 
Sed  Johannes  ala  bina 
Charitatis,  aquilina 
Forma,  fcrtur  in  divina 
Puriori  lumine. 

"  Quatuor  describunt  isti 
Quadriformes  actus  Christi, 
Et  figurant  ut  audisti 

Sua  quajque  formula : 
Natus  Homo  declaratur, 
Vitulus  sacrificatur, 
Leo  mortem  depredatur, 

Sed  ascendit  Aquila." 

Thus  also  Ilildebert :  — 
"  Matthaenm  signat  vir  ;  bos  Lucam ;  leo  Marcum ; 

Ales  discipulum  qui  sine  sorde  fuit. 
Matthaso  species  humana  datur  :  quia  scripto 

Indicat  et  titulo  quid  DEUS  egit  HOMO. 



.  X.  JULY  7,  '66. 

Os  vituli  Lucam  declarat,  quia  specialem 

Materiem  scripsit  de  Cruce,  CHRISTE,  Tua, 
Effigiat  Marcum  leo,  cujus  litera  clamat 

Quanta  surrexit  vi,  Tua,  CHRISTE,  caro. 
Discipulum  signat  species  aquilina  pudicum, 

Vox  cujus  nubes  transit  ad  astra  volans  .  .  . 


Est  Avis :  in  CHRISTO  cuncta  notare  potes. 
Est  Homo  dum  vivit ;  Bos  dum  moritur  ;  Leo  vero 

Quando  resurgit ;  Avis  quando  superna  petit. 
Fons  distillat :— adhuc  verborum  consule  venas : 

Quatuor  hsec  Justus  quilibet  esse  potest. 
Mente  vigens  fit  vir :  mactaus  carnalia  fit  bos : 

Dura  domans  leo  fit :  summa  sequens  fit  avis." 
"Leo  vero  quando  resurgit."  This  may  be 
illustrated  by  a  passage  from,  an  old  MS.  of  Saint- 
Germain-des-Pres,  from  which  Xivrey  gives  ex- 
tracts in  his  Traditions  Teratologiques,  p.  596. 
Writing  of  lions,  the  scribe  recorded  "  Quant  ilz 
ont  leurs  petis  leonceaux,  ils  yssent  hors,  tons  en- 
dormys  troys  jours  et  troys  nuyts;  puis  au  bray- 
ment  du  pere  ilz  se  eveillent."  ST.  SWITHIX. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  491.) 

Your  correspondent  X.  C.  asks  "  to  be  put  in 
the  way  of  a  pedigree  of  this  family,"  and  to  be 
informed  "  who  at  the  present  time  has  a  right  to 
the  principal  arms  of  the  family"?  The  latter 
query  is  more  easily  answered  negatively  than 
affirmatively,  and  this  much  is  pretty  clear,  that 
"Cleland  of  Rath-gael,  in  Ireland,"  has  no  right  to 
the  representation,  or  the  arms  and  supporters  (?) 
of  this  ancient  family,  whatever  his  pedigree, 
which  I  observe  in  Burke,  ed.  1846;  may  say  to 
the  contrary.  A  good  local  history  of  the  Lower 
and  Middle  Wards  of  Lanarkshire,  where  the 
estates  of  the  genuine  Clelands  and  their  cadets 
lay,  has  yet  to  be  written,  and  it  is  to  be  wished 
that  MR.  IRVING,  who  has  done  so  much  for  the 
Upper  Ward,  or  some  equally  competent  antiquary, 
would  undertake  the  task.  The  only  work  on  the 
subject  is  that  of  Hamilton  of  Wishaw,  first  printed 
by  the  Maitland  Club  in  1831,  to  which  I  have 
alluded  in  an  article  (p.  83  ante)  on  this  very 
Cleland  question.  It  would  be  of  little  use  to 
genealogists,  but  for  the  copious  notes  of  its 
editors.  They  availed  themselves  of  such  portions 
of  the  records  of  the  see  of  Glasgow  as  are  yet  ex- 
tant in  the  General  Register  House,  Edinburgh, 
viz.,  a  fragment  from  1547  to  1555,  and  from  1600 
downwards,  for  which  latter  period  the  record  of 
wills  is  nearly  entire.  The  more  ancient  muni- 
ments of  the  see  were  carried  off  by  Archbishop 
Beaton  at  the  Reformation,  and  deposited  in  the 
Scottish  College  at  Paris,  but  were  unfortunately 
dispersed  in  the  tumult  of  the  French  Revolution. 
Any  information  therefore  as  to  the  pedigree  from 
this  source  is  comparatively  modern.  But  if  X.  C. 

consults  the  Index  of  Hetours,  or  the  Register  of 
Charters  under  the  Great  Seal  of  Scotland,  both  to 
be  found  in  every  large  public  library,  he  might 
construct  a  reliable  pedigree  of  this  family  down  to 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  about 
which  time,  according  to  Wishaw  (p.  137),  their 
estate  passed  into  other  hands.  From  that  time, 
however,  these  records  would  afford  no  assistance. 
The  Rath-gael  pedigree  appears  to  be  one  of  those 
which  have  been  well  described  by  the  author  of 
Popular  Genealogists  as  (t  containing  a  small  gerni 
of  truth  eked  out  with  a  mass  of  fiction,  in  the 
proportion  of  *Falstaff's  bread  and  sack,"  and  in 
place  of  informing  will  certainly  mislead  X.  C. 
The  first  portion  of  it,  down  to  the  twelfth  "  Cle- 
land of  that  ilk,"  has  been  apparently  got  up  from 
Douglas's  Baronage,  or  some  other  tolerably  cor- 
rect source ;  but  I  have  little  hesitation  in  saying 
that  from  this  point  it  is  wholly  fictitious.  A 
second  or  third  son  of  this  twelfth  laird  migrates 
unaccountably  to  Wigtonshire,  and  he  and  his 
descendants  marry  scions  of  families  unknown  in 
Scotland  as  landed  gentry,  e.  g.  Ross  of  Henning 
(sic),  Innes  of  Benwall,  and  Murdoch  of  Cumlod- 
den.  The  fictitious  cadency  of  "  Whithorn,"  which 
is  not  an  estate  but  a  small  town  in  Wigtonshire, 
is  mixed  up  with  the  genuine  cadets,  viz.,  Faskin, 
Monkland,  Gartness,  &c.  It  contains  ample  evi- 
dence of  its  utter  worthlessness,  and  concludes  by 
asserting  that  the  last  male  of  this  illustrious  race 
was  descended  by  marriage  (sic)  from  a  numerous 
list  of  imperial,  royal,  and  noble  personages,  in- 
cluding Charlemagne,  Cedric,  Alfred  the  Great, 
William  the  Conqueror,  Malcolm  Canmore,  &c. ! 
When  such  compositions  are  gravely  cited  in  your 
columns,  I  think  any  one  who  exposes  their  falsity 
is  doing  a  service  to  historical  truth. 

I  shall  take  the  liberty  of  correcting  two  errata 
occurring  on  p.  493,  in  the  notice  of  William  Cle- 
land's  poems  :  the  first,  that  he  was  killed  at  Kil- 
liecrankie,  whereas  he  fell  a  few  weeks  later  at 
Dunkeld,  as  told  in  the  spirit-stirring  pages  of 
Macaulay  (History  of  England  iii.  374),  at  the 
head  of  Lord  Angus's  regiment,  since  known  to 
fame  as  the  26th  Cameronians.  The  other,  that 
the  first  edition  of  his  poems  was  dated  in  1658, 
evidently  inconsistent  with  the  fact  that  Cleland, 
who  was  barely  twenty-eight  when  he  fell  in  1689, 
could  have  been  born  till  1661.* 

It  is  remarkable  that  so  little  is  known  of 
William  Cleland's  ancestry  or  descendants.  _  Ma- 
caulay calls  him  "  a  linguist,  a  mathematician, 

[*  Our  authority  for  the  death  of  William  Cleland  at 
Killiecrankie  was  an  editorial  note  in  The  Argyle,  Papers, 
4to,  1834,  p.  34,  and  for  the  date  of  the  first  edition  of 
his  Poems  (1658),  the  statement  of  G.  D.  in  "  N.  &  Q." 
2nd  S.  ii.  138.  This  date  is  probably  that  of  the  original 
poem,  "  Hollow  my  Fancie,"  to  which  Cleland  made  an 
addition  "the  last  year  he  was  at  Colledge,  not  then 
fully  eighteen  years  of  age." — ED.] 

3-*  g.  x.  JOLY  7,  '66.] 



and  a  poet,"  and  says  that  he  drove  Dundee  from 
the  Conventions  of  Estates  at  Edinburgh,  which 
precipitated  the  rebellion  culminating  at  Killie- 
crankie.  He  was  chosen  by  the  Earl  of  Angus  as 
the  first  Lieutenant- Colon  el  of  the  regiment  raised 
by  him  in  1689,  chiefly  among  the  whig  peasantry 
of  Clydesdale  and  the  west  of  Scotland.  In  short, 
he  was  a  man  of  mark  in  his  day.  The  allusions  in 
his  poem  on  the  Highland  Host  of  1678,  which 
ravaged  Lanarkshire,  coupled  with  his  command 
of  the  whig  regiment,  show  him  to  have  been  a 
Clydesdale  man,  and  possibly  a  scion  of  the  family 
of  that  ilk ;  but  this,  of  course,  is  simply  a  conjec- 
ture. Even  Lord  Macaulay's  researches  have 
thrown  little  more  light  on  him,  except  of  a  nega- 
tive kind,  as  regard  certain  alleged  descendants 
{Hist,  of  Eng.,  iii.  276,  note).  ANGLO-SOOTHS. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  451.) 

The  portraits  inquired  after  by  your  corre- 
spondent MR.  WING  are  numerous;  comprising 
chiefly  Oxford,  Cambridge,  and  City  celebrities, 
although  Bath  and  other  places  were  laid  under 
contribution  for  occasional  additions  to  the  gal- 
lery. The  whole  series  bears  the  name  of  Richard 
Dighton,  by  whom  they  were  "  drawn,  etch'd, 
and  publd,"  with  the  exception  of  very  few  to 
which  "Junr"  is  affixed  to  the  name.  Of  the 
later  ones  in  the  series,  T.  M'Leun  and  Humphrys 
in  succession  appear  as  the  publishers.  The  figures 
are  full-length  and  coloured,  very  life-like  and 
spirited.  To  most  of  them  is  appended  an  in- 
scription displaying  the  humour  of  the  artist,  but 
without  the  name  of  the  individual  represented. 
In  my  series,  consisting  of  nearly  fifty,  the  dates 
extend  from  1790  to  18:27  ;  and  it  was  the  general 
custom  of  the  etcher  to  insert  along  with  his 
name  not  only  the  year,  but  the  month  and  day 
of  publication.  A  previous  owner  of  those  in  my 
possession  has  written  the  names  of  a  considerable 
number  in  red  ink;  but,  though  I  append  the 
list  to  this  communication,  I  am  doubtful  whe- 
ther the  information  contained  in  it  will  be 
deemed  worth  the  space  which  it  occupies :  — 
Oxford  Series. 

1.  A  View  from  the  Swan  Brewliouse,  Oxford,  June  12, 

1807  (Wm.  Hall,  Esq.). 

2.  A  View  from  Trinity  College,  Oxford.  June  1807 
(Dr.  Kett). 

3.  The  Classical  Alma  Mater  Coachman,  Oxford,  Jan. 

1808  (Mr.  Bobart). 

4.  A  celebrated  Public  Orator,  Jan.  1808  (Dr.  Crowe). 

5.  A  View  taken  at  Oxford,  Jan.  1808  (Mr.  Smith). 

6.  A  noble  Student  of  Oxford,  Jan.  1808  (Lord  G. 

7.  [No  inscription],  Feb.  1808  (Dr.  Parsons). 

8.  The  Father  of  the  Corporation  of  Oxford,  March 
1808  (Alderman  Fletcher). 

9.  A  View  from  Oriel  College,  Oxford,  May  1808  (Dr. 

10.  A  View  taken  from  Jesus  College,  Oxford,  May 

1808  (Dr.  Hughes). 

11.  A  View  from  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford,  June  1808 
(Mr.  Ford). 

12.  A  View  from  Merton  College,  Oxford,  June  1808 
(Dr.  Kilner). 

13.  A  View  from  St.  Aldate's,  Oxford  [no  date],  (Dr. 

Cambridge  Series. 

1.  A  View  from  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  Mav. 

1809  (Dr.  Wood). 

2.  A  View  of  the  Telegraph,  Cambridge,  May  1809 
(Dick  Vaugh). 

3.  A  View  from  Peter  House,  Cambridge,  Jan.  1810 
(Dr.  Baines). . 

4.  A  View  from  Baxter's  Livery  Stables,  Cambridge, 
Jan.  1810  (Mr.  Baxter). 

5.  A  View  from  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  Jan.  10, 

1810  (Bishop  of  Bristol,  Dr.  Mansell) 

6.  The  Late  Right  Rev.  Dr.  Samuel  Horsley,  Lord 
Bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  Dec.  1809. 

City  and  other  Celebrities. 

1.  "  We  serve  a  King  whom  we  love — a  God  whom  we 
adore." — Fizarro.    June  1790  (Mr.  Kemble). 

2.  A  Lawyer  and  his  Agent,  Jan.  21,  1793. 

3.  [No  inscription],  (Brook  Watson). 

4.  A  good  old  Penn  from  the  wing  of  a  good  old  Cock, 
Jan.  10,  1804. 

5.  The  Town's  End,  Dec.  4, 1804. 

6.  A  View  taken  from  Bladud's  Buildings,  Bath,  Jan. 
1809  (Counsellor  Morris). 

7.  A  View  taken  from  Portland  Place,  Bath,  Jan. 

8.  A  Gentle  Ride  from  Exeter  'Change  to  Pimlico,  1812, 
(Mr.  Clark). 

9.  A  Master  Parson  and  his  Journeyman,  May  1812. 

10.  A  Great  Man  on  'Change,  Jan.  1818  (Mr.  Roths- 

11.  A  View  in  the  Justice  Room,  Guildhall,  1819. 

12.  Mr.  Listen  in  "  Love,  Law,  and  Plwsic,"  August 

13.  A    Member    of   the  Corporation,    1820  (Sir  W. 

14.  "  Orange  Boven,"  June  1820. 

15.  [No  inscription]. 

16.  A  View  of  Hill  near  Downshire,  1817. 

17.  A  View  of  Guildhall  to  Cannon  Street,  1821. 

18.  A  real  T.  B.,  1821. 

19.  A  Thin  Piece  of  Parliament,  April  1822. 

20.  A  View  of  Nugent,  July  1822  (Lord  Nugent). 

21.  A  Roval  Exchange  Consul-General,  1823. 

22.  A  View  on  the  Baltic  Walk,  Oct.  1823. 

23.  Sir  Murray  Maxwell,  K.C.B.,  Nov.  1823. 

24.  [No  inscription],  Nov.  1823  (Mr.  Lowe). 

25.  "  PI  take  the  Particulars,"  March  182G. 

26.  "  Write  'em  or  let  ?em  alone,"  March  1826. 

27.  [No  inscription],  March  1826  (George  Robins). 

28.  A  View  on  Cornhill,  Sept.  1826. 

29.  An    Opposition    Right    Honorable,     1827    (Mr. 

30.  "  If  you'd  know  who  this  is,  Read,"  [no  date], 
(Mr.  Read)! 

It  may  be  added,  that  these  caricature  portraits 
have  a  value  beyond  the  merit  of  the  general 
likeness,  from  the  cleverness  with  which  they 
embody  the  characteristic  attitude  and  dress  of 
the  individuals  pourtrayed.  It  would  interest 
many  readers  of  "  N.  &  Q."  to  have  some  biogra- 



[3'd  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66. 

phical  information  of  so  remarkable   a  man  as 
Richard  Dighton.  F.  B. 


The  account  given  by  your  correspondent  MR. 
"W.  H.  TURNER  of  Dighton's  caricature  portraits 
of  Oxford  characters,  being  in  several  instances 
inaccurate,  I  send  you  what  I  believe  is  a  more 
correct  report  of  the  subjects  of  them  :  — 

A  View  from  Brasenose  College,  Oxford  (Bishop  W. 

A  View  from  Jesus  College  (Dr.  Hughes). 

A  View  from  Oriel  College  (Dr.  Eveleigh). 

A  View  from  Magdalen  Hall  (Dr.  Ford). 

A  View  from  Christ  Church  MeadoAvs  (Dean  Jackson 
and  Mr.  Webber). 

A  View  from  Merton  College  (Mr.  Kilner). 

Ditto  ditto  (Mr.  Hartley). 

A  View  from  Trinity  College  (Mr.  Kett). 

A  View  from  the  Swan  Brewer v,  Oxford  (Henry 
Hall,  Esq.). 

A  View  taken  from  the  Town  Hall,  Oxford  (Sir  Wil- 
liam Elias  Tauntou,  father  of  the  Judge). 

The  Father  of  the  Corporation  of  Oxford,  Omnibus 
Carus  (Alderman  Fletcher). 

A  Celebrated  Public  Orator  (Mr.  Crowe  of  New 

A  View  from  St.  Aldate's,  Oxford  (Mr.  Grosvenor, 

Ireland  in  Scotland,  or  a  trip  from  Oxford  to  the  Land 
of  Cakes  (John  Ireland,  Esq.). 

A  Noble  Student  of  Oxford  (Lord  George  Grenville, 
afterwards  Lord  Nugent). 

A  View  from  Balliol  College,  Oxford  (Dr.  Parsons, 
Bishop  of  Peterborough). 

Mother  Goose  of  Oxford. 

The  "  Doctor"  (Mr.  James  of  Magdalen  Hall). 

A  Classical  Alma  Mater  Coachman,  Oxford  (Mr. 
Bobart,  afterwards  one  of  the  Esquire  Bedells) . 


The  names  of  Kilner  and  Cleaver  are  improperly 
attached  to  the  several  "  views  "  from  Brasenose 
and  Oriel.  Dr.  William  Cleaver,  Bishop  of  St. 
Asaph  and  Principal  of  Brasenose  Coll.,  was  given 
in  the  view  from  that  college;  and  though  I 
have  not  the  print  before  me,  I  have  no  doubt  of 
Dr.  Eveleigh  (then  Provost)  being  caricatured  in 
the  "  View  from  Oriel."  A  COTEMPORARY. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  455.) 

When  I  said  "  Honorary  Canons  were  instituted 
by  Bishop  Denison  "  of  Sarum,  I  simply  meant  for 
his  own  diocese.  It  was  by  certain  clergy  in  his 
diocese  that  the  question  of  Precedence  was  re- 
cently mooted  in  "N.  &  Q."  Honorary  Canons 
at  Salisbury  are,  as  in  all  other  Cathedrals,  a  cre- 
ation of  the  statute  law.  Act  3  &  4  Viet.  c.  113, 
declares  — 

"  That  honorary  Canon ries  shall  be  hereby  founded  in 
every  Cathedral  Church  in  England  in  tchich"  there  are  not 

already  founded  any  non-residentiary  prebends,  dignities,  or 

The  words  in  italics  are  explained  in  Act  4  &  o 
Viet.  c.  39,  which  enumerates  all  the  Cathedrals 
wherein  such  Canonries  are  permitted  to  be 

I  believe  the  case  to  be  simply  this :  On  the 
suppression  of  Canonries  or  Prebendaries  (the  title 
varies  in  different  Cathedrals),  the  funds  were 
placed  in  the  hands  of  Commissioners  as  a  revenue 
for  improving  the  incomes  of  small  benefices,  &c. ; 
but  the  stalls  which  were  occupied  in  the  Cathedral 
Church  by  the  Dignitaries  before  the  incomes'  at- 
tached to  them  were  confiscated,  had  no  longer 
tenants  j  and  so  the  expedient  was  hit  upon  for 
filling  them  with  non-residentiary  and  unpaid 
Parish  Rectors,  who  were  to  have  an  honorary 
title  with  little  or  no  pay.  If  I  remember  rightly, 
Bishop  Denison,  on  the  institution  of  Honorary 
Canons  at  Saruni,  gave  about  3/.  per  annum  to  each 
non-residentiary  Canon  for  coming  up  to  preach 
in  his  turn  at  the  Cathedral  Church  of  the  Diocese. 
With  regard  to  Precedence  (the  point  mooted  in 
"N.  &  Q."),  the  Acts  quoted  above  ordain  that 
honorary  Canons  "  shall  take  rank  in  the  Cathedral 
Church  next  after  the  Canons,"  t.  c.  that  the  dig- 
nitaries who  keep  the  pay  as  well  as  the  title  shall 
sit  in  the  Chapter  before  those  who  enjoy  the  title 
only.  The  President  in  the  Chapter  is  the  Dean, 
i.e.  a  Dean  Urban,  for  a  city  must  have  a  Cathedral 
in  it,  whereas  a  Rural  Dean  presides  over  a  Rural 
Chapter  or  Council  of  some  ten  parochial  incum- 
bents, for  the  better  regulation  of  Church  matters 
in  their  own  immediate  district  of  the  Diocese. 
The  Rural  Dean,  if  he  has  any  fixed  position  in 
the  Cathedral  Church,  would  naturally  come  next 
after  the  Dean  Urban,  as  Honorary  Canons,  by 
the  statute-law,  take  rank  after  the  Residentiary 
Canons.  For  a  Rural  Dean  to  rank  after  the 
recently  titled  dignitaries  by  Bishop  Denison  at 
Sarum,  can,  as  MR.  MTJNBY  observes,  hardly  be  the 
right  position  for  the  holder  of  an  ancient  re- 
sponsible office.  The  responsibilities  of  a  Rural 
Dean,  ab  initio,  are  carefully  explained  in  the 
Dccanicce  Rurales  of  the  late  Mr.  Dansey,  allowed 
on  all  hands  to  be  the  best  authority  as  to  this 
question  for  many  weeks  past  discussed  in  the 
columns  of  "N.  &  Q."  'The  antiquity  of  the 
office  was  also  diligently  investigated  in  that 
learned  work,  and  its  existence,  both  in  the 
Western  and  Eastern  Churches,  traced  to  its 
origin.  The  exact  date  of  its  first  institution  in 
the  early  ages  of  Christianity,  Mr.  D.,  with  all  his 
learned  research,  could  not  ascertain ;  but  he  gives 
it  as  his  opinion  that  it  sprang  out  of,  if  it  was 
identical  with,  the  Chorepiscopw,  an  ecclesiastical 
assistant  to  a  bishop  in  his  Diocese,  anterior  to 
Deans  and  Canons  in  a  Cathedral  Church.  If  this 
dictum  be  correct,  the  question  of  Precedence  is  at 
j  an  end.  In  a  very  recent  examination  of  Decanica 

'-i  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66.] 



Rurales,  the  book  which  above  all  others  I  value  in 
my  library,  from  its  being  a  presentation  gift  of  the 
author,  with  his  autograph  on  the  cover,  I  have 
found  many  facts,  with  the  early  dates  attached 
to  them  for  confirmation,  that  would  further  elu- 
cidate the  ancient  origin  of  Rural  Deaneries,  ap- 
pointments de  jure  by  the  Bishop  of  the  Diocese 
but  these  would  be  inadmissible  in  your  crowded 
columns.  I  cannot,  however,  forbear  from  adding 
an  extract  describing  the  responsibilities  of  the 
office,  in  Parochial  Reformation,  written  by  an 
eminent  divine  in  a  proposal  to  restore  this  ancient 
office  in  a  Diocese  where  it  had  fallen  into  desue- 
tude :  — 

"  The  wise  election  of  the  Dean  Rural  is  a  matter  of 
the  greatest  importance,  and  requires  the  greatest  care. 
He  must  be  one  that  sincerely  loves  God  and  the  Church, 
and  hath  a  tender  regard  to  the  souls  of  men.  He  must 
also  be  furnished  with  sound  learning,  and  with  dexterity 
to  manage  men  and  business  : — the  peace  and  safety  of 
the  Church,  the  stopping  of  heresie  and  schism,  the  pre- 
venting the  growth  of  popery,  and  chiefly  the  recovering 
of  decayed  piety  among  the  people,  depending  on  the 
judicious  appointment  of  this  officer." 

To  which  the  learned  author  adds — 
"  All  these  requisites  may  not  easily  be  found.  Still  it 
is  necessary  in  every  appointment  to  go  as  near  them  as 
possible  ;  but  especially  to  provide  men  of  clear  reputa- 
tion for  unblameable  behaviour,  and  of  discreet  zeal  for 
the  honour  of  God  and  advancement  of  religion." 


HORIZON  (3rd  S.  ix.  492.)  —  If  a  person's  eye  is 
5ft.  4  in.  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  his  horizon 
will  be  three  miles  distant.  If  25  ft.  above  the 
water  his  view  will  be  extended  to  6^  miles ;  and 
if  four  times  that  height,  to  twice  tliat  distance. 
The  approximate  rule  is  to  multiply  the  square 
root  of  the  height  in  feet  by  1-3,  which  will  give 
the  distance  of  the  visible  horizon  in  miles.  Thus 
at  an  elevation  of  100  ft.  multiply  its  square  root 
10  by  1*3,  which  gives  13  miles  as  the  semi- 
diameter  of  the  visible  horizon.  The  true  horizon, 
not  allowing  for  refraction,  which  adds  to  the  dis- 
tance about  its  twelfth  part,  is  found  by  the  fol- 
lowing simple  rule :  — 

The  altitudes  being  1  4  9  16  25  36  49  64  81  fathoms, 
The  distances  will  be  12345678  9  leagues, 
the  numbers  in  the  second  line  being  the  square 
roots  of  those  in  the  first.  T.  J.  BUCZTON. 

Brixton  Hill. 

If  the  height  of  the  observer's  eye  is  a  given 
number  of  feet  above  the  sea,  the  distance  seen  in 
miles  will  be  the  square  root  of  the  number  of  feet 

multiplied  by  £  Thus,  if  the  observer's  eye  is 
six  feet  above  the  sea,  the  distance  seen  in  miles 
will  be  the  square  root  of  —  -,  or  three  miles. 

This  formula,  though  not  quite  rigorous,  is  exact 
enough  for  all  purposes.  J.  C.  M. 

The  following  popular  rule  for  ascertaining  the 
height  of  a  distant  object  is  sufficient  for  ordinary 
purposes ;  it  has  to  be  reversed  when  the  height 
is  given  and  the  distance  is  to  be  ascertained,  as  in 
F.  G-.  W.'s  query.  Any  mathematician  could 
prove  its  approximation  to  the  truth  by  referring 
to  the  articles  "Depression  of  the  Visible  Horizon," 
and  "  Curvature  of  the  Earth."  Two-thirds  of  the 
square  of  the  given  distance*  expressed  in  miles 
will  give  the  elevation  in  feet,  subtracting  an  arbi- 
trary allowance  for  refraction.  For  example,  as- 
sume the  distance  to  an  object  to  be  3  miles;  the 
square  of  3=9;  two-thirds  of  which  =6;  sub- 
tract one-ninth  of  6  ft.  =  8  in. :  the  height  of  the 
object  is  5  ft.  4  in.  In  this  example  a  person's  eye 
5  ft.  4  in.  above  the  sea  can  see  three  miles  over 
the  ocean  on  a  clear  day.  Keverse  the  above 
operation  by  having  the  height  given  above  the 
sea,  then  the  distance  can  be  ascertained.  L. 

The  distance  of  the  visible  horizon  depends 
entirely  on  the  height  of  the  eye  above  the  sea, 
and  is  a  problem  easily  solved  by  plane  trigono- 
metry. Let  h  be  such  height,  and  r  the  semi- 
diameter  of  the  earth,  then  h  -f-  r  =  the  secant  of 
the  arc,  the  tangent  to  which  is  the  distance 
sought.  See  Hull's  Trigonometry,  ed.  1858,  p.  80. 

A.  A. 
Poets'  Corner. 

[We  are  always  most  ready  to  oblige  our  readers,  but 
we  must  remark  that  it  is  impossible  to  enter  into  the 
wide  field  of  mathematics  in  such  a  work  as  this. — ED.] 

DERBY  DOLLS  (3rd  S.  ix.  452.)  —  The  dolls  to 
which  your  correspondent  alludes  are  the  trophies, 
the  spolia  opima,  won  by  the  "  noble  sportsmen  " 
at  the  highly  intellectual  games  of  "knock-'em- 
downs,"  or  "aunt  Sally,"  played  on  the  Epsom 
Downs  on  the  Derby  Day.  Penny  trumpets  are 
also  sometimes  so  paraded.  The  world  progresses! 
No  mention,  it  is  believed,  is  to  be  found  in  any 
classic  author  of  a  Roman  noble  returning  from 
the  hippodrome  with  a  pupa  in  his  pilous. 

A.  A. 

Poets'  Corner. 

ALGIERS  (3rd  S.  ix.  414.)  —  MR.  H.  FRANKS 
will  find  the  following  a  most  complete  work, 
the  result  of  the  labour  of  ten  years  of  travel,  re- 
search, and  residence  of  my  kinsman  in  Algiers : — 

'  Itineraire  Historique  et  Descriptif  de  1'Algerie, 
comprenant  le  Yell  et  le  Sahara.  Par  Louis  Piesse,  Li- 
jrairie  de  L.  Hachette  et  Cie.,  King  William  Street, 
Strand,  et  Paris,  1862." 


CHURCH  PORCHES  (3rd  S.  ix.  510.)— There  does 
not  seem  to  be  any  "  ecclesiological  objection  "  to 
a  western  porch,  but  there  is  an  architectural  one, 
"or  the  west  front  of  a  small  church  would  be 
seriously  diminished  in  its  apparent  size  by  such 
an  erection.  Out  of  eighty-seven  ancient  parish 
hurches,  of  which  I  have  notes,  only  three  hav&  a 



[3**  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66. 

western  porch.  In  the  case  of  a  cathedral,  or 
other  large  church,  the  porch  seems  to  assist  the 
eye  in  forming  an  idea  of  the  dimensions. 

E.  S.  D. 

"NOTTINGHAM  ALE"  (3rd  S.  ix.  512.)  — In  a 
work  styled  Old  and  Neiv  Nottingham  there  is  a 
copy  of  this  song,  and  it  contains  five  stanzas. 
The  following  note  "by  the  historian  Blackner  will 
show  that  it  was  not  written  by  a  Captain  King  at 
all.  He  says  that  — 

"  A  person  of  the  name  of  Gunthorpe,  who,  within  the 
memory  of  persons  now  (1815)  living,  kept  the  Punch 
Bowl  public-house  in  Peck  Lane,  Nottingham,  sent  a 
barrel  of  ale  of  his  own  brewing  as  a  present  to  his 
brother,  an  officer  in  the  navy,  and  who  in  return  com- 
posed this  poetic  epistle." 

It  was  a  popular  song  at  the  end  of  the  last 
and  beginning  of  the  present  century,  and  was  one 
which  Goldsmith  is  said  to  have  relished  highly. 

W.  D.  HOTLE. 

(3rd  S.  viii.  387.) — On  a  former  occasion  I  ventured 
to  draw  attention  to  the  curious  fact  of  the  cook- 
ing-coppers of  the  Janizaries  being  regarded,  by 
the  corps  of  that  force,  as  the  insignia  of  their 
respective  regiments;  to  the  coincidence  of  the 
"  brazen  lavers  "  of  the  Temple  being  carried  in 
solemn  procession;  and  to  parallel  instances  of 
honour  shown  to  the  cooking  utensils  amongst 
the  Assyrians,  Persians,  and  Greeks.  Although 
the  connection  between  these  several  illustrations 
is  by  no  means  clearly  made  out,  I  have  been 
struck  by  the  following  case  of  a  somewhat  analo- 
gous kind  in  the  interesting  work  just  published 
by  Mr.  Lord  on  Vancouver's  Island  and  British 
Columbia:  — 

"  When  staying  at  Fort  Rupert,  I  saw  by  mere  chance 
what  the  Hudson  Bay  trader  called  an  '  Indian  copper.' 
He  told  me  that  it  was  only  on  very  high  festivals  that 
it  was  ever  produced,  and  that  its  value  to  the  tribe  was 
estimated  to  be  15  slaves,  equal  to  200  blankets. 

"  This  wonderful '  medicine  '  was  contained  in  a  wooden 
case,  most  elaborately  ornamented  on  its  exterior  with 
differently  shaped  pieces  of  nacre  neatly  inlaid,  brass- 
headed  nails,  and  pieces  of  bone.  The  inside  was  lined 
with  the  softest  kind  of  cedar-bark.  The  '  copper '  was 
2  feet  4£  inches  in  length,  wider  at  one  end  than  the  other 
— the  wider  end,  1  foot  6£  inches,  and  brilliantly  painted 
representing  all  sorts  of  curiously  shaped  devices ;  inter- 
spersed amongst  them  were  eyes  of  all  sizes.  It  was 
made  from  a  solid  piece  of  native  copper  that  had  been 
hammered  flat.  The  trader  also  told  me  that  some  imi- 
tation '  coppers '  had  been  made  for  the  company,  and 
offered  to  the  Indians,  but  nothing  would  induce  them 
either  to  purchase  or  have  them  as  a  gift.  What  use 
this1  copper  '  is  I  cannot  tell,  unless  it  is  a  kind  of  standard 
similar  to  our  regimental  colours.  It  belongs  to  the  tribe, 
not  to  the  chief,  and  is  kept  by  the  « medicine-men '  or 
doctors,  rain-makers,  and  scoundrels  in  general." — Lord's 
Naturalist  in  Vancouver's  Island  and  British  Columbia, 
vol.  ii.  p.  257. 


PRELATE  MENTIONED  BY  GIBBON  (3rd  S.  ix.  452, 
502,  523.)— There  can  be  no  doubt,  I  conceive, 

;hat  the  prelate  referred  to  by  Gibbon,  and  named 
n  Bishop  Home's  Letter,  was  Warburton.  The 
:erms  used  by  Gibbon,  in  connection  with  the  date 
f  this  volume  of  his  history,  was  clearly  intended 
o  apply  to  some  distinguished  member  of  the 
episcopal  bench,  who  died  not  very  long  before 
1784.  Now,  Warburton  died  in  1779.  What 
other  bishop  can  be  pointed  out,  taking  even  a 
range  of  ten  or  fifteen  years  backwards  from  1784, 
'rom  whose  character  and  any  other  circumstances 
a  fair  inference  can  be  drawn  that  he  was  the  per- 
son intended  ?  Then,  in  addition,  Warburton  had 
Daid  some  attention  to  the  history  of  the  famous 
.ady  whom  Procopius  has  depicted.  There  is  a 
long  note  on  Theodora  in  his  edition  of  Pope  (Epi- 
logue to  the  Satires,  verse  144,  vol.  iv.  p.  309 — 10, 
edit.  1770),  which  had  not  escaped  Gibbon,  who 
sneers  (Milman's  Gibbon,  vol.  vii.  p.  73,  edit.  1838) 
at  "Warburton's  Critical  Telescope,'"  "without 
which,"  he  observes,  "I  should  never  have  seen  in 
the  general  picture  of  triumphant  vice  any  personal 
reference  to  Theodora." 

In  the  note,  therefore,  which  is  the  subject  of 
the  inquiry,  and  which  occurs  some  pages  before, 
the  historian  is  very  likely  to  have  had  War- 
burton  in  his  mind,  but  for  obvious  reasons, 
though  he  names  him  after,  could  only  refer  to 
him  by  a  general  description  which  did  not  neces- 
sarily identify  the  party.  The  truth  of  the  anec- 
dote is  altogether  a  different  thing,  and  I  for  one, 
from  all  that  I  have  ascertained  of  Warburton's 
character  and  style  of  conversation,  believe  it  to 
be  a  malicious  falsehood,  and  that  his  only  answer 
to  such  a  charge  would  have  been  that  which  he 
adopted,  as  he  says,  from  honest  Father  Valerian, 
"  mentiris  irnpudentissime." 

It  is  just  such  a  story  as  might  have  come  from 
the  mintage  of  George  Steevens's  mischievous 
brain,  and  which,  told  by  him  to  Gibbon,  perhaps 
at  a  meeting  .of  the  Literary  Club,  the  historian 
would  only  be  too  glad  to  seize  upon  to  gratify  his 
spite  against  the  hierarchy  in  general,  and  War- 
burton  in  particular,  and  to  make  his  indecent 
note  still  more  piquant.  JAS.  CROSSLET. 

ANGLO-SAXON  GUILDS  (3rd  S.  ix.  491.)— I  am 
not  aware  of  any  full  list  of  these  and  other  ancient 
guilds,  but  OAIRSTON  will  find  a  long  and  explicit 
account  of  them,  with  foundation  charters,  rent- 
rolls,  and  stewards'  accounts  in  A  Chronicle  of  St. 
Martin's  Church,  Leicester,  just  published  by  Bell 
and  Daldy.  Irs. 

ZOROASTER  (3rd  S.  ix.  356.)  —  That  there  were 
several  of  these  mentioned  in  the  histories  of  the 
Chaldees,  Persians,  Bactrians,  and  ancient  Assy- 
rians, is  admitted,  and  one  of  them,  about  five  or  six 
hundred  years  B.C.,  is  no  doubt  the  person  alluded 
to  by  MR.  BUCKTON.  But  it  seems  there  was  a 
Zoroaster  of  still  higher  antiquity,  from  whom  the 
Magi  of  Chaldees  and  ancient  Persians  derived 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66.] 



their  notions  of  the  Unity  of  God.  The  author  of 
the  Zend  Avesta  is  asserted  to  have  lived  6429  B.C.  ; 
that  is,  previous  to  the  foundation  of  either 
Nineveh  or  Babylon.  Indeed,  Zoroaster  appears 
in  some  degree  a  mystic  personage  altogether. 
Pliny  gives  the  place  of  his  birth  as  the  Isle  of 
Proconessus,  and  informs  us  that  Eudoxus  has 
recorded  that  Zoroaster  lived  about  6000  years 
before  the  death  of  Plato,  which  happened  383 
B.C.,  and  therefore  that  the  former  must  have 
flourished  at  least  6383  B.C. 

Mr.  Layard,  in  his  Nineveh  (vol.  ii.  p.  442) 
adverts  to  the  uncertainty  as  to  the  epoch  and 
birth-place  of  Zoroaster. 

As  for  the  testimony  of  Mahomet  in  his  Koran, 
the  conversion  of  Abraham  and  the  conversation 
with  his  father  Azer,  its  value  seems  lessened 
coming  from  one  who  has  visited  the  seventh 
heaven ;  and  we  may  consider,  perhaps,  the  Arab 
traditions  of  about  as  much  worth. 

My  further  question  as  to  the  cradle  of  the 
Hebrew  race  remains  unanswered,  and  also  as  to 
whether  any  traces  remain  of  them  in  the  Moun- 
tains of  Chaldea.  The  physique  of  the  Jew  is  very 
remarkable,  and  has  remained  unaltered  for  thou- 
sands of  years.  If,  then,  they  were  one  and  the 
same  people  with  the  inhabitants  of  Chaldea, 
traces  of  them  must  remain  amongst  the  present 
races  in  that  country.  On  the  contrary,  were  they 
even  there  an  isolated  people,  whence  came  they  ? 
Babylonians  and  Chaldeans  by  many  are  held  to 
be  one  and  the  same  race,  or  at  all  events  nearly 
allied.  MR.  BTJCKTON  says  physiology  is  deceptive. 
Be  this  as  it  may,  we  have  this  singular  people 
bearing  the  same  distinctive  physiological  features 
for  at  least  4000  years.  A.  C.  M. 

FECKLE  :  FECK  (3rd  S.  ix.  510.) — To  the  inquiry 
of  B.  NICHOLSON,  I  would  note  that  in  the  south 
of  Scotland  and  the  Borders,  feck  evidently  has 
its  root  in  strength ;  since  by  the  negative  feck- 
less, weakness  is  implied.  Thus  the  old  adage  — 
"Feckless  folks  are  ay  fond  o'  ither ;  "  i.  e.  weak, 
or  silly  people  are  always  prone  to  like  each  other, 
and  consort  together.  W.  J. 

490.)  —  I  venture  to  endeavour  to  solve  CANON 
DALTON'S    difficulty  by   punctuating,    and  very 
slightly  modernising,  this  epitaph  as  follows :  — 
"  Aqui  yace  Pedro  Miago. — 
Qu£  de  lo  mio  me  hago  ? 
Lo  que  comf  y  bebi,  perdi; 
Lo  que  acd  deje  no  lo  se; 
Y  el  bien  que'hice  falli." 

.  In  English  it  will  then  run  thus  :  — 
"  Here  lies  Pedro  Miago. — 
What  is  the  good  to  me  now  [what  use  do  I  make  now] 

of  all  that  was  mine  ? 

What  I  ate  and  drank  I  have  no  longer  [I  lost]  ; 
What  I  left  here  I  know  not ; 
And  even  the  good  that  I  did  I  was  faulty  in." 

Falli  I  take  for  the  preterite  of  an  obsolete  verb 
fattir,  similar  in  meaning  to  the  French  faittir, 
and  of  which  the  participle  fallido  remains  in  use, 

42,  Bedford  Square. 

This  inscription  well  exemplifies  the  curious 
change  of  the  Latin  /  into  h  in  modern  Spanish ; 
for  we  here  see  instances  of  the  intermediate  forms. 
The  modern  Spanish  words  hago,  hice,  are  here 
spelt  fac/o,jice,  which  connects  them  at  once  with 
the  Latin  facio,  fed.  The  only  word  which  pre- 
sents a  real  difficulty  is  falli,  which  I  can  only 
guess  to  be  written  forfafle,  the  old  form  of  haltt. 
The  phrase  hacerse  de  algo  is  explained  in  Neu- 
mann's Dictionary  to  mean, lf  to  acquire  something 
that  one  wants."  If  these  assumptions  be  all 
correct,  the  translation  becomes  — "  Here  lies 
Pedro  Miago  j  (I)  who  become  possessed  of  my 
own.  That  which  I  ate  and  drank,  I  lost ;  that 
which  I  left  here,  I  know  not ;  and  the  good  I  did, 
I  found."  The  meaning  of  this  I  take  to  be  much 
the  same  as  in  the  Latin  proverb,  "Hoc  habeo, 
quodcunque  dedi,"  quoted  by  Seneca,  De  fieneficiis, 
lib.  vi.  cap.  2.  Compare  also  the  epigram  of  Mar- 
tial (v.  44)  — 

"  Extra  fortunam  est  quidquid  donatur  amicis  ; 
Quas  dederis,  solas  semper  habefois  opes." 

22,  Regent  Street,  Cambridge. 

RODNEY  TRIUMPHANT  (3rd  S.  ix.  460.)— I  must 
plead  guilty  to  having  quoted  the  epigram  alluded 
to,  at  second-hand,  from  Mundy's  Life  of  Rodney, 
18-" '),  vol.  i.  262.  It  is  there  introduced  as  a  note 
to  :  he  following  passage  in  a  letter  from  the 
Admiral's  eldest  daughter  to  her  father,  under 
date  March  4,  1780:  — 

"  On  Thursday  night  there  were  northern  lights  seen ; 
and  you  will  see  in  the  Morning  Post  what  fine  verses 
they  make  upon  them  to  your  praise." 

This,  of  course,  does  not  refer  in  any  way  to 
the  epigram  in  question,  but  it  may  perhaps  guide 
to  its  original  appearance.  I  cannot  for  a  moment 
suppose  that  General  Mundy  added  a  first  verse 
of  his  own ;  but  I  am  not  at  present  able  to  do 
more  towards  verifying  his  quotation. 

S.  H.  M. 

•l  LASCIAR  FARE  A  MARC  ANTONIO  "  (3rd  S.  ix. 
322,  400.) — This  extract  from  Dryden  may  throw 
some  light  on  the  meaning  :  — 

"  Woodall  Would  it  not  be  better  if  you  would  take 
;he  pains  to  run  after  Limberham,  and  stop  him  in  his 
vay  ere  he  reach  the  place  where  he  thinks  he  left  his 
nistress  :  then  hold  him  in  discourse  as  long  as  possibly 
you  can,  till  you  guess  your  wife  may  be  returned,  that 
so  they  may  appear  together  ? 

Brainsick.  I  warrant  you :  Laissez  faire  tl  Mark  An- 
toine.  [Exit." 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  point  that  Dryden, 
thus  using  the  phrase,  does  so  in  French  not  in 
Italian,  and  reads  "Marc"  not  "Don  Antoine." 



[3'd  g.  x.  JULY  7,  '66. 

How  or  why  Marc  Antony  filled  the  place  given 
in  the  vulgar  proverb  of  the  present  day  to  one's 
grandmother,  is  a  different  question.  It  seems 
probable  that  it  may  be  a  quotation  from  some 
early  dramatist,  French  or  Italian,  which  became 
a  catch-word ;  but  if  it  is  difficult  to  find  out  the 
origin  of  the  catch-words  of  our  own  time — e.  g. 
"  As-tu  vu  Lambert  ?  "— "  Where's  Simpson  ?  "— 
"  How  are  your  poor  feet  ?  " — what  must  it  be  to 
trace  the  origin  of  the  expressions  popular  two 
hundred  or  more  years  ago  ?  S.  H.  M. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC  CANARD  (3rd  S.  ix.  474.)— As 
yet  nobody  appears  to  have  given  any  reasons 
why  the  photographic  canard  should  be  utterly 
unable  to  fly,  may  I  venture  to  satisfy  those 
obstinate  people  who  always  persist  in  denying 
that  black  is  not  white  until  the  contrary  is 
proved,  by  reminding  them  that  if  we  allow  the 
possibility  of  a  thing  being  done,  we  must  assume 
that  there  exists  in  the  eye  a  substance  which  is 
only  sensitive  to  light  at  the  particular  instant  of 
time  at  which  the  image  is  impressed  on  it,  and 
^neither  before  nor  after.  The  discovery  of  a  sub- 
stance that  possessed  sufficient  intelligence  and 
judgment  to  choose  its  own  time  for  receiving  the 
impression  of  a,n  image  would,  even  in  these  days 
of  scientific  marvels,  be  a  wonder  surpassing  all 
that  philosophers  have  ever  dreamed  about.  We 
must  also  assume  that  the  calves,  cows,  and  mur- 
dered men  in  question  had  the  lenses  of  their  eyes 
corrected  for  the  actinic  rays  of  light  —  a  per- 
fectly actinic  combination,  like  the  lenses  of  the 
eye,  being  incapable  of  giving  a  distinct  photo- 
graphic impression  at  the  focus  of  the  visual  rays. 
I  hope  enough  has  now  been  said  to  kill  this 
miserable  bird  once  and  for  ever,  and  that  he 
will  be  served  up  with  a  sauce  of  the  large  goose- 
berries, celestial  frogs,  carboniferous  toads,  and 
gigantic  strawberries  that  he  seems  to  have  suc- 
ceeded. CHARLES  W.  QTJIN,  F.C.S. 

1,  Oxney  Villas,  Upper  Holloway,  N.W. 

QUOTATION  (3rd  S.  ix.  533.)— The  expression  is 
adopted  in  the  First  Book  of  The  Task,  in  relation 
to  the  contrivance  of  the  sofa,  as  an  article  of 
furniture  :  — 

"  And  some  ascribe  th'  invention  to  a  priest, 
Burly,  and  big,  and  studious  of  his  ease." 

And,  again,  in  the  Third  Book,  The  Garden :  — 

"Me  therefore  studious  of  laborious  ease." 
The  entire  sentiment  contained  in  the  fine  quo- 
tation from  Phillips  is  more  fully  appropriated, 
and  expanded,  by  Cowper,  in  the  concluding  lines 
of  the  Fourth  Book  of  The  Task,  "  The  Winter 
Evening  " :  — 

"  To  me,  an  unambitious  mind,  content 
In  the  low  vale  of  life,  that  early  felt 
A  wish  for  ease  and  leisure,  and'ere  long 
Found  here  that  leisure  and  that  ease  I  wish'd." 

It  may  afford  some  amusement  to  notice  how 

frequently  the  words  ease  and  easy  are  used  by 
Cowper,  especially  throughout  The  Task. 

J.  W.  W. 

CURSIVE  HEBREW  (3rd  S.  ix.  510.)— PELONI 
will  find  alphabets  of  the  German  and  Polish 
cursive  Hebrew  in  the  Alphabets  orientalischer 
und  occidentalischer  Sprachcn  zusammenaestellt  von 
F.  Ballhorn  (Leipzig,  F.  A.  Brockhaus),  which 
may  be  obtained  through  Nutt,  or  Williams  & 
Norgate,  for  two  or  three  shillings. 


PELONI  can  have  my  copy  for  a  week,  should 
the  war  interfere  with  the  importation  of  German 

A  tolerably  well  executed  lithograph,  repre- 
senting the  modern  handwriting  of  the  Jews,  or 
u  Cursive  Hebrew,"  does  duty  as  frontispiece  to 
vol.  iii.  (1829)  of  the  Christian  Revieiv.  Towards 
the  commencement  of  an  article  entitled  "The 
Jews  and  Jewish  Literature,"  at  p.  154  of  the 
same  volume,  will  be  found  some  further  inform- 
ation on  the  same  subject.  SCHIN. 

LAMMAS  LANDS  (3rd  S.  ix.  500.) — I  crave  a  little 
space  from  your  columns  to  return  many  thanks, 
not  only  to  your  correspondent  W.  C.  B.,  but  to 
several  other  gentlemen  from  various  parts  of  the 
kingdom.  We  seem  to  get  this  light  only  on  the 
subject,  that  the  custom  seems  very  nearly  identi- 
cal throughout  England;  but  I  fear  the  legend 
that  the  lands  were  so  granted  by  King  Alfred 
when  the  Danes  went  up  the  river  Lea  to  Hertford 
must  be  abandoned,  as  it  appears  the  custom  exists 
as  far  off  as  Devonshire.  A.  A. 

Poets'  Corner. 

THE  MOON  (3rd  S.  ix.  412.)  —  See  .Herschell's 
Outlines  of  Astronomy,  p.  272,  note  (ed.  1864). 

E.  S. D. 

FERT:  AND  THE  ARMS  or  SAVOY  (3rd  S.  ix.  323, 
400,  476.)  —  Soon  after  writing  my  notice  upon 
this  subject  I  became  so  unwell,  and  have  con- 
tinued so  unwell  ever  since,  that  I  have  been  de- 
sired bv  my  medical  attendant  to  discontinue  all 
occupation  for  the  present.  I  have  seen  MR. 
WOODWARD'S  remarks,  and  will  make  my  answer 
to  them  as  soon  as  I  am  able  to  do  so.  In  the 
meantime  any  one  who  takes  an  interest  in  the 
matter  may  see  an  original  statement  of  it  in 
MR.  WOODWARD'S  sense,  by  the  Abbe*  .Vertot,  in 
his  Histoire  des  Chevaliers  Hospitaliers  de  S.  Jean 
de  Jerusalem,  vol.  i.  p.  467,  Amsterdam  ed.,  1732. 

Stuarts  Lodge,  Malvern  Wells. 

MR.  AND  MRS.  BARBATJLD  (2nd  S.  x.  86.)— The 
interesting  account  of  the  Rev.  Rochmont  Bar- 
bauld  and  his  more  celebrated  wife  here  men- 
tioned, induces  me  to  give  a  further  account  of 
them  not  mentioned  by  S.  W.  Rix.  After  he 
left  Palgrave  he  went  to  Hanipstead,  Middlesex  ; 

3"»  S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66.] 



was  minister  of  the  Presbyterian  congregation 
there  near  the  celebrated  Chicken  House,  re- 
nowned by  the  visit  of  King  James  and  the  Duke 
of  Buckingham.  Small  portraits  of  them  were 
there.  Under  the  former  of  which  is  the  following 
inscription :  — 

"  Icy  dans  cette  Ghambre  concha  nostre  Roy  laques, 
premier  de  nom,  le  25me  Aoust,  1619."  —  Vide  Park's 
Hampstead,  p.  267. 

Mr.  RochmontBarbauldwas  minister  at  Hamp- 
stead from  1785  to  1799.  He  lived  in  one  of  two 
houses  belonging  to  Lord  Chesterfield;  situated  on 
lied  Lion  Hill,  where  he  took  pupils.  The  stable 
at  the  end  of  the  garden  was  made  a  school-room. 
After  a  time  he  ceased  to  be  a  schoolmaster,  and 
went  to  live  in  Church  Row,  Hampstead.  They 
had  one  young  lady  as  a  pupil — Miss  Rickards, 
afterwards  married  to  Captain  Withering,  of  the 
Warwickshire  militia.  He  then  removed  to  New- 
ington  Green,  where  he  died. 

My  father  took  his  house  on  Red  Lion  Hill, 
and  knew  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Barbauld  well,  who  con- 
stantly visited  them,  and  were  at  their  social 
evening  parties  with  the  celebrated  Mrs.  Joanna 
Baillie  and  her  sister  Agnes,  who  lived  with  their 
mother  in  the  adjoining  house. 


Bradney,  near  Burghfield  Bridge,  Heading. 

NORFOLK  WILES  (3rd  S.  ix.  539,  540.)— The 
statute  of  33  Henry  VI.  c.  7,  which  limited  the 
number  of  attorneys  practising  in  Norwich,  Nor- 
folk, and  Suffolk,  was  repealed  with  many  other 
old  and  obsolete  acts  relating  to  attorneys  by  sta- 
tute 6  &  7  Viet.  c.  73.  WALTER  J.  TILL. 


CEALCHYTH  (3rd  S.  ix.  522,  &c.)— -  The  exact 
position  of  this  place  is  a  problem  not  likely  to  be 
solved.  Archbishop  Usher  and  Bishop  Gibson 
fixed  it  at  Culcheth,  in  South  Lancashire,  and  this 
group  seems  as  likely  as  any.  It  must  be  noticed 
that  Winwick,  the  beloved  residence  and  the  birth- 
place of  St.  Oswald,  King  of  Northumberland,  is 
in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  Culcheth,  and 
at  a  later  period  all  this  part  of  Lancashire  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  crown,  and  most  likely  belonged 
then  to  the  kingdom  of  Mercia.  One  of  the  farms 
is  called  Abbey,  or  Old  Abbey,  but  there  is  no 
account  or  tradition  why  it  was  so  named.  Your 
correspondent,  however,  in  describing  the  meeting 
as  a  Concilium  or  Synod,  seems  not  to  have  been 
aware  that  it  was  in  reality  a  Witenagemot  of  the 
Mercians,  where  all  public  business  was  done. 
Besides  the  meeting  in  785  (in  which  the  province 
of  Canterbury  was  partitioned,  and  the  Arch- 
bishopric of  Lichfield  founded),  Witenageinots 
were  held  there  in  788,  789,  793,  790,  &c.;  the 
last  recorded  is  in  996.  See  Kemble's  Saxons  in 
England,  vol.  ii.  p.  240,  syq. 


"  At  present  we  find  the  Northumbrian  proper,  in- 
cluding North  and  East  Yorkshire,  the  Lowland  Scottish 
of  the  Lothians,  the  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland 
dialects,  and  the  North  Lancashire,  all  to  exhibit  their  re- 
spective features  of  difference." — Garnett's  Phil.  Essays, 
p.  189. 

"  The  Northumbrian  is  unquestionably  the  most  pleas- 
ing of  our  provincial  forms  of  speech,  especially  as  spoken 
in  the  North  and  East  Ridings  of  Yorkshire." — Ib.  p.  45. 

I  must  leave  it  to  G.  not  so  much  to  estimate 
the  relative  weight  of  authority  in  philological 
matters  between  Lord  Jeffrey  and  Mr.  Garnett, 
for  that  is  not  necessary,  as  to  weigh  the  signi- 
ficance of  the  statements  quoted,  admitting,  as 
they  do  (if  they  needed  it),  of  confirmation  by 
every  student  of  the  various  Northumbrian  dia- 
lects. J.  C.  ATKINSON. 

Danby,  in  Cleveland. 

KING  IN  CAKE  (3rd  S.  ix.  431.)  — I  have  on 
several  occasions  seen  the  introduction  of  a  wed- 
ding ring  into  a  bride-cake  ;  but  I  enclose  a  cut- 
ting from  an  Oxford  paper — a  pastry-cook's  puff — 
which  may  amuse  some  of  your  readers : — 

"  IMPORTANT  NOTICE  ! — The  Largest  Cake  ever  made 
in  Oxford,  weighing  upwards  of  1,000  Pounds,  and  con- 
taining 30  Gold  Wedding  and  other  Rings,  in  value  from 
7s.  Grf.  to  Two  Guineas  each !  To  be  seen  for  Sale  at 
No.  1,  Queen  Street,  Oxford,  from  Thursday,  December 
27,  until  Satui-day  January  5,  1861,  when  it" will  be  cut 
out  at  the  low  price  of  Is.  2d.  per  pound  (this  quality 
frequently  sold  for  wedding-cake). 

"  IS3T  Persons  at  a  distance  desirous  of  purchasing  may 
rely  upon  prompt  attention  being  given  to  their  favours. 

"  N.B.  J.  BOFFIX  will  feel  obliged  if  persons  obtaining 
the  Gold  Rings  will  favour  him  with  their  names." 



W.  R.  SPENSER  (3rd  S.  ix.  531.)— There  are  found 
to  be  wheels  within  wheels  in  tracing  poetical 
resemblances.  The  verses  by  W.  R.  Spenser, 
quoted  by  your  correspondent,  may  be  thought  to 
possess  some  echo  of  the  following  lines  in  Cow- 
per's  Task  (book  iv.  "The  Winter  Evening ") :  — 

"  Time,  as  he  passes  us,  has  a  dove's  wing, 
Unsoil'd,  and  swift,  and  of  a  silken  sound." 

J.  W.  W. 

ABRACADABRA  (3rd  S.  ix.  541.) — Much  interest- 
ing information,  respecting  the  word  abracadabra, 
is  given  in  Dr.  Jeremie's  History  of  the  Christian 
Church  in  the  Second  and  Third  Centuries,  pp. 
148-52 :  where  the  reader  will  find  most  abund- 
ant references  (in  the  notes)  should  he  desire  to 
prosecute  the  subject.  E.  C,  HARINGTON. 

The  Close,  Exeter. 



S.  X.  JULY  7,  '66. 


Letters  and  other  Documents  illustrating  the  Relations  be- 
tween England  and  Germany  at  the  Commencement  of 
the  Thirty    Years'    War.      From  the   Outbreak   of  the 
Revolution  in  Bohemia  to  the  Election  of  the  Emperor 
Ferdinand  II.    Edited  by  Samuel  Rawson  Gardiner, 
late  Student  of  Christ  Church.     (Camden  Society.) 
Registrum    sive    Liber  Irrotularius    et    Consuetudinarius 
Prioratus  Beatae  Marice  Wigorniensis :  with  an  Introduc- 
tion, Notes,  and  Illustrations.     By  William  Hale  Hale, 
M.A.,  Archdeacon  of  London.     (Camden  Society.) 
Totally  different  in  character,  one  from  the  other,  these 
books  exhibit  in  a  striking   manner  the  good  service 
which  the  Camden  Society  renders  to  historical  literature. 
For  though  both  these  volumes  are  unquestionably  de- 
stined to  be  much  used,  and  frequently  referred  to  by 
future  writers,  no  bookseller  would  have  been  justified  in 
giving  them  to  the  press.    Mr.  Gardiner's  volume  throws 
light  over  the  foreign  relations  of  this  country  at  a  period 
when  our  knowledge  of  such  relations  is  very  imperfect ; 
and  in  the  editor's  introduction  will  be  found  evidence 
how  the  dissatisfaction  of  the  nation  with  James's  deser- 
tion of  his  Protestant  allies  affected  the  course  of  English 
history,  promoting  the  second  growth  of  Puritanism,  and 
the  anti-monarchical  feeling  which  culminated  in  the 
reign  of  Charles  I.    Archdeacon  Hale's  volume,  which 
may  be  considered  a  companion  to  his  Domesday  of  St. 
Paul's,  is  no  whit  less  important.    The  documents  it  con- 
tains are  of  varied  character.     Some  few  are  of  a  public 
nature;  others  are  precedents  of  forms  to  be  observed 
upon  the  vacancy  of  a  bishopric  ;  others  again  are  royal, 
episcopal,  and  private  charters ;  but  the  greater  portion  of 
the  volume  consists  of  a  descriptive  rental  of  the  Bene- 
dictine Monastery  of  Worcester  in  the  middle  of  the 
thirteenth  century.      These  documents    are    illustrated 
with  great  industry  and  learning,  and  much  new  infor- 
mation as  to  the  relations  of  the  Church  to  the  State 
.and  to  the  land  may  gathered  from  its  pages. 

Early  Dutch,    German,   and    English   Printers'   Marks. 

By  J.  Ph.  Berjeau.    Part  I.     (E.  Eascol.') 

Those  who  know  the  remarkable  fidelity  with  which 
M.  Berjeau  contrives  to  reproduce  any  old  engravings  on 
which  he  thinks  proper  to  try  his  hand,  will  readily  un- 
derstand what  a  very  interesting  contribution  to  tyP°~ 
graphical  history  the  present  work  promises  to  be.  M. 
Berjeau  has  never  produced  anything  better  than  the 
twenty-six  Printer's  Marks  which  appear  in  the  Part 
before  us. 

DEATH  OF  PROFESSOR  CRAIK.— Literature  has  lost  an 
earnest  and  conscientious  follower,  and  many  men  of  Let- 
ters, a  warm-hearted  friend,  in  Professor  Craik,  whose  ad- 
mirable little  book,  The  Pursuit  of  Knowledge  under  Diffi- 
culties, undertaken  at  the  suggestion  of  Lord  Brougham, 
is  only  one  of  the  many  useful  books  with  which  he 
enriched  our  literature.  Professor  Craik,  who  was  in  his 
sixty-third  year,  died  at  Belfast  on  June  25th. 

DEATH  OF  HENRY  JACKSON,  ESQ.— We  have  to  record 
and  regret  the  loss  of  a  constant  reader,  and  early  and  fre- 
quent correspondent  of  "  N.  &  Q."  The  initials  "  H.  J.," 
which  have  so  often  appeared  in  our  pages,  were  those  of 
Henry  Jackson,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S.  of  Sheffield,  who  died  on  the 
2oth  ult,  aged  sixty.  He  was  univerally  esteemed  and 
regretted  by  his  townsmen,  many  of  whom  attended  his 
interment  in  a  grave  close  to  that  of  his  friend  Joseph 
Hunter,  the  accomplished  Topographical  Historian,  in  the 
churchyard  at  Ecclesfield. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE.— On  Tuesday,  July  17th, 
the  opening  meeting  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  will 

be  held,  at  12  o'clock,  in  the  Guildhall,  when  an  address 
will  be  presented  to  the  President  of  the  Meeting.  The 
members  and  their  friends  will  afterwards  visit  two  or 
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nesday, after  the  Sections,  short  excursions  will  be  ar- 
ranged to  the  neighbourhood  of  London.  On  Thursday, 
Westminster  Abbey  will  be  examined,  and  lectures  will 
be  given  on  its  history  by  the  Rev.  Dean  Stanley  ;  and 
on  its  structure,  by  Mr.  Gilbert  Scott.  On  Friday  the 
Tower  of  London  will  be  visited,  under  the  guidance  of 
Mr.  Hepworth  Dixon,  who  will  read  a  paper  on  its  history. 
The  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  in  the  evening, 
invite  the  Institute  to  a  conversazione.  On  Saturday,  an 
excursion  will  be  made  to  Windsor  and  to  Eton,  where 
Prof.  Willis  will  discourse  on  the  architectural  features 
of  the  College.  On  Monday,  parts  of  London,  architec- 
turally interesting,  will  be  visited;  and  on  Tuesday 
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ing will  be  held  on  Wednesday,  in  the  Guildhall. 


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3'*  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  14,  1866. 

CONTENTS.— N"  237. 

NOTES-  — The  Three  Sir  William  Pelhams  of  Brocklesby, 
21  —  Folk-Lore :  Cure  for  "  Goitre  "  —  Elm-leaf  Folk-lore 
—  Shooting-star  Superstition,  24  —  Quevedo's  Sonnet  on 
Rome,  25  —  The  Poem  "  My  Mother,"  Ib.  —  Male  and 
Female  Births,  26  —  Portraits  of  Humphrey,  Duke  of 
Gloucester,  and  John  Kemp,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  — 
Squandering  —  Bobinet  —  Dryden  and  Milbourne  —  Whit- 
worth  and  Armstrong — The  Harringtons  —  A  Eemarkable 
Relic,  26. 

QUERIES :  —  Bell  Founder's  Name  wanted  —  Burials  above 
Ground  —  Carbon  Prints  —  Sir  Thomas  Chaloner  —  Chris- 
tian Ale  —  Devonshire  Dialects  —  "  Ecclesia  Omnium 
Sanctorum  vocat.  Semanes-chirche,  London "  —  Greek 
Remains  in  India  —  Heraldic  Works  —  Hildebert  — 
Emanuel  Howe  —  Meaning  of  "  Howard  "  —  La  Vendee  — 
Leprosy  in  England  —  Poetical  Canon  —  Colonel  Bullen 
Rhemes— Rule  of  St.  Benedict— Selling  a  Wife— Southey's 
Essay  —  Swallows  building  in  London  —  Terra-Cotta,  27. 

QUERIES  WITH  ANSWERS  :  —  English  Nursery  Tales :  Hicka- 
thrift  and  Hurlothrumbo  —  Lord  Braxfield  —  Peeler  — 
Dr.  Pattisson  —  Quotations  —  A  Wartern,  SO. 

REPLIES:  — Epitaphs  Abroad:  the  Carmichaels  of  that 
Ilk,  31  — D'Ewes,  33  — St.  Michael,  Ib.  —  Starboard  and 
Larboard,  35  —  Princess  Poniatowski :  the  Ryves'  Case  — 
Cealchyth  —  Truck  —  The  "  Midnight  Review  "  —  Portrait 
of  Barueveldt  —  Walking  under  a  Ladder  —  Epitaph  at 
Oakham  —  Citations  for  Verification— Letterist :  Blue  — 
Epigram  on  Frederick  the  Great— 43rd  Light  Infantry— 
Abracadabra  —  Beacons  —  Almack's  —  "  Conversations  on 
Church  Polity,"  by  a  Lady  —  Telegram  and  Photogram  — 
"  Lazy  Lawrence  "  —  Cursive  Hebrew  —  Spanish  Dollars- 
Hall  and  Benefield,  &c.,  35.  i 

Notes  on  Books,  &c. 


In  the  family  of  the  Pelhams  of  Brocklesby,  in 
Lincolnshire,  ancestors  of  the  Earls  of  Yarborough, 
there  was  a  lineal  succession  of  three  Sir  William 
Pelhams — one  in  each  of  the  reigns  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  James  I.,  and  Charles  I. 

The  first  Sir  William  Pelham— the  Sir  William 
of  the  reign  of  Elizabeth— stands  among  the  heroic 
men  of  that  glorious  period.  The  volume  of 
Leicester  Correspondence  published  by  the  Camden 
Society  contains  convincing  evidence  of  his  repu- 
tation as  a  daring  soldier — a  reputation  which  is 
well  borne  out  by  a  singular  narrative  published 
in  that  same  volume  of  one  of  his  most  resolute 
achievements,  the  enforced  surrender  of  Deventer. 
Nor  was  his  soldiership  without  some  admixture 
of  qualities  of  a  totally  different  character.  Mrt 
Yeowell  has  kindly  pointed  out  to  me  that  Sir 
William  contributed  the  following  recommend- 
atory lines  prefixed,  with  others  from  Drake,  Haw- 
kins, Frobisher,  and  others  of  the  most  distin- 
guished men  of  adventure  of  the  time,  to  Sir 
George  Peckham's  True  Report  of  Sir  Humphrey 
Gilbert's  Discovery  of  Newfoundland,  London,  4to 

Like  as  the  Fishes  breeding  in  the  deepe, 

Through  all  the  Ocean  are  allowed  to  raung : 
Not  forst  in  any  certain  boundes  to  keepe, 

But  as  their  motions  carry  them  to  chaung, 
To  men  like  libertie  dooth  reason  giue  : 
In  choise  of  soile,  through  all  the  world  to  Hue. 
To  valiaunt  mindes  each  land  is  a  natiue  soile, 

And  vertue  findes  no  dwelling  place  amis. 
Regard  of  honour  measures  not  the  toyle, 

To  seeke  a  seat  wherein  contentment  is. 
That  seat,  that  soile,  that  dwelling  place  of  rest : 
In  this  discourse,  most  liuelie  is  exprest. 
"Our  forren  neighbours  bord'ring  hard  at  hand, 

Haue  found  it  true,  to  many  a  thousands  gaine : 
And  are  inritcht  by  this  abounding  land, 

While  pent  at  home,  like  sluggardes  we  remaine. 
But  though  they  haue,  to  satisfie  their  will, 
Inough  is  left,  our  cofers  yet  to  fill. 
"  Then  England  thrust  among  them  for  a  share, 

Since  title  just,  and  right  is  wholie  thine  : 
And  as  I  trust  the  sequell  shall  declare, 

Our  lucke  no  worse,  then  theirs  before  hath  beene. 
For  where  the  attempt  on  vertue  dooth  depend : 
No  doubt  but  God  will  blesse  it  in  the  ende. 


This  distinguished  worthy  lies  in  the  church 
of  Brocklesby,  which  contains  a  handsome  monu- 
ment to  his  memory,  and  that  of  his  wife,  the 
Lady  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Henry  Neville,  Earl  of 

The  inscription  on  this  monument,  for  a  copy 
of  which  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  the 
Rev.  Charles  Barnard,  the  rector  of  the  parish, 
well  deserves  to  be  commemorated  in  your 
pages:  — 

"  Hie  jacet  Gvill.  Pelham  'miles,  ivventute  sua  apud 
Scotos,  Gallos  et  Ungaros  ob  militiam  celeberrimus,  in  pro- 
vectiore  setate  apud  Hibernos  regni  praefectus,  apud  Belgas 
exercitus  marischallus,  mvnitionis  bellicae  sub  augustis: 
principe  Regina  Elizabetha  promagister. 

"  In  uxorem  duxit  D'nam  Eleonoram  Henrici  Comitis 
Westmerlandiae  filiam,  quse  hie  simul  sepulta  jacet.  De 
ea  tres  filios  totidemq:  filias  genuit,  e  quibus  tres  adhuc 
sunt  superstites,  quorum  senior  Will,  monumentum  istud 
in  perpetuam  parentum  memoriam  consecravit.  Obiit 
Flissingae  mense  Decernb.  1587. 

"  Boathe  liv'd  at  once,  but  not  at  once  did  die, 
Shee  first,- Hee  laste,  yet  boathe  together  lie  ; 
Hee  great  in  deedes  of  armes,  shee  great  in  byrthe, 
Hee  wise,  shee  chaste,  both  now  resolv'd  to  yearthe ; 
Needes  must  ye  slender  shrubbes  expect  their  fall 
When  statelye  oakes  fall  downe  and  cedars  tall. 
Bragge  not  of  valovre  for  yis  worthy  Knighte 
Mightye  in  armes  by  death  hath  loste  his  mighte ; 
Boaste  not  of  Honovr,  nobler  was  there  none 
Than  Lady  Ellenore  that  now  is  gonne. 
Joye  not  too  much  in  yowthe  these  children  three 
Were  as  yow  are,  as  they  are  shall  yow  bee." 

The  courage  of  Sir  William  Pelham  was  tried 
not  merely  in  the  field,  but  apparently  by  troubles 
both  domestic  and  official.  In  the  course  of  his 
employment  as  Lieutenant- General  of  the  Ord- 
nance 'he  got  into  difficulties  with  the  government 
on  the  subject  of  his  accounts.  This  was  a  tender 
point  with  the  Virgin  Queen.  The  Leicester  Cor- 
respondence and  unpublished  letters  of  Sir  Wil- 



[3'd  S  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

liam  contain  evidence  that  not  even  the  memory 
of  his  past  services  could  for  a  long  time  induce 
the  queen  to  overlook  his  mistakes  or  irregularities 
in  this  respect;  and  his  will  explains  that  her 
majesty's  lien  upon  his  lands  (which  included 
Newstead  and  Grace-Dieu)  was  ultimately  en- 
forced under  a  writ  of  extent. 

When  read  in  connection  with  the  inscription 
on  his  monument,  his  will  reveals  another  source 
of  trouble.  The  monument  commemorates  "but  one 
of  his  marriages — that  with  Lady  Eleanor  Neville. 
The  will  proves  that  after  her  death  he  married 
Dorothy,  a  daughter  of  Anthony  Catesby  of 
Whiston,  co.  Northampton,  and  widow  of  Sir 
Robert  Dormer  of  Ascot,  co.  Bucks.  By  this  lady  Sir 
William  had  a  second  family,  but  the  blood  of  the 
Nevilles  disdained  to  intermingle  with  that  of  the 
Catesbys,  and  the  monumental  inscription  wholly 
ignores  the  second  marriage  and  the  second 
family,  and  thus  confirms  the  suspicion  excited  by 
a  proviso  in  Sir  William's  will  that  his  widow 
Dorothy  should  occupy  his  house  at  Eythrop,  in 
Buckinghamshire,  and  enjoy  the  benefit  of  her 
marriage  settlement,  "  without  the  let  of  William 
Pelham,"  the  testator's  son  and  heir. 

In  the  second  Sir  William  Pelham  —  the  Sir 
William  of  the  reign  of  James  I.,  and  the  gentle- 
man who  erected  the  monument  upon  which  we 
have  been  commenting — there  was  united  a  more 
decided  tinge  of  study  and  literature  to  something 
of  the  heroic  character  of  his  father.     Anthony 
Wood  tells  us  that,  born  in  London  "near  or  in 
the  Tower" — doubtless  in  the  official  residence  of 
his  father  as  Lieut. -General  of  the  Ordnance — 
he  became  the  fellow-commoner  of  New  College 
in  the  beginning  of  1582,  at  the  age  of  fourteen ; 
that  he  continued  "  a  sedulous  student  there  for 
at  least  two  years,  in  a  chamber  within  one  of  the 
turrets  of  the  college  wall  that  encompasses  the 
garden,"  and  that  afterwards  he  travelled  and  im- 
proved his  learning  in  the  universities  of  Stras- 
burg,    Heidelberg,   Wittenberg,    Leipsic,    Paris, 
and   (Wood  adds)   Geneva, — which  last  is  not 
mentioned  by  the  only  other  authority.     After  all 
this   experience   of    foreign    scholarship,   he   re- 
turned to  Oxford;  but  "  Mars  distracted  him  from 
the  studies  of  Minerva,"  as  he  .himself  used  to  say, 
and,  without  waiting  for  a  degree,  he  took  ser- 
vice, probably  under  the  Prince  of  Orange,  and 
was  present  in  many  battles,  sieges,  &c.,  "  not 
without  wounds."     "  When  that  planet  was  set," 
according  to  the  words   of  Anthony  Wood,  he 
married  Anne,  daughter  of  Charles  Lord  Wil- 
loughby  of  Parham,  retired  to  Brocklesby,  and 
passed  a  useful  life  in  extricating  the  encumbered 
estate  of  his  father  out  of  its  pecuniary  difficul- 
ties, in  bringing  up  the  survivors  of  a'family  of 
twenty  children,  in  executing  the  duties  of  "his 
station  as  a  magistrate,  and  in  pursuing  various 
literary  studies,   principally  in  connection  with 

the  Sacred  Scriptures.  One  of  his  works,  entitled 
Meditations  upon  the  Gospel  of  St.  John,  was  printed 
at  London,  1625,  12mo ;  and  many  others  are 
enumerated  upon  his  monument  as  remaining  in 
manuscript.  I  have  not  seen  either  the  one  in 
print,  or  those  in  manuscript. 

There  is   a  monument  to  him  in  Brocklesby 
church,  and  it  is  a  paper  relating  to  that  monu- 
ment which  has  directed  my  attention  to  the  pre- 
sent subject.     Among  certain  documents  belong- 
ing to  the  series  of  State  Papers  in  the>  Public 
Record  Office  lately  put  into  a  state  of  arrange- 
ment under  the  direction  of  the  Master  of  the 
Rolls,  there  occurs  the  original  of  the  following 
contract   or   agreement  for  the   erection   of  the 
monument  alluded  to.     The  instructive  minute- 
ness of  its  details,  and  the  fact  that  it  mentions  the 
name  of  the  sculptor — one  of  those  ingenious  men 
whose  works  are  met  with  all  over  the  kingdom,  but 
whose   names   are  very  seldom  recoverable — are 
among  the  reasons  which  induce  me  to  hope  that 
you  will  deem  it  worthy  of  publication.     It  ap- 
pears from  the  manuscript  itself  that  the  paper 
was  prepared  by  Wright  the  sculptor,  with  blanks 
left  in  it  for  the  name  of  his  customer,  the  orderer 
of  the  monument,  the  name  of  the  parish  church 
in  which  it  was  to  be  erected,  and  the  several 
amounts  to  be  paid  to  him  for  his  work.     These 
particulars  were   ultimately  inserted  by  Wright 
himself,  and  are  distinguished  by  italics  in  the 
following  copy.     In  explanation  of  the  interfer- 
ence of  Lord  Conway,  it  may  be  mentioned,  that 
it  appears  from  the  return  to  the  inquisition  taken 
after  the  death  of  the  second  Sir  William  Pelham 
that,  by  way  of  legal  protection,  all  his  lands  had 
been  conveyed  to  certain  feoffees,  of  whom  Lord 
Conway,  then  Sir  Edward  Conway,  was  the  chief. 
The  paper  reads  as  follows :  — 

An°  in  the  yeare  1629,  The  daye  of  the  month  the 
20th  Nouember. 

"•  It  is  barganed,  Indented,  and  agreed,  betwene  The 
Right  Honorable  The  Lo.  Vy count  Conwaye,  Lo.  President 
of  the  Priuye  Counsell,  of  the  one  party,  and  William 
Wright  grauor  in  stone,  of  the  other  party  :  First  of  all, 
William  Wright,  for  himselfe,  his  executors,  administra- 
tors, or  assings,  doeth  coeuenaunt  (wich  God's  helpe),  To 
and  with  the  saide  Lo.  Vycount  Conwaye,  his  executors, 
administrators,  or  assings,  That  he  the  saide  William 
Wright  shall  frame  artificially,  and  worcke  substantially, 
One  comely  monument,  according  to  a  plott  drawne  by 
the  hands  of  William  Wright  in  this  manner.  Imprimis, 
the  lower  stepp,  for  the  foundation,  of  Portland  stone. 
The  second  stepp  and  botle*  of  allibaster  of  the  best  sorter 
uppon  which  is  to  knelle,  in  the  best  of  allibaster,  and 
best  of  worckemanshipp,  all  the  memorable  issew,  living 
and  dead,  of  the  Eight  Wor'hiFPfu11  and  worth}'  knight, 
Sir  William  Pelham,  and  of  his  deare  Lady  Ann  Pelham, 
and  lickewisse  euery  of  them ;  to  be  maide  in  such  seuerall 
babbitts,  fashions,  and  attyres,  in  all  kinds  skillfully,  as 
direcktion  shalbe  giuen :  In  knelling  posture,  the  hands 
of  those  that  ar  liuing  lifted  up  in  shew  of  prayer,  wth 
2  boockes  and  one  deske  betwene  ye  2  eldest,  to  be  in 

*  A  circular  moulding. 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



higth  halfe  a  yarde.  And  the  younger  and  the  youngest 
sorte,  in  diminishing  vollem,  to  shewt  best  to  the  better 
contriuing  and  fitnes  of  the  place.  Those  that  ar  dead  to 
haue  death's  heads  in  there  hands,  expressing  there  de- 
parture. And  one  ech  side,  or  end,  for  strength  and 
beawty,  is  to  be  tow  pillasters  of  allibaster,  inlay d  with 
bright  shinning  tutch,  glaszed  fayrely.  And  according 
as  it  is  subscribed  in  the  plott,  is'to  be  3  dessent  comely 
shallow  arches,  The  botle  and  4  coynes  of  the  freese  alli- 
baster, With  4  lions'  heads  imbosted  outone  the  same,  as 
it  is  in  the  ploot.  The  frese  it  selfe  of  blacke  shinning 
tutch.  The  Tombe  is  to  be  maide  Aurthurewisse  against 
the  wall,  and  ech  end  thereof  is  to  be  the  vnited  match 
of  Sir  William  Pelham,  Knight,  and  the  lady  Anne  Pel- 
ham,  veryfayre  in  the  best  allibaster,  With  boeth  Creasts 
of  Honor  one  the  topp  of  there  schochin,  to  be  imbosted 
forth  exceeding  artificially,  as  direcktion  shalbe  giuen. 
Moreover  there  is  to  be  a  beawtifull  Cornish  ledger  hewed 
forth  of  blacke  shinning  tutch,  glaszed  fairely,  one  which 
is  to  rest  the  tow  lately  portratures,  Sir  William  Pelham, 
Knight,  and  his  deare  beloued  Lady,  the  Lady  Ann  Pel- 
ham,  boeth  of  them  exacktly  well  to  be  maide,  in  the 
best  choyce  allibaster  and  cheiffest  of  worckemanshipp  : 
In  vpright  forme  with  there  hands  lifted  vp  in  shew  of 
prayer,  resting  one  cushins  imbrodered,  Sir  William  Pel- 
ham,  Knight,  to  be  maide  in  his  honor  of  knighthood,  All 
in  compleat  armor,  with  his  sworde  g}rrtt  to  his  side,  and 
spurrs  one  his  hceles,  And  helme,  if  vou  please  vnder  his 
head,  With  his  Creast  of  honor  at  his' feet  also.  Further- 
more, in  the  exacktest  manner  lickewisse,  is  to  be  maide 
in  one  whole  stone  of  allibaster,  The  Right  wor.  Lady, 
the  Lady  Ann  Pelham,  to  be  maide  in  the  grauest  manner, 
with  her  vayle  and  dressing  and  other  ornaments  and 
habitt,  in  all  kind?,  worckemanlicke  to  be  maide,  as  di- 
recktion shalbe  giuen,  with  her  Creast  of  Honor  at  her 
feet  also.  Boeth  partyes  to  be  maide  with  much  care  and 
circumspecktion,  and  as  neare  as  may  be  according  to  the 
direcktion  ;  to  be  licke  there  fauors'simily  and  lickenes. 
Moreouer  for  pleasaunt  Beawty  and  necessity,  is  to  be  a 
table  of  blacke  shinning  tutch  :  for  the  inscription,  to  be 
in  higth  18  inches,  and  in  bredth  3  foote,  and  such  in- 
scription to  be  ingraved  as  direcktion  shalbe  giuen,  with  a 
margent  to  goe  round  the  blacke  shinning  table  of  tutch, 
of  white  allibaster.  And  tow  lions'  heads  for  comelines, 
as  it  is  in  the  plott :  with  a  vawse  of  the  best  mingled 
allibaster,  one  which,  within  a  margent,  And  within  and 
vnder  an  halfe  rounde  arch,  in  a  dainty  contriued  wave, 
is  to  be  the  cheife  patternall  Coott  armes,  of  the  honors 
of  the  Howse  of  the  Pelhams,  with  mantle,  helme,  sheilde 
and  creast,  to  be  in  width  tow  foote,  and  in  higth  tow 
foote  and  7  inches,  besids  the  margent  and  garnishing. 
This  worcke  to  be  in  width  seauen  foote  three  inches, 
besids  the  saylles  of  the  moulds.  And  a  xi  foot  and 
halfe  higth  :  All  and  euery  p*  to  be  of  the  best  choyce  of 
allibaster,  and  best  of  tutch  (excepting  the  portland 
stone,  which  is  for  the  foundation  of  the  lower  steep),  and 
cheiffest  of  worckemanship  ;  And  to  be  of  as  pleasant  and 
cornel}'  propoi-tkm  ;  euery  thinge  to  be  maide  autherwise, 
and  a  3qr.  Tombe,  against  a  walle,  with  the  guilding  the 
fillits  and  casements,  the  hayre  and  eyes  of  the  lions'  heads. 
The  Coote  armes,  matches",  Creast  of  Honors  and  mant- 
lings  cullered  and  guilt,  the  inscription  after  it  in- 
graued  to  be  guilt  fayrely.  And  all  the  tassells  of  the 
chilldren,  cushins  ingennerall  guilt,  And  the  chilldren  in 
gennerall  there  garments,  to  be  sadd  into  mourning  culler, 
blacke  or  elce  othenvaise  to  be  dunn,  in  all  poynts  ac- 
cording to  the  direcktion,  with  there  fasses  and  hands 
putt  into  liuely  cullers  as  neare  as  may  be  licke  them, 
the  fringe  and  leaues  of  there  boockes  guilt  fairely.  More- 
ouer in  the  most  circumspeckts  manner  is  to  be  the  face 
and  hands  of  Sir  William  Pelham,  Knight.  And  the 
Lady  Ann  Pelham,  to  be  cullered  in  shew  of  liffe,  and  as 

neare  as  may  be  to  be  licke  there  faaors  simily  and 
lickenes  with  the  tassells  and  imbrodering  of"  there 
Cushins  guilt,  with  the  naylles,  buckles,  chapp,  pomell  of 
his  sworde,  spurres,  and  all  that  belongs  to  the  armor  or 
armes  of  Sir  William  Pelham,  Knight,  guilt,  with  boeth 
Creasts  of  Honor,  at  there  feet.  And  the  inscription  after 
it  is  ingraued  guilt,  with  the  hayre  and  eyes  of  the  lions' 
heds  in  the  coeptment  forme  guilt.  And,  to  speacke 
truely,  whatsoeuer  elce  shalbe  thought  requisit  and  fitt, 
to  be  guilt  fairely.  All  this  and  besids  William  Wright 
is  to  prouide  Chests,  nayles,  and  cariedge  by  land  and 
by  watter,  bricke,  morter,  and  Iron  Cramps,  dyett  and 
lodging  at  his  chardge.  And  if  any  thinge  be'brocken 
in  carriedge,  William  Wright  is  to  macke  it  good  againe 
at  his  chardge.  And  to  that  purpose  William  Wright  is 
to  finish  all  the  whole  worcke  in  gennerall,  for  goodne.s 
of  stone,  skillfullnes  of  worcke,  euery  thinge,  And  to  be 
of  as  dessent  and  comely  proportion,  faithfully  and 
honestly.  And  to  be  as  'substantially  set  up,  guilding 
euery  needful  thing,  and  to  be  finished  as  aforesaide, 
with  God's  helpe,  as  it  ought,  at  or  before  Barthellmew 
next  in  the  yeare  1630,  for  theise  further  conciderations, 
in  the  psh  Church  of  Brockelsbye,  in  the  county  of  Lin- 
colne.  For  all  which  to  be  soe  faithfully  and  honestly 
performed  by  William  Wright,  his  he}Tres  or  assings, 
The  Lo.  Vycount  Conwaye,  Lo.  President  of  the  Priuye 
Counsell,  for  himselfe,  his  executors,  administrators,  or 
assings,  doeth  coeuenaunt  to  paye,  or  cause  to  be  paide, 
to  him  the  saide  William  Wright,  his  heyres  or  assings, 
the  full  and  entyre  some  of  one  Hundreth  pounds  cur- 
raunt  mony.  Whereof  giuen  in  £t  the  some  of  Tenne 
pounds.  And  when  all  things  shalbe  wrought  at  the 
howse  of  William  Wright,  Then  the  saide  Lo.  Vycount 
Conwaye  is  to  paye,  or  cause  to  be  paide,  his  second  pave- 
ment, being  Forty  pounds.  And  when  all  things  shalbe 
stroungly  sett,  neatly  clenssed  and  fairely  guilt  and 
finished/  according  to  William  Wright's  couenant,  then 
the  saide  Lo.  Vycount  Conwaye,  Lo.  President  of  the 
Priuye  Counsell,  is  to  paye,  or  cause  to  be  paide,  his 
thirde  and  last  payement/being  fiftie  pounds,  to  the  full 
sattisfacktion  and  contentment  of  him  the  saide  William 
Wright,  in  wittnes  whereof  ech  party  hath  Interchaung- 
gably  sett  there  hands  and  sealles,  according  to  the  daye 
and  yeare  first  aboue  written. 

"  WTILHAM  WRIGHT.        (L.S.)  * 

"  Sealed  and  delivered,  in  the 
pressents  of 
W.  Weld, 
Geo.  Rawden, 
Fra.  Egiocke."f 

[Endorsed]     "  Indenture  about  Sr  William 
Pelham's  Tombe." 

The  monument  thus  minutely  contracted  for, 
was  erected  and  still  remains  in  Brocklesby 
church.  It  answers  in  every  respect  to  the  descrip- 
tion in  the  contract,  save  that  the  unanticipated 
number  of  Sir  William's  family  rather  placed  the 
sculptor  in  a  difficulty.  By  an  awkward  little 
contrivance,  he  provided  for  some  of  the  youngest 
of  them  in  a  kind  of  ledge  outside  the  monument ; 
but  after  all,  was  only  able  to  find  room  for  nine- 
teen out  of  the  twenty.  The  following  is  believed 
to  be  an  accurate  copy  of  the  inscription,  which 

*  The  seal,  as  well  as  I  can  make  it  out,  is  a  chevron 
between  three  spears'  heads.  I  cannot  decipher  the  crest. 

t  These  were  all  persons  in  the  employ  of  Lord 


[3*«  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

still    remains    on    the    table    of  black    shining 
touch :  — 

"  WIIXIELMUS  PELHAM  nuper  de  Brocklesby  in  Com. 
Line,  eques  auratus,  in  celeberrimis  Academiis  Strasberg  : 
Heidelberg :  Wittenberg  :  Leipsick  :  Parisiens  :  et  Ox- 
oniens :  magna  cum  cura  educatus,  artibus  liberalibus 
imbutus,  et  linguas  Germanica,  Gallica,  Latina  (nee 
Graecaru  rudis)  non  solum  callens  seel  prompts  eloqui 
edoctus  :  ab  his  domiciliis  Mars  distraxit,  ubi  post  varias 
pugnas,  obsidiones,  etc.,  sed  non  sine  vulneribus,  rus  se 

"  Annam  filiam  Caroli  Willoughby,  baronis  de  Parr- 
ham,  castam  virginem,  connubio  sibi  junxit,ex  qua  liberos 
viginti  utriusque  sexus,  Dei  benedictione,  accepit,  quo- 
rum septem  filii  et  tres  filise  in  vivis  sunt,  vixerunt 
caeteri.  Reliquo  tempore  consumpto  justitiam  exequendo, 
orando,  scribendo,  pauperes  sublevando,  sacra  Biblia, 
antiquos  patres  et  neotericos,  legendo,  magnam  gloriam 
adeptus  est,  et  quod  in  his  profecerit  Meditationes  in  Sti. 
Johan.  Evangelium  editae,  Observationes  in  certos  Testa- 
mentorum,  tarn  veteris  quam  novi,  libros,  et  Diatribe  in 
Sacramentum  ccense  Domini  manu  sua  scripts  et  pos- 
teritati  reservatae  in  perpetuum  testabantur.  Hisce  rebus 
et  annis  circiter  sexaginta  transactis,  fide  in  Christum 
constant!,  et  charitate  erga  proximos  inviolabili,  placide 
in  Domino  obdormiens  spiritum  Deo,  patri  spirituum, 
corpus  terras  matri,  in  die  resurrectionis  magna  cum 
incremento  recepturus,  commendavit,  13  Julii,  anno 
Domini  1629." 

A  few  words  respecting  the  third  Sir  William 
Pelham  (the  Sir  William  of  the  reign  of  Charles  I.) 
will  bring  my  communication  to  a  conclusion. 
The  notice  of  this  Sir  William — and  indeed  of  all 
three  of  them — in  our  peerages  is  extremely  in- 
complete, and  it  is  only  on  that  account  that  the 
following  trifling  particulars  are  worthy  of  notice. 
The  circumstances  of  the  times  called  forth  in  the 
third  Sir  William  all  the  loyalty  if  not  the  indomi- 
table spirit  of  his  grandfather.  Probably  the  com- 
plete^arangement  of  the  State  Papers  of  that  period, 
now  in  progress,  will  bring  some  things  respecting 
him  to  light.  At  present  there  is  little  mention  of 
Mm  save  a  few  notices  of  the  life  he  led  at  Brock- 
lesby, before  the  commencement  of  the  public 
troubles.  In  1636  he  was  sheriff  of  his  county, 
and  had  to  clear  up  the  uncollected  remainder  of  a 
levy  of  ship-money.  The  task  was  a  most  disagree- 
able one,  and  he  ventured  to  interpose  some  legal 
doubts  whether  he  was  bound  to  execute  it.  The 
Council  deemed  his  suggestions  an  evidence  of 
disloyalty,  and  rebuked  him  sharply — greatly  to 
his  grief.  Brought  up  among  connexions  of  the 
court,  and  married  to  a  daughter  of  the  Lord 
Conway  before  mentioned,  a  sister  of  the  Lord 
Conway  who  commanded  the  King's  Horse  at 
Newburn,  when  the  Civil  Wars  approached,  Sir 
William's  course  was  a  decided  one.  His  wife 
died  early  in  1642.  When  later  in  the  same  year 
the  royal  standard  >as  displayed,  he  threw  him- 
self energetically  into  the  king's  cause :  raised  a 
body  of  cavalry  for  the  royal  service,  was  present 
at  Marston  Moor,  and,  according  to  a  tradition 
•which  I  have  seen  in  print,  although  I  do  not  re- 
member where,  died  shortly  afterwards  of  grief 

and  disappointment.  His  will,  which  contains  a 
provision  for  the  erection  of  a  monument  for  him- 
self and  his  wife,  was  dated  July  23,  1642  ;  and 
was  proved  in  London  on  February  16,  1647-8. 
The  monument  does  not  seem  to  have  been 

Probably  some  of  your  correspondents  will  be 
able  to  tell  us  a  great  deal  more  about  these 
three  Sir  Williams  and  their  monuments. 


5,  Upper  Gloucester  Street,  Dorset  Square. 


CURE  FOR  "  GOITRE."  —  I  was  lately  gravely 
assured  by  one  of  my  parishioners  that  there  was 
nothing  like  a  mole  for  the  cure  of  a  wen  in  the 
throat.     Regarding  this  as  a  specimen  of  Glou- 
cestershire folk-lore,  I  remarked  on  the  supersti- 
tious character  of  many  country  sayings  and  prac- 
tices, adding  that  it  required  a  rare  amount  of 
faith  to  credit  implicitly  such  a  statement.     Re- 
senting my  superstitious  theory,  two  women  in  the 
cottage  where  I  was  proceeded  to  give  the  proofs 
sartin  of  the  healing  power  of  the  flesh  of  the 
mole  in  such  cases.    The  curative  effects  of  the 
application  depended  on  the  sex,  "  a  female  want 
(mole)  warn't  no  use."     The  right  sex  secured, 
the  mole  must  be  cut  in  two,  and  the  divided 
parts  or  halves  fastened  to  the  throat,  so  as  to 
ensure  the  close  application  of  the  bleeding  parts, 
while  warm,  to  the  sides  of  the  tumour.     One 
would  imagine  that  the  healing  virtue  was  in  the 
warm  blood  of  the  animal  so  dissected.     The  very 
interesting  sequel  of  the  operation,  however,  would 
seem  to  render  this  doubtful.      The  mole   "is 
bound-"  to  be  kept  fastened  to  the  throat,  and 
must  not  be  removed  till  decomposition  is  suffi- 
ciently advanced  to  become  insufferably  offensive 
to  the  patient ;  in  short,  a  case  of  "  mole  ruit  sua  " 
appears  to  be  the  indispensable  stage  of  corrup- 
tion, to  spare,  I  presume,  the  necessity  of  removal ! 
I  beg  your  readers'  pardon,  I  smiled  ;  but  my  fair 
medicos  met  me  with  two  well-attested  cases  of 
cure,  the  infallibility  of  which  they  resolutely  de- 
fended.    A  relation  of  one  of  the  women,  who  suf- 
fered from  this  somewhat  prevalent  disease  in 
these  parts,  and  had  a  hideously  enlarged  throat, 
was  thoroughly  cured  by  the  operation  described, 
my  informant  herself  having  seen  six  or  seven 
moles  dug  out  (for  the  purpose)  before  the  re- 
quired sex  could  be  found.     The  other  instance 
was  that  of  a  young  girl  then  present,  whose  neck 
certainly  showed  no  trace  of  the  disease,  who, 
while  her  case  was  being  described,  hid  her  pretty 
face  in  her  mother's  apron,  blushing  for  my  ingul- 
libility.     Of  course  there  was  no  resisting  such 
evidence.     Will  any  of  your  folk-lore  contributors 

3'd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



relieve  a  Gloucestershire  sceptic  of  tlie  responsibi- 
lity of  thus  imposing  on  the  credulity  of  your 
leaders  ?  F.  PHILLOTT. 

ELM-LEAF  FOLK  LORE.  —  It  is  some  ten  years 
since  that  I  noted  in  these  pages  the  following 
versical  advice  on  one  of  the  gardening  operations 
of  spring :  — 
"  When  elm  leaves  are  as  big  as  a  shilling, 

Plant  kidney-beans,  if  to  plant  'em  you're  willing ; 

When  elm  leaves  are  as  big  as  a  penny, 

You  must  [plant  kidney-beans,  if  you  mean  to  have 

An  article  on  "  the  Sowing  of  Barley  "  in  The 
Field  for  April  28,  contains  a  companion  piece  of 
folk  lore  to  the  above.  I  extract  the  passage  :  — 

"  Those  learned  in  old  saws  will  remember  that  the  leaf- 
ing of  the  '  elmen '  tree  was  made  to  regulate  operations 
both  in  the  field  and  in  the  garden,  as  thus  :  — 
"  When  the  elmen  leaf  is  as  big  as  a  mouse's  ear, 
Then  to  sow  barley  never  fear. 
When  the  elmen  leaf  is  as  big  as  an  ox's  eye, 
Then  says  I, '  Hie,  boys !  hie ! '  " 


donshire woman  was  telling  me  of  the  death  of 
her  baby,  on  June  5,  after  five  days'  illness.  She 
said  :  "I  had  a  warning  that  it  was  to  go.  The 
night  before  it  was  took  I  was  passing  your  gate, 
Sir,  and  a  great  star  fell  down  from  the  sky 
plump  afore  me.  It  did  not  go  into  the  ground, 
but  burst  about  a  foot  above  the  road.  As  soon 
as  I  got  home  I  told  mother  about  it,  and  said  it 
was  a  warning  for  some  one.  She  said,  '  Perhaps 
it's  for  grandfather.'  I  said,  '  May  be,  mother ; 
but  I  fear  it's  for  some  one  nigher.'  The  next  day 
my  poor  babe  was  took." 

This  superstition  of  the  falling  or  shooting  star, 
thus  met  with  in  a  remote  village  of  Huntingdon- 
shire, has  I  think  an  Eastern  origin.  Do  not  the 
Arabs  believe  that  the  falling-star  is  Azrael's 
summons  for  death  ?  CUTHBERT  BEDE. 


The  epigram  of  Janus  Vitalis  has  been  appro- 
priated by  a  cotemporary  poet,  Joachim  du 
Bellay,  who  has  been  termed  the  French  Ovid. 
Du  Bellay  was  bom  in  1492,  and  died  in  1560 — 
the  same  year  in  which  Vitalis  died.  He  wrote 
a  poem  of  thirty-two  stanzas  on  "  The  Ruines  of 
Rome,"  which  Spenser  translated,  the  third  of 
which  is  taken  bodily  from  Vitalis :  — 

"  Thou  Stranger,  which  for  Rome  in  Rome  here  seekest, 
And  nought  of  Rome  in  Rome  perceivest  at  all, 
These  same  old  walls,  old  arches,  which  thou  see'st, 
Old  palaces,  is  that  which  ROME  men  call. 

*  Continued  from  p.  448. 

Behold  what  wreck,  what  ruin,  and  what  waste, 
And  how  that  she,  which  with  her  mighty  power 
Tamed  all  the  world,  hath  tamed  herself  at  last ; 
The  prey  of  Time,  which  all  things  doth  devour ! 
Rome  now  of  Rome  is  th'  only  funeral, 
And  only  Rome  of  Rome  hath  victory ; 
Ne  ought  save  Tyber  hast'ning  to  his  fall 
Remains  of  all.    O  World's  inconstancy ! 
That  which  is  firm  doth  flit  and  fall  away, 
And  that  is  flitting  doth  abide  and  stay  !  " 

Quevedo  took  his  sonnet,  as  appears  to  me,  not 
directly  from  Vitalis  but  from  Bellay,  as  the  two 
stanzas  which  follow  plainly  show :  e.  g.  see 
the  allusion  to  the  Palatine  hill,  and  line  65, 
stanza  5 :  — 

"  The  corpse  of  Rome  in  ashes  is  entombed." 



In  The  Athenceum  of  May  12th  appeared  a  para- 
graph commending  this  poem  as  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  lyrics  in  any  language,  but  complaining 
that,  after  an  unequalled  description  of  a  mother's 
care  and  kindness,  the  last  verse  gives  as  the  only 
reason  why  a  child  is  never  to  despise  its  mother — 
the  fear  of  God's  vengeance.  The  article  com- 
plains that  the  poem  "'is  spoilt  by  the  introduc- 
tion of  what  was  not  uncommon  in  the  little  songs 
formerly  written  for  children,  a  bit  of  religion,  no 
matter  what,  thrust  in  no  matter  how ;  something 
good,  as  a  piece  of  form  and  propriety."  Then 
follows  the  extraordinary  proposal,  "that  it  be 
remitted  to  £he  Laureate,  in  the  name  of  all  the 
children  in  England,  to  supply  a  closing  verse 
which  shall  give  a  motive  drawn  from  the  verses 
which  precede,  and  in  accordance  with  the  one 
immediately  preceding."  The  writer  gravely 
doubts  if  even  the  Laureate  will  find  it  easy  to 
satisfy  reasonable  expectation :  but  hopes  he  will 

Surely  all  this  is  sadly  overdone.  The  poem 
hardly  deserves  praise  so  extravagant,  though 
it  has  much  merit,  and  has  been  a  great  favourite. 
No  sensible  person  could  approve  of  thrusting 
in  irrelevant  "bits  of  religion"  into  songs  for 
children,  as  a  mere  "piece  of  form  and  pro- 
priety;" but  no  one  with  a  proper  sense  of  the 
importance  of  religion  would  object  to  a  judicious 
introduction  of  religious  maxims,  to  help  to  "  train 
up  a  child  in  the  way  in  which -he  should  go." 
It  is  by  no  means  difficult  in  such  introductions  to 
keep  free  of  cant  and  formality,  and  still  to  render 
them  both  acceptable  and  profitable  to  the  infant 

In  the  poem,  however,  before  us  the  last  verse 
is  certainly  open  to  much  objection.  After  de- 
tailing all  a  mother's  claims  to  her  child's  affec- 
tion, the  poem  finishes  with  an  abrupt  reference 
to  the  vengeance  which  would  follow  the  opposite 
extreme  of  contempt :  — 


[3'dS.X.  JULY  14, '66. 

"  For  God  who  lives  above  the  skies, 
Would  look  with  vengeance  in  his  eyes, 
If  I  should  ever  dare  despise 

My  Mother." 

The  writer  in  The  Athenaeum  proceeded  on  the 
supposition  that  the  author  of  this  little  poem  was 
not  now  living.  Great  was  his  surprise,  therefore,  to 
receive  a  letter  from  the  lady,  who  wrote  it  about 
sixty  years  ago— then  Miss  Ann  Taylor,  now  Mrs. 
•Gilbert— admitting  the  justice  of  his  objection  to 
•the  final  verse,  and  sending  in  its  place  the  folio w- 
-ing :  — 

"  For  could  our  Father  in  the  skies 
Look  down  with  pleased  or  loving  eyes 
If  ever  I  could  dare  despise 

My  Mother  ?  " 

But  this,  in  my  opinion,  does  not  fully  meet  the 
objection,  nor  supply  what  is  otherwise  required. 
There  is  still  the  abrupt  and  unnatural  transition 
from  the  extreme  of  fondness  to  its  very  opposite  ; 
and  the  fear  of  our  heavenly  Father  is  still  put 
forward  as  the  only  motive,  to  the  exclusion  of 
His  love.  Before  I  saw  the  author's  new  verse  it 
tad  occurred  to  me  that  in  accordance  with  the 
penultimate  verse,  which  supposes  the  mother  to 
be  upon  her  death-bed,  and  likewise  as  expressive 
of  the  natural  motive  of  a  return  of  love  for  long 
maternal  care  and  affection,  the  poem  might  appro- 
priately end  with  the  two  following  verses :  —  ' 

And  when  at  last  the  bitter  day 

Shall  come,  when  thou  art  called  away, 

I'll  fondly  kiss  thy  lifeless  clay, 

My  Mother. 

And  think  that  my  return  of  love 
God,  Avho  beholds  "me,  will  approve, 
.And  bless  us  both  in  realms  above, 
My  Mother. 

F.  0.  H. 


The  following  statement  will  probably  attract 
the  attention  of  those  interested  in  the  statistics 
\)f  the  census.  No  visible  result  is  more  demon- 
strative of  a  superintending  Providence  than  the 
uniform  recurrence  of  a  regulated  proportion, 
iiearly  amounting  to  equality,  between  the  num- 
ber of  male  and  of  female  children  respectively 
born.  And  even  departures  (or  alleged  depar- 
tures from  it)  point  forcibly  to  the  same  conclu- 
sion. Thus  it  has  been  stated,  I  know  not  on 
•what  authority,  that  in  France,  after  the  close 
of  the  great  war,  by  which  the  male  population 
had  been  reduced,  the  proportion  of  male  births 
considerably  exceeded  that  of  females  for  some 
years  subsequent  to  1815:  whilst  in  Australia, 
where  population  was  sparse,  and  for  a  long  period 
after  the  formation  of  the  various  colonies  consisted 
tnainly  of  males,  the  proportion  of  female  births 
during  the  transitional  period  greatly  exceeded 

that  of  males.  How  far  these  statements  are  true 
I  have  no  ready  means  of  ascertaining. 

But  the  fact  to  which  I  wish  to  call  attention, 
if  less  suggestive,  is  not  more  Curious  than  the 
above.  In  the  Royal  Hibernian  Military  School 
at  Dublin,  which  "is  maintained  exclusively  for 
educating  the  children  of  soldiers,  it  is  the  prac- 
tice to  require  from  applicants  the  particulars  of 
the  number  of  their  children  of  both  sexes.  Thus, 
in  Class  iv.,  the  children  admitted  are  the  off- 
spring of  soldiers,  both  parents  being  alive  at  the 
time  of  petitioning;  and  dates  of  marriage  and 
births  must  all  be  authenticated  by  attested  cer- 
tificates. From  a  return  which  I  have  had  sent  to 
me  by  Dr.  Templeton,  the  medical  head  of  the 
institution,  showing  the  numbers  of  male  and 
female  children  in  the  families  of  soldiers  so  ap- 
plying during  the  last  thirty  years,  from  183G  to 
1865,  it  appears  that,  in  749  families,  the  number 
of  male  children  was  2,120,  and  that  of  females 
1,341,  making  a  total  of  3,461 :  being  an  excess  of 
males  above  females,  in  the  proportion  of  nearly  two 
to  one. 

And  the  interest  of  this  result  is  the  more 
striking,  as  it  is  nearly  uniform  in  single  years 
throughout  the  entire  period.  Thus  :  — 

In  1836     118  male  children    68  female  children. 

1837  62  „  31  „ 

1838  41  „  32 

1846  48  „  29            „ 

1853  112  „  66 

1860  140  „  86            „ 

1865  143  „  81 

The  intermediate  dates  are  omitted,  merely  to 
save  your  space. 

It  will  be  observed  that  by  taking  this  Class  iv., 
in  which  both  parents  are  "living  and  their  off- 
spring particularized,  the  obscurity  of  second 
marriages  is  avoided,  and  illegitimate  births  are 
excluded.  The  return  includes  all  born  in  wed- 
lock, whether  living  or  dead.  These  facts  con- 
nected with  births  in  the  army  seem  worthy  of 
further  consideration.  J.  EMERSON  TENNENT. 

TERBURY. —  Such  is  the  title  accorded  in  the 
Official  Catalogue  of  the  National  Portrait  Exhi- 
bition to  picture  No.  27.  I  apprehend  that  one 
of  the  many  advantages  of  the  Exhibition,  for 
which  the  present  and  future  generations  will 
have  to  do  honour  to  Lord  Derby,  will  be  an 
opportunity  for  correcting  and  properly  identi- 
fying the  titles  of  supposed,  but  fictitious,  por- 
traits. The  picture  in  question  has  in  its  right 
hand  corner  the  arms  of  Tate  impaling  Wood;  and 
no  doubt — since  it  is  clearly  an  altar  piece,  or  the 
panel  of  a  tomb  —  formed  part  of  the  memorial 
erected  to  Sir  Robert  Tate,  Lord  Mayor  of  Lon- 

3'd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 


don  in  1489 — probably  in  the  Royal  Free  Chapel 
of  St.  Mary  de  Berking,  where  he  was  buried. 

To  claim  these  figures  as  contemporary  por- 
traits -of  the  persons  described  seems  absurd  under 
the  circumstances.  They  were  formerly  in  the 
famous  collection  at  Strawberry  Hill,  made  by 
Horace  Walpole  j  and  on  the  sale  of  this  collec- 
tion came  into  the  possession  of  the  Duke  of 
Sutherland,  having  been  lent  to  the  Exhibition 
by  the  present  Duke.  I  fear  they  can  have  no 
better  claim  to  the  title  given  them  than  the 
Avhim  of  the  inventive  mind  of  Walpole,  or  even 
the  unscrupulous  device  of  some  clever  auctioneer. 
See  the  whole  subject  discussed  in  The  Gentle- 
mans  Magazine  for  July  1842,  p.  24 ;  and  The 
Transactions  of  the  London  and  Middlesex  Arch&o- 
logical  Society,  vol.  ii.  pp.  245-7. 


SQUANDERING. — This  is  a  favourite  adjective  in 
Huntingdonshire.  Its  meaning  may  be  gathered 
from  the  following  examples  recently  noted  by 
me :  — 

"  It's  a  great  squandering  church,  too  big  for  such  a 
little  parish,  and  very  cold  in  the  winter.  It  would  be  a 
great  improvement  to  put  a  cieling  in "  (t.  e.  a  flat, 
plaster  ceiling). 

"  It's  a  squandering  farm  :  a  field  here  and  a  field 
there.  It  don't  lie  together." 

"  He's  a  squandering  rider.  He  sits  about,  all  over  his 


ROBINET.  —  There  are  many  families  of  this 
name  at  Yaxley,  Hunts,  and  its  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood. I  have  been  told  that  they  are  of 
French  extraction  j  and  French  names  are  to  be 
occasionally  met  with  in  that  vicinity,  as  a  few 
persons  who  had  been  among  the  French  pri- 
soners at  the  Norman  Cross  prison,  between 
Yaxley  and  Stilton,  married  and  settled  near  to 
the  scene  of  their  captivity.  But  is  not  Robinet 
an  English  name,  the  diminutive  of  Robin? 
Dray  ton,  in  The  Old  (1593),  has  the  following 
couplet :  — 

"  Covering  with  moss  the  dead's  enclosed  eye, 
The  little  Robinet  teacheth  Charity." 


DRYDEN  AND  MILBOURNE.  —  The  cause  of 
quarrel  between  Dryden  and  Milbourne  is,  I  be- 
lieve, still  unknown,  and  it  is  in  the  hope  of 
throwing  a  little  light  on  the  subject  that  I  ven- 
ture to  make  the  following  note.  I  have  now 
before  me — 

"  The  Comparison  of  Pindar  and  Horace.  Written  in 
French  by  Monsieur  Blondel,  Master  in  the  Mathematicks 
to  the  Dauphin.  English'd  by  Sir  Edward  Sherburn, 
Kt.  London:  Printed  for  Tho.  Bennet,  at  the  Half- 
Moon  in  St.  Paul's  Churchyard.  1696.  8vo." 

This  work  is  not  mentioned  by  Watt  or  Lowndes. 
At  the  end  there  is  a  Catalogue  of  Books  printed 
for  Bennet,  and  amongst  others  the  following  is 

advertised :   "  The  First  Book  of  Virgil's 
made  English,  by  Mr.  Luke  Milburn."     Quarto. 

No  notice  of  this  translation  is  to  be  found  in 
Watt  or  Lowndes,  either  under  the  heads  of 
"  Virgil "  or  under  t(  Milbourne,"  so  I  presume* 
that  the  work  is  unknown  to  bibliographers. 

Probably  the  failure  of  his  own  translation,  and 
the  extraordinary  success  of  Dryden's,  induced. 
Milbourne  to  attack  the  latter  so  virulently  in  the 
Notes  upon  Viryil,  1698.  W.  T.  BROOKE. 

WHITWORTH  AND  ARMSTRONG. — It  is  a  curious 
fact  that  among  the  Captains  of  the   Finsbury 
target  (men  who  may  be  considered  as  the  best 
shots  of  the  respective  years),  James  Whitworth 
should  appear  as  prizeman  in  1719,  and  G.  Arm- 
strong in  1725.     Coming  events  sometimes  cast  , 
their  shadows  before  very  curiously. 


THE  HARRINGTONS. — Between  fifty  and  sixty 
years  ago  I  remember  a  rather  large"  old  house 
built  of  stone,  standing  in  a  retired  part  of  the 
then  (alas !  now  how  changed)  beautiful  village 
of  Bourton-on-the-Water,  Gloucestershire.  At 
that  time  it  was  occupied  by  the  family  of  a  rich . 
farmer  named  Hall ;  but,  according  to  the  tra- 
ditions of  the  village,  had  formerly  been  the  re- 
sidence of  Lady  Harrington,  widow  of  a  Sir  John  - 
Harrington,  the  particulars  of  whose  history  I  now 
entirely  forget.  A.  C.  M. 

A  REMARKABLE  RELIC. — I  hardly  know  under 
what  heading  to  enter  the  semi-anecdote  I  am 
about  to  relate.  Some  years  ago  I  was  conversing- 
with  a  poor  woman  in  Oxfordshire,  and,  in  the 
course  of  conversation,  she  informed  me  that  a. 
friend  or  relative  of  her  own  (I  forget  which)  had 
been  servant  to  a  gentleman,  with  whom  he  had 
travelled  in  the  East :  "  And  among  other  things 
which  they  showed  him  at  Jerusalem  and  those 
parts,  he  saw  the  pulpit  which  our  Saviour 
preached  in !" 

This  valuable  curiosity  appears  to  me  quite- 
worthy  of  companionship  with  any  of  the  start- 
ling relics  of  antiquity  vouched  for  by  our  ancient, 
worthy,  and  not  too  incredulous  friend  Sir  John 
Mandeville.  HERMENTRUDE. 

BELL  FOUNDER'S  NAME  WANTED.  —  There  are- 
several  bells  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bury  St. 
Edmunds,  which  have  the  following  coat  of  arms 
on  them :  "  Ermine,  three  bells,  2  and  1 ;  the 
lower  one  crowned."  I  should  be  glad  to  know 
where  these  bells  were  cast,  and  by  whom  ?  I 
enclose  a  copy  of  the  shield.  A5. 

BURIALS  ABOVE  GROUND.  — I  lately  saw  in  the 
churchyard  of  Pinner,  while  driving  through  the 
village,  a  mausoleum  raised  on  arches  above  the. 



[3*d  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

terre-plein,  having  apparently  inserted  through  it 
a  stone  coffin  j  one  end  of  which  projected  through 
the  wall  towards  the  road,  and  bore  an  epitaph. 
I  was  subsequently  informed  that  the  family  of 
the  deceased  enjoyed  a  large  property,  so  long  as 
his  body  remained  above  ground.  I  once  read 
(in  the  Percy  Anecdotes,  as  well  as  I  can  remem- 
ber) that  a  gentleman  of  Devonshire  willed  his 
body  should  be  immured  in  a  tower  on  the  top 
of  a  hill,  having  a  furnished  apartment  in  it,  in 
which  he  was  to  be  placed  on  a  chair  in  front  of 
a  reading-table,  and  that  his  wishes  were  fulfilled. 
Are  there  other  instances  of  burials  above  ground 
in  England  ?  *  H.  0. 

CARBON  FEINTS. — I  observe  that  the  Edinburgh 
newspapers  state  that  a  picture  now  exhibiting 
there  is  to  be  reproduced  by  photography  instead 
of  engraving,  and  that  the  patent  process  of  Mr. 
Swan,  of  Newcastle,  for  producing  unchangeable 
carbon  prints  is  to  be  employed.  I  have  always 
understood  that  light  and  shade  as  represented  by 
lines,  hatchings,  &c.,  were  alone  reproducible  in 
the  carbon  process,  and  shall  therefore  feel  much 
obliged  if  any  one  will  inform  me  where  I  can 
find  an  account  either  of  Mr.  Swan's  or  of  any 
other  process  by  means  of  which  a  carbon  print  of 
an  oil  painting  can  be  obtained.  Surely  suck  a 
process  would  be  the  one  to  employ  in  copying 
the  portraits  now  exhibiting  at  South  Kensington. 

F.  M.  S. 

SIR  THOMAS  CHALONER. — The  following  in- 
scription, copied  from  a  portrait  of  Sir  Thomas 
Chaloner  the  elder  (belonging  to  Mrs.  M.  G. 
Edgar,  and  numbered  297  in  the  Exhibition  of 
National  Portraits  at  South  Kensington),  may  be 
interesting  to  some  of  the  readers  of  "  N.  &  Q." 
The  verses  were  probably  written  by  Sir  Thomas 
himself,  who,  besides  his  reputation  as  a  states- 
man and  soldier,  is  also  accredited  with  having 
been  one  of  the  best  Latin  verse  writers  in  the 
reign  of  Elizabeth  :  — 



D  N   O  M      ENT  AN      VOLANT." 

The  following  may  be  suggested  as  a  conjec- 
tural restoration :  — 

"  Sardanapalus  ait,  Pereunt  mortalia  cuncta, 

Ut  crepitus  presso  pollice  dissiliens : 
Quae  pereunt  trepidp  (?)  vivuntque  simillima  fumo, 

Aurea  quantumvis,  nil  nisi  fumus  erunt ; 
At  mens  culta  vjro  post  funera  clarior  extat 

Denuo ;  vera  manent  gaudia,  vana  volant." 
I  ought  to  add  that  the  portrait  represents  Sir 
Thomas  in  the  act  of  snapping  his  fingers  and 
holding  in  his  left  hand  a  pair  of  scales,  in  which 

[*  See  the  article  " Burial"  in  the  General  Index  to 
the  1"  and  2»a  S.  of  «N.  &  Q."-ED.] 

a  book  radiant  with  light  outweighs  a  gold  chain 
and  a  winged  world. 

Perhaps  some  one  who  is  in  possession  of  Sir 
Thomas  Chaloner's  De  illustrium  quorundam  En- 
comiis  Miscellanea,  cum  Epigrammatibus  ac  Epi- 
taphiis  nonnuttis,  will  be  able  to  supply  "N.  &  Q." 
with  a  copy  of  the  epigram  in  question. 

J.  E.  S. 

St.  John's,  Cambridge. 


"  The  Virgins'  Complaint  for  the  loss  of  their  Sweet 
Hearts  by  these  present  Wars,  and  their  now  long  soli- 
tude, and  keeping  their  Virginities  against  their  wills. 
Presented  (to  the  House  of  Commons)  in  the  names  and 
behalfes  of  all  Damsels  both  of  Country  and  City, 
January  29  (1642-3),  by  sundry  Virgins  of  the  City  of 
London," — 

occurs  the  following  :  — 

"  Since  the  departure  of  the  lusty  young  Gentlemen 
Courtiers  and  Cavalliers,  and  the  ablest  prentices  and 
handsome  journeymen,  with  whom  we  had  used  to  walk 
to  Islington  and  Pimblico  to  eat  Cakes  and  drink  Chris- 
tian Ale  on  holy  daies,"  &c. 

To  what  custom  does  this  allude,  and  what  was 
Christian  ale  ?  E.  V. 


DEVONSHIRE  DIALECTS.  —  Together  with  MR. 
R.  F.  WEYMOUTH,  I  am  engaged  in  compiling  a 
Glossary  of  the  Dialects  of  Devon.  We  have 
already  received  much  help  and  the  promise  of 
more.  It  is  possible  that  among  your  readers 
there  may  be  some  able  to  render  us  assistance, 
who  are  yet  ignorant  of  our  work.  I  shall  be 
happy  to  send  to  any  such  who  will  favour  me 
with  their  names  and  addresses  a  copy  of  a 
printed  letter  describing  our  objects.  I  shall  be 
obliged  by  any  communication  from  your  corre- 
spondent whose  note,  signed  BUSHY  HEATH,  ap- 
peared in  «  N.  &  Q."  3rd  S.  ix.  320. 


Frankfort  Chambers,  Plymouth. 

MANES-CHIRCHE,  LONDON." — To  which  of  the  many 
All  Hallows  in  the  city  of  London  does  this  title 
relate  P  It  occurs  in  certain  documents  temp. 
John  and  Hen.  III.  JUXTA  TURRIM. 

GREEK  REMAINS  IN  INDIA. — In  Dr.  Vincent's 
translation  of  the  Voyage  of  NearcJius  and  the 
Periplus  of  the  Erythrean  Sea,  Oxford,  1809,  is 
the  following  passage  :  — 

"  In  this  kingdom  of  Minnagar  several  memorials  of 
the  expedition  of  Alexander  are  still  preserved,  such  as 
ancient  temples,  fosses  of  encampments,  and  magnificent 
wells."— P.  98. 

Have  any  vestiges  of  these  Greek  works  been 
discovered  since  the  British  acquired  possession  of 
India,  and  what  is  the  modern  name  of  Minnagar  ? 

H.  C. 

HERALDIC  WORKS. — Wanted,  the  names  of  any 
periodical  publications  concerning  heraldry  and 

1    I 

3*d  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



c c     -which  are  now  being  published,  and 

those  which  have  been,  during  the  last  five  years  ; 
besides  Nichols's  Herald  and  Genealogist,  Col- 
man's  Index,  Marshall's  do.,  Walford,  Burke,  and 
Lodge's  works.  GENEALOGIST. 

HILDEBEKT.  —  I  have  a  copy  of  Burns,  with 
numerous  MS.  notes,  which  are  better  than  the 
impertinences  usually  scribbled  in  margins.  After 
the  epitaph  — 

"  For  G.  H.,  Esq. 

"  The  poor  man  weeps,  here  G n  sleeps, 

Whom  canting  wretches  blamed ; 
With  such  as  he,  whoe'er  they  be, 
May  I  be  saved  or  damned""— 

is  written  — 

"Exactly  the  same  thought  is  in  Hildebert,  whose 
writings  were  unknown  to  Burns." 
So  they  are  to  me.  The  only  Hildebert  of  whom 
I  have  "read  was  Archbishop  of  Tours  in  the  early 
part  of  the  twelfth  centurv.  Not  a  likely  person 
to  express  such  a  wish.  Did  he,  or  any  other  ? 

E.  N.  H. 

EMANTJEL  HOWE.  —  Was  there  any  connection 
between  Emanuel  Howe,  brother  of  the  first 
Viscount  Howe,  and  the  Rev.  Thomas  Howe, 
Nonconformist  minister,  who  died  at  Great  Yar- 
mouth 1784 ;  born  1733,  probably  at  Northamp- 
ton ?  THETA. 

MEANING  OF  "HOWARD."  —  Mr.  Isaac  Taylor, 
in  his  Words  and  Places,  tells  us  that  the  name 
" Howard"  was  originally  Hogwarden.  When  I 
read  this,  the  fact  came  to  my  memory  that,  in 
Bedfordshire,  the  impounder  of  cattle  is  still 
called  "  the  howard."  I  should  be  glad  to  know 
whether  this  word  is  used  in  any  other  county  as 
the  title  of  the  impounder  of  cattle.  W.  W. 

LA  VENDEE.  —  When  did  the  name  of  La 
Vendee  first  come  into  use  ?  ,1  cannot  recollect 
its  use  by  any  French  writer  of  the  age  of 
Louis  XIV.,  nor  indeed  previous  to  1789.  S. 

LEPROSY  IN  ENGLAND.  —  I  should  be  glad  to 
know  of  any  good  account  of,  or  monograph  on, 
the  disease  of  leprosy  (especially  in  England)  in" 
mediaeval  times?  Judging from'the old  records  of 
leper  hospitals,  it  must  have  been  a  terrible  scourge, 
and  terribly  frequent.  W.  H.  S. 

POETICAL  CANON. — Is  it  not  a  canon  of  poetical 
criticism  that  a  comparison  should  be  d  minor e  ad 
majus,  and  not  a  majore  ad  minus  ?  [Do  not  nearlv 
all  the  comparisons  of  both  Homer  and  Dante  sin 
against  this  canon,  if  such  canon  there  be  ? 

H.  HARRIS,  M.A. 

COLONEL  BULLEN  RHEMES. — What  is  known 
of  this  member  of  parliament  in  16G1  ?  J.  C.  J. 

RULE  OF  ST.  BENEDICT.  —  Is  the  following  ex- 
tract true  ?  And  if  so,  where  is  the  sole  copy  of 
the  rule  of  St.  Benedict  to  be  found  ?  — 

"  II  y  avait  dans  le  convent  (le  petit  pic-pus)  un  livre 
qui  n'a  jamais  e'te'  imp  rime'  qu'a  extmplaire  unique,  et 
qu'il  est  defendu  de  lire.  C'est  la  regie  de  Saint  Benoit — 
arcane  ou  nul  ceil  profane  ne  doit  pe'ne'trer.  Nemo  regu- 
las,  sen  constitutiones  nostras,  externis  communicabit." — 
Victor  Hugo,  Les  Miserables,  livre  vi.  chap.  v. 


SELLING  A  WIFE. — In  a  late  number  of  The 
Athenceum,  the  reviewer,  speaking  of  New  Cross 
in  Manchester,  says :  — 

"  It  is  in  some  sort  historical  ground,  for  at  this  Cross 
was  held  in  old  times  a  market,  at  which  the  rough  Doric 
citizens  sold  their  wives  for  a  shilling  and  a  pot  of  beer." 

The  subject  was  brought  forward  in  some  of 
your  early  volumes,  and  has  been  made  a  text  for 
many  homilies  not  very  complimentary  to  the 
County  Palatine.  The  fact  is,  nobody  has  really 
explained  the  matter,  or  seems  to  have  been  ac- 
quainted with  its  true  meaning. 

After  the  close  of  the  war  in  1815,  many  soldiers 
and  sailors  on  their  return  found  their  wives  mar- 
ried again,  with  a  family  to  which  they  had  no 
claim.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  generally  all 
the  parties  had  acted  innocently ;  the  wife  had 
received  news  of  her  husband's  death,  and  in  due 
time  had  taken  a  fresh  one.  What  could  be 
done  ?  The  law  was  plain  enough  ,•  an  action  for 
crim.  con.  in  the  Civil  Courts,  followed  by  another 
in  the  Ecclesiastical,  and  concluded  by  a  separa- 
tion a  vinculo  by  Act  of  'Parliament,  would  have 
done  the  business  in  the  good  old  style  ;  but  the 
parties  concerned  might  doubt  whether  the  sin 
incurred  would  be  made  less  sinful  by  these  pro- 
cesses, even  with  the  payment  of  some  thousand 
pounds,  and  a  much  easier  and  quite  as  effectual  a 
way  was  found  out  to  set  things  right.  It  was  de- 
clared to  be  lawful  to  sell  a  wife  in  open  market, 
the  first  husband  being  then  free  to  marry  again, 
and  the  second  marriage  standing  good,  ipso  facto. 

These  sales  took  place  at  that  time  all  over  the 
country,  but  especially  in  Birmingham  and  Man- 
chester, as  these  had  sent  most  men  to  fight  our 
battles.  It  would  be  worth  while,  if  materials 
exist,  to  ascertain  how  the  notion  originated  :  the 
magistrates,  like  prudent  men,  did  not  choose  to 
interfere,  and  there  are,  no  doubt,  at  the  present 
day,  many  who  firmly  believe  in  the  legality  of 
such  a  sale.  JANNOK. 

SOUTHET'S  ESSAY.  —  Robert  Southey  wrote  an 
essay  on  the  advantage  of  the  use  of  words  de- 
rived from  the  Anglo-Saxon  in  writing  English. 
What  was  the  exact  title  of  this  Essay,  and  where 
is  it  to  be  found  ?  F.  X. 

SWALLOWS  BUILDING  IN  LONDON.  —  Is  not  this 
a  very  unusual  circumstance  ?  In  one  of  our  busy 
thoroughfares,  where  Upper  Seymour  Street  joins 
the  east  side  of  Great  Cumberland  Street,  two 
swallows'  nests  may  now  be  seen.  There  are 
several  blank  windows  on  the  north  side  of  the 
house  fronting  Seymour  Street,  and  two  of  these 



[3'd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

recesses  contain  a  nest  a-piece.  The  Serpentine, 
nearly  three-quarters  of  a  mile  distant,  must  be 
the  nearest  spot  where  the  birds  can  have  found 
building  materials  for  these  nests.  JAYDEE. 

TERRA-COTTA.  —  A  collection  of  various  works 
of  ancient  and  mediaeval  art,  formed  by  the  emi- 
nent Italian  goldsmith,  Signer  Castellam,  was  re- 
cently sold  at  Paris.  One  gem  of  this  collection 
was  a  portrait-statuette  in  terra-cotta  of  the  second 
half  of  the  fifteenth  century,  the  work  of  a  Floren- 
tine artist,  and  probably  of  a  painter  rather  than 
a  sculptor.  It  was  entitled  « La  Chantreuse," 
and  it  accordingly  represents  a  youthful  female  in 
the  act  of  singing.  I  desire  to  record  in  the  pages 
of  "  N.  &  Q."  the  existence  and  the  present  where- 
abouts of  this  statuette,  because  of  its  extraordinary 
excellence  as  a  work  of  art,  executed  in  a  ma- 
terial which  I  hope  to  see  brought  into  much 
more  general  use  amongst  ourselves.  This  statuette 
shows  that  the  most  exquisitely  poetic  creations 
of  the  plastic  art  may  be  rendered  with  perfect 
success  in  terra-cotta.  It  is  happily  in  excellent 
preservation,  and,  as  a  model  for  suggestive  study, 
it  may  be  said  to  be  without  a  rival.  It  was 
purchased  by  a  Parisian  gentleman,  M.  Andre,  for 
3321.  I  conclude  with  the  query— Why  is  not 
this  real  gem  in  the  British  Museum  or  at  South 
Kensington,  where  it  might  liave  been  for  less  than 
half  the  sum  I  have  just  specified  ? 


HUKLOTHRTJMBO.  —  Among  "the  forgotten  oral 
tales''  must  we  not  rank  "  Hurlothrumbo,"  and 
"  John  Ilickathrift "«?  In  a  pretty  wide  ^search 
among  contemporary  children's  books  I  f ailed  $  to 
find  them,  but  I  have  heard  old  people  mention 
them.  CYRIL. 

[Our  correspondent  will  find  much  learned  and  amus- 
ing matter  on  the  subject  of  Tom  Hickathrift,  who, 
armed  only  with  his  axletree  and  cartwheel,  drove  the 
giant  out  of  the  common  field,  called  Tilney  Smeeth ;  and 
of  Tom's  connection  with  the  great  Northern  champion 
Gretter,  in  the  admirable  article  on  "The  Antiquities 
of  Nursery  Literature,"  contributed  to  the  twenty-first 
volume  of  Tfie  Quarterly  Review,  by  the  late  Sir  Francis 
Palgrave.  Tom's  gravestone  in  Tylney  churchyard  is 
still  pointed  out,  but  is  we  fear  in  a  very  dilapidated 
state :  perhaps  some  local  antiquary  would  favour  us 
with  a  note  of  its  present  condition.  The  story  of  Hicka- 
thrift formed  one  of  the  series  of  old  English  popular 
tales,  edited  by  Ambrose  Merton,  and  published  many 
years  ago  by  Mr.  Cundall  under  the  title  of  Gammer  Cur- 
ton's  Story  Books. 

Our  readers  will,  we  are  sure,  forgive  us  if  we  take  this 
opportunity  of  quoting  at  second-hand  from  the  Quarterly 
Review,  vol.  xii.  p.  169,  the  following  exquisite  passage 

on  our  nursery  tales,  which  will  be  found  in  The  Paradise 
of  Coquettes,  pp.  11,  12  :  — 

"  Tales  of  my  nursery  !  shall  that  still  lov'd  spot, 
That  window  corner,  ever  be  forgot ; 
Where  thro'  the  woodbine  when  with  upward  ray 
Gleam'd  the  last  shadow  of  departing  day, 
Still  did  I  sit,  and  with  unwearied  eye 
Read  while  I  wept,  and  scarcely  paus'd  to  sigh  ? 
In  that  gay  drawer,  with  fairy  fictions  stored, 
When  some  new  tale  was  added  to  my  hoard  ; 
While  o'er  each  page  my  eager  glance  was  flung, 
'Twas  but  to  learn  what  female  fate  was  sung  ; 
If  no  sad  maid  the  castle  shut  from  light, 
I  heeded  not  the  giant  and  the  knight. 

"  Sweet  Cinderella,  e'en  before  the  ball, 
How  I  did  love  thee — ashes,  dirt,  and  all ! 
What  bliss  I  deem'd  it  to  have  stood  beside 
On  every  virgin  when  thy  shoe  was  tried ! 
How  long  to  see  thy  shape  the  .slipper  suit ! 
But,  dearer  than  the  slipper,  lov'd  the  foot." 
Some  account  of  Hurlothrumbo,  a  comedy  by  that  eccen- 
tric dancing-master,  Samuel  Johnson,  will  be  found  in 
"  N.  &  Q."  3'd  S.  i.  41 1,456.] 

LORD  BRAXFIELD. — In  the  first  edition  of  Lock- 
hart's  Life  of  Scott,  an  anecdote  is  told  of  Robert 
Macqueen,  Lord  Justice-Clerk  Braxfield,  which 
has  obtained  an  objectionable  notoriety  in  Scot- 
land, as  regards  the  humanity  of  that  distinguished 
judge.  I  am  curious  to  know  how  much  of  truth 
there  may  be  in  the  story.  Why  has  it  been 
omitted  in  the  second  edition  of  Scott's  Life  ? 


[The  anecdote  rightly  belongs  to  Lord  Kames,  who 
tried  Matthew  Hay,  with  whom  he  used  to  play  at  chess, 
for  a  murder  at  Ayr  in  September,  1780.  When  the  ver- 
dict of  Guilty  was  returned,  Lord  Kames  exclaimed, 
"  That's  checkmate  to  you,  Matthew !  "  Lord  Cockburn, 
who  relates  the  anecdote  in  the  Memorials  of  his  Time, 
p.  117,  adds,  that,  "besides  general  and  uncontradicted 
notoriety,  I  had  this  fact  from  Lord  Hermand,  who  was 
one  of  the  counsel  at  the  trial,  and  never  forgot  a  piece  of 
judicial  cruelty  which  excited  his  horror  and  anger. 
Scott  is  said  to  have  told  this  story  to  the  Prince  Regent. 
If  he  did  so,  he  would  certainly  tell  it  accurately,  because 
he  knew  the  facts  quite  well.  But  in  reporting  what  Sir 
Walter  had  said  at  the  royal  table,  the  Lord  Chief  Com- 
missioner Adam  confused  the  matter,  and  called  the  judge 
Braxfield,  the  crime  forgery',  and  the  circuit  town  Dum- 
fries; and  this  inaccurate  account  was  given  by  Mr. 
Lockhart  in  his  first  edition  of  Scott's  Life,  chap,  xxxiv. 
Braxfield  was  one  of  the  judges  at  Hay's  trial,  but  he  had 
nothing  to  do  with  the  checkmate." 

The  anecdote  is  to  be  found  in  all  the  editions  of  Lock- 
|  hart's  Life  of  Sir  Walter  Scott  (vide  edit.  1839,  v.  47; 
!  1845,  p.  313);  but  after  the  first  the  name  was  suppressed, 
!  and  the  words  "  a  certain  judge  "  substituted.] 

PEELER.  —  The  word  Peeler,  as  applied  to  a 
policeman,  is  well  known  to  have  its  origin  from 

3'd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



Sir  Robert  Peel.  The  other  day  I  was  rather 
amused  at  finding  the  word  used  by  Hollinshead 
in  his  Scottish  Chronicle  (first  published  at  London 
in  1570),  in  a  sense  the  very  opposite  of  the 
modern  one  just  mentioned.  He  is  relating  how 
a  number  of  thieves  and  robbers  had  been  com- 
mitting depredations  in  the  Merse  and  Lothian, 
about  1057,  till  one  Patrick  Dunbar,  of  Dunbar, 
" delivered  the  countrie  of  these  peelers"  i.  e. 
robbers.  What  is  the  derivation  of  the  word  in 
this  signification  ?  Is  it  from  peel,  a  name  applied 
to  a  border  fortress  ?  A.  F. 

[Peeler  is  from  the  French  piller,  to  pillage,  to  plunder, 
to  ransack.  In  this  sense  the  word  also  occurs  in  Frois- 
sart,  Cronycle,  vol.  ii.  c.  110  :  "  For  the  chefe  company  of 
them,  and  such  as  were  most  renomed  to  use  grete  rob- 
bery and  pillery  were  of  Bierne,  and  of  the  countie  of 
Foix."  The  words  peeler  and/>ee/,  to  plunder,  were  used 
both  by  Milton  (Paradise  Regained,  book  iv.)  and  by 
Dryden  in  his  Homer's  Iliad.  ] 

DR.  PATTISSON. — I  have  in  my  possession  a 
manuscript  volume  written  by  Dr.  Pattisson,  date 
1777,  originally  belonging  to  Mr.  B.  Strutt,  to 
whom  some  of  the  letters,  &c.  &c.  were  addressed. 
Also  some  MSS.  by  J.  G.  Strutt.  Can  you  oblige 
me  by  any  information  respecting  the  said  Dr. 
Pattisson  or  Pattesson  ?  EDWARD  MASKALL. 

1 ,  Copenhagen  Street,  N. 

[The  writer  of  the  letters  in  the  manuscript  volume 
possessed  by  our  correspondent  was  no  doubt  Jacob  Pat- 
tisson, M.D.,  originally  of  Witham,  in  Essex.  To  pro- 
secute his  medical  studies,  he  removed  early  to  Edin- 
burgh, where  he  died  in  1782.  There,  too,  he  was  buried ; 
and  a  monument  was  raised  for  him  at  the  expense  of 
three  societies  of  which  he  was  President — the  II oval 
Medical,  the  Speculative,  and  the  Physical.  He  con- 
tributed two  papers  to  the  Speculative  Society.  (1.)  On 
the  Origin  and  Influence  of  the  Crusades  ;  (2.)  On  Sleep 
and  Dreaming.  A  manuscript  volume  of  his  "  Familiar 
Letters,  written  during  a  Journey  through  the  High- 
lands of  Scotland,  4to,  1780,"  occurs  in  the  Catalogue  of 
the  Manuscript  Library  of  the  late  Dawson  Turner,  lot 
369,  sold  by  Puttick  and  Simpson  on  June  8, 1859.] 

QUOTATIONS. — Whence  are  taken  the  following 

"  Every  one 

According  to  the  gift  that  bounteous*  Nature 
Hath  in  him  closed." 

[Shakspeare,  Macbeth,  Act  III.  Sc.  1.] 

"  Our  remedies  oft  with  ourselves  do  lie, 

Which  we  ascribe  to  Heaven." 

[Shakspeare,  AWs  Well  that  Ends  Well,  Act  I.  Sc.  1.] 
"  The  last  infirmity  of  noble  minds," 

[Milton,  Lycidas,  line  70.] 
"  Xo  farther  seek  his  merits  to  disclose, 
Or  draw  his  frailties  from  their  dread  abode." 
[Gray's  Elegy,  the  Epitaph.] 

M.  REED. 

A  WARTERN.— The  Times  of  June  19,  mentions 
that  the  Yorkshire  weavers  are  on  strike  in  the 
West  Riding  for  an  advance  of  one  penny  per 
wartcrn.  What  is  this?  E.  K. 

[A  whartern  (to  spell  it  correctly)  means  6  Ibs.  The 
weavers  and  spinners  are  paid  for  the  weight  of  woof  or 
weft  which  they  weave  into  their  piece  of  goods,  and  this, 
is  reckoned  at  so  much  per  whartern,  or  G  Ibs.  weight.] 


(3rd   S.  ix.  513.) 

The  mention  of  Beauge  and  Verneuil  in  the 
notice  of  this  once  noble  and  still  knightly  Lanark- 
shire house  recalls  the  following  difficulties  that 
have  at  various  times  occurred  to  me,  connected 
with  their  crest.  It  is  matter  of  history  that  at 
Beauge"  a  Scottish  knight  charged  and  wounded 
with  his  lance  the  Duke  of  Clarence,  brother  of 
Henry  V. ;  and  it  is  said  that  John  Stewart,  Earl 
of  Buchan,  afterwards  Constable  of  France,  slew 
the  Duke  with  his  battle-axe.  The  question  next 
arises,  who  was  the  knight?  In  the  course  of  my 
reading,  I  have  met  with  the  following  claimants : 
Sir  John  Swinton,  of  Swinton  ,•  Sir  John  Car- 
michael  of  that  Ilk  ;  Sir  Alexander  Buchanan  of 
that  Ilk  ;  and  last,  though  not  least,  Sir  Alexander 
Mac  Auslane,  of  Glenduglas,  Dunbartonshire. 

On  behalf  of  Swinton,  and  his  compatriot 
Buchanan,  we  have  the  authority  of  Sir  Walter 
Scott  in  his  Tales  of  a  Grandfather,  and  also  in 
TJie  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel,  canto  v. :  — 

"  And  Swinton  laid  the  lance  in  rest, 
That  tamed  of  yore  the  sparkling  crest 
Of  Clarence's  Plantagenet." 

Their  pedigree  in  Burke  (ed.  184G),  however, 
claims  the  exclusive  honour  of  the  feat  for  Swin- 
ton, and  misquotes  the  "  Lay."  I  am  not  aware 
if  it  is  assigned  to  Swinton  in  any  other  authentic 
history,  nor  does  their  crest  allude  to  the  fact. 
The  Carmichael  claim,  however,  rests  on  the 
authority  of  Fordun,  and  is  supported  by  the 
evidence  of  the  crest ;  as  well  as  by  the  unvary- 
ing tradition  of  Clydesdale,  commemorated  by  its 
poet,  Wilson,  who,  in  his  Clyde  (Leyden's  Collec- 
tion, Edinburgh,  1803),  p.  50,  says  of  the  House 
of  Hyndford  (the  extinct  title  of  the  Carnii- 
chaels) : — 

Their  honourable  crest  shall  ever  tell, 

IJv  whom  the  dread  of  France,  Great  Clarence,  fell." 

In  a  quotation  of  this  sort,  one  poet  is  as  good 
as  another — whatever  the  relative  merits  of  the 
poetry  may  be.  And  as  Sir  Walter  Scott  was  a 
connection  of  the  Swintons,  and  therefore  not  an 
uninterested  party  in  the  cause,  it  may  be  fairly 
concluded  that  the  Carmichael  claim,  supported 



.  X.  JULY  14,  '6G. 

by  the  historical  evidence  of  Fordun,  is  the  better 
of  the  two.  The  Christian  name  of  the  knight  is 
not  material  ;  but  there  is  a  "  William  of  Carmy- 
chale,  Lord  of  that  Ilk,"  who  witnesses  a  charter 
'  by  the  Prior  of  St.  Andrews  in  1410  (Reg.  Priorat. 
S.  Andrea,  p.  427),  who  may  have  been  the  hero 
of  Beauge. 

The  next  claim,  of  Sir  Alexander  Buchanan, 
seems  to  rest  solely  on  the  pedigree  of  "Bu- 
chanan-Hamilton of  Spittal,  Leny,  and  Bar- 
dowie"  (Burke,  ed.  1846,  p.  44),  where  it  is  said 
that  he  — 

"  Slew  the  Duke  of  Clarence,  brother  of  King  Henry  V., 
at  the  Battle  of  Beauge,  in  1421  :  in  return  for  which 
heroic  action,  he  received  from  the  Dauphin  of  France 
an  augmentation  to  his  armorial  bearing,  viz.  a  double 
tressure  flowered  and  counter-flowered  ;  and  for  crest,  a 
hand,  coupe'e,  holding  a  Duke's  coronet,  within  two  laurel 
branches.  He  afterwards  fell  at  the  Battle  of  Verneuil 
(anno  1424)  unm." 

One  does  not  exactly  see  how  the  Dauphin 
could  bestow  a  not  unimportant  part  of  the  royal 
insignia  of  Scotland  on  a  Scottish  subject;  and  it 
would  be  interesting  to  know  if,  and  when,  this 
honourable  augmentation  (which  is  borne,  it  is 
needless  to  say,  by  all  the  scions  of  the  clan, 
whose  name  is  legion  in  the  West  of  Scotland) 
received  the  countenance  of  the  Lord  Lyon. 
Judging  from  the  statement  at  the  outset  of  the 
pedigree  that  the  first  of  the  family  received, 
circ.  1016,  from  Malcolm  II.  as  a  coat  of  arms  — 
"  Or.  a  lion  rampant  sa.  armed  and  langued  gu."  — 
the  whole  story  seems  very  doubtful.  The  black 
lion  bears  a  suspicious  likeness  to  the  ruddy  and 
royal  beast  first  assumed  by  King  William  the 
Lion,  nearly  two  centuries  later  than  this  grant; 
till  which  time  armorial  bearings  were  scarcely 
known  in  this  island,  and  certainly  not  used  by 
the  Scottish  kings.  As  this  pedigree  is  stated  to 
be  compiled  exclusively  from  the  work  of  the 
family  historian,  Buchanan  of  Auchmar,  who 
wrote  about  1723  (a  gossipping  and  totally  unre- 
liable performance),  the  Buchanan  claim  seems 

The  remaining  competitor,  Sir  Alexander  Mac 
Auslane,  may  be  still  more  easily  disposed  of.  His 
claim  also  seems  to  rest  exclusively  on  the  Irish 
genealogy  (Burke,  vol.  ii.  p.  790)  of  "Mac  Caus- 
land  of  Strabane,"  which  bears  to  be  made  up 
from  the  Buchanan  pedigree.  The  latter  family's 
coat  (royal  tressure  of  course  included),  crest,  and 
two  out  of  ^  their  Jive  mottoes,  are  borrowed;  and 
the  following  account  is  given  of  the  origin  of  the 
crest,  thus  differing  somewhat  from  the  Buchanan 
legend  :  — 

C/iest  was  conferred  *>y  the  Dauphin  of  France 
upon  Sir  Alexander  Mac  Auselane,  one  of  the  Scottish 
Lairds  of  the  Famil,  for  his  distinguished  bravery  at 
in  Anjou,  anno  1421,  where  he  is 

the  Battle  of  Bea 
said  to  have  slain 

as  Plautagenet,  Duke  of  Clarence, 

the  brother  of  King  Henry  V.  The  French  Commander 
in  that  engagement  was  the  Marshal  de  la  Fayette, 
ancestor  of  the  late  celebrated  General  de  la  Fayette"." 

This  last  sentence  as  to  the  Marshal  seems  to 
be  thrown  in,  as  the  lawyers  say,  in  majorem 
evidentiam.  He  does  not  appear  to  be  noticed  in 
any  other  account  of  the  battle.  The  Dauphin,  it 
will  be  noticed,  is  more  chary  in  this  augmenta- 
tion than  in  the  Buchanan  case.  Any  one  who 
knows  Dunbartonshire  will  bear  me  out  in  saying 
that  none  of  the  "Barons  Mac  Auslane,"  who 
adorn  this  last  pedigree,  were  ever  heard  of  in 
that  county  as  landowners  of  note.  The  name, 
which  is  common  enough  among  the  lower  orders 
there,  will  be  looked  for  in  vain  in  the  chartulary 
of  Lennox,  where  the  Buchanans,  to  give  them 
their  due,  frequently  appear  as  vassals  of  the 
great  Earls  of  Lennox,  though  their  early  ancestry 
is  on  the  whole  too  apocryphal  for  belief.  To 
sum  up,  as  it  is  unlikely  in  those  chivalric  days 
that  all  four  knights  could  be  simultaneously 
"  charging  "  the  unlucky  Clarence,  we  must  dis- 
miss the  chiefs  of  Buchanan  and  Mac  Auselane — 
"  brethren  in  arms,  but  rivals  in  renown  " — and, 
in  the  present  state  of  the  evidence,  conclude  that 
the  gallant  Carmichael  was  most  probably  the 
hero  of  Beauge. 

Is  there  no  account  of  the  battle  in  Michel's 
Les  Ecossais  en  France  9  I  should  be  inclined  to 
look  there. 

If  ME.  CAEMICHAEL  can  instruct  a  legal  con- 
nection between  the  St.  Michaels  and  his  family, 
he  will  certainly  carry  back  the  ancestry  of  the 
latter  at  least  150  years  prior  to  their  settlement 
in  Douglasdale  about  1370.  I  am  sorry  I  cannot 
help  him  here,  however ;  but  his  inference  from 
the  Carmichael  alliance  is  excellent  as  to  their 
being  an  established  race  when  they  first  appear. 
I  do  not  think,  however,  that  John  St.  Michael 
was  the  grantee  of  the  Barony  of  Carmichael,  for 
this  reason :  —  Fordun  (Goodall's  edit.  vol.  ii. 
p.  348)  says,  that  he  and  his  accomplices  slew  Sir 
David  de  Berkelay,  in  1350,  at  the  instigation  of 
Sir  William  Douglas  (the  Knight  of  Liddesdale), 
then  a  prisoner  in  England,  in  revenge  of  the 
deaths  of  his  brother  John  of  Douglas  and  his 
father  Sir  James  of  Douglas,  elder,  of  Dalkeith, 
whom  the  said  David  had  slain.  De  Berkelay  was 
a  friend  of  William,  afterwards  first  Earl  of 
Douglas  (who  granted  the  Carmichael  charter), 
and,  as  we  know  from  Fordun  (loc.  cit.}  that  the 
Earl  assassinated  the  Knight  of  Liddesdale  in 
1353,  partly  for  his  share  in  procuring  De  Berke- 
lay's  death,  it  is  not  likely  he  would  grant  lands 
in  his  immediate  neighbourhood  to  St.  Michael, 
the  actor  in  that  deed. 

To  what  county  is  Johannes  de  S.  Michaeli 
assigned  in  the  Ragman  Eoll  ?  This  might  guide 
ME.  CAEMICHAEL  in  further  researches. 


S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



(3rd  S.  ix.  294.) 

I  now  send  you  the  remaining  extracts  relating 
to  the  D'Ewes  family,  taken  from  the  Stowlang- 
toft  registers ;  and  where  possible  I  have  added  a 
reference  to  the  Autobiography  of  Sir  Simonds 
D'Eu-es,  edited  by  J.  0.  Halliwell,  Esq.,  2  vols., 
London,  1845 :  — 

1615.  Richardus' (D'Ewes*)  filius  Pauli  D'ewse  equi- 
tis baptizatus  fuit  ultimo  die  Octobris.  [Auto.  vol.  r 
p.  68.] 

1617.  Elizabetha  filia  Pauli  Dewes  equitis  fuit  bapti- 
zata  quinto  die  februarii. 

1618.  Cecilia  Dewes  generosa  sepulta  fuit  sexto  die 
August!  (uxor  Pauli  Dewes  armigerif).     [Auto.  i.  118.] 

1623.  Cicilia  filia  Gulielmi  Elliot  militis  (et  Joannas 
uxoris  ejus  filiae  senioris  Pauli  Dewes  armigerif)  baptizata 
fdit  vicesimo  die  Augustis.  [Auto.  ii.  11.] 

1625.  Gracia  D'ews  filia  natu  secunda  Pauli  D'ews 
Armigeri  matrimonio  coniuncta  erat  Wiseman  Boken- 
ham  Armigero,  filio  unigenito  et  beredi  apparent!  Domini 
Henrici  Bokenham,  de  Thornham  magna  in  comitatu 
Suffolciae  militis,  die  Jovis22°  Septembris.  [Auto.  ii.  13.] 

1626.  Simonds  D'ewes    Eques  auratus    Londini    die 
Mercurii  die  sexto  Decembris  a  Rege  Carolo  hoc  anno 
1626  inauguratus,  Filius  et  heres  apparens  Pauli  D'Ewes 
de  Stow  Langtoft  in  comitatu  Suffolciae  Armigeri :  duxit 
in  uxorem  Annam  Clopton  filiam  unicam  et  heredem 
Willielmi  Clopton,  nuper  de  Kentwell  in  Comitatu  Suf- 
folke  Militis,  Die  Martis,  die  vicesimo  quarto  Octobris 
inter  horas  undecimam  et  duodecimam,  in  Ecclesia  Nigro- 
rum  Fratrum  London.     [Auto.  i.  322.] 

1631.  Paulus  Dewes  Armiger  Londini  mortuus  in  ec- 
clesia  parochiali  de  Stowlangtoft  sepultus  26  April.  [Auto. 
ii.  11.  He  died  March  14.] 

1635.  Sir  William  Poley  of  Bockstead,  knight,  and 
Elizabeth  Dewes   of  this  parish,  gent.,  were  maried  wth 
License  ye  20*  of  March.    [Auto.  ii.  19  and  141.] 

1636.  'Clopton  Dewes,  sonne  of  Sir  Symonds  Dewes, 
knight,  buried  May  9.     [Auto.  ii.  145,  May  10.] 

1647.  Maria  filia  Simonds  D'Ewes  equitis  aurati  et 
Baronetti  et  Elizabethan  secundae  suae  conjugis  obijt  Cam- 
berwellae  prope  Londinum  die  Jovis  die  9°  Septembris  a° 
Dni  1647  annum  unum  menseis  duos  et  aliquot  dies  nata 
et  sepulta  fuit  in  Cancella  Ecclesiae  parochialis  Stowlang- 
toftae  die  Dominica  proximo  sequenti  die  12  mensis  ejus- 

1650.  Sr  Simonds  Dewes,  knight  and  baronet,  was 
buryed  in  the  chancell  of  the  parish  church  of  Stowlang- 
toft the  7th  of  June.  An.  Dom.  1650. 

1672.  Willoughby  filius  Willoughby  D'Ewes  Baronetti 
et  Du»  Priscellse  conjugifi  suae  baptizatus  fuit  decimo 
nono  die  Septembr  Anno  Dom  1672. 

1676.  Elizabeth  the  daughter  of  Sr  Willoughby  D'Ewes 
and  Dame  Precilla  his  wife,  was  baptized  the  2  of  No- 
vember, 1676. 

1685.  Sr  Willoughby  D'ews,  Barronet,  died  at  Stow 
hal,  And  was  Buried  in  ye  chancel  of  this  church  June  ye 
16th,  1685,  Anno  88. 

April  the  second,  1688.  Jermyn  D'ewes,  the  son  of  Sr 
Simondes  D'ewes,  Bart,  And  of  the  Lady  De-la-reveer 
his  wife,  was  Baptiz'd  in  this  church. 

Mrs.  De  la  reveer  D'ewes,  daughter  of  Sr  Simonds 
Dewes,  Bart,  And  the  Lady  Dewes  his  wife,  was  baptzd 
July  ye  3,  1689. 

.   *  (D'ewes)  inserted  by  a  later  hand,  and  in  a  different 

f  In  a  later  hand. 

I  In  a  later  hand. 

^1690.  March  y«  17th,  Mr.  Willough  Dewes,  son  of  S* 
Simondes,  Barronet,  and  De  la  reveer  his  Lady,  was  bap- 

1691.  May  ye  2th.  Mr  Simondes  D'ewes,  son  of  Sr 
Simondes  Dewes,  was  bapd. 

July  ye  12, 1693.  Mr.  Simondes  Dews  was  buried. 

1694.  Thursday,  May  y«  24*.  M"  Mary  D'ews,  second 
daughter  of  Sr  Simondes  D'ewes  was  baptized. 

1695.  Octbi-  the  10th.  M»  Priscilla  Dewes,  was  bap- 

1696.  Octobr  ye  31*,  1696.  Mistres  Susanna  Dewes  was 
born,  baptized  Nov.  ye  30. 

Dec.  ye  20, 1696.  Miss  Susanna  Dewes  was  buried. 

1697.  March  y«  24*,  1697.  Tho:  the  son  of  Sr  Simondes 
Dewes  and  of  Dame  De  la  revier  his  Lady  was  baptized 
March  y«  26  :  98  :  M*  Tho:   Dewes  the  infant  above, 
named  was  buried. 

Octob*  ye  twelf,  1698.  M*  Willoughbie  Dewes  his 
body  was  brought  from  Westminster  and  interred  in  ye 
chancel  of  this  parish  church. 

March  ye  15th,  1698.  Henrietta  Maria  Dewes,  the 
Daughter  of  Sr  Simondes  Dewes,  was  baptized  privately 
being  ill  as  was  affirmed. 

July  ye  6*,  1700.  Merelina  D'Ewes,  the  daughter  of  Sr 
Simondes  Dewes  and  of  Dame  Delareveer  his  Lady,  was 

1703.  April  the  9.  Mis  Priscella  Dewes,  a  child,  was 

1708.  The  Honourable  Dame  De  la  Riviere  D'Ewes, 
the  wife  of  Sr  Simonds  D'ewes,  Baronet,  was  buried 
Februar  12. 

W.  T.  T.  D. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  139,  181,  415,  462,  517.) 

I  must  retract  the  assertion  that  St.  Michael  is 
nowhere  styled  in  Holy  Scripture  an  archangel. 
I  forgot  at  the  moment  the  passage  in  St.  Jude, 
and  can  only  offer  in  extenuation  the  poor  excuse 
of  humanum  est  errare.  But  I  adhere  to  the 
other  assertion,  that  there  are  more  archangels 
than  St.  Michael.  E.  A.  D.  considers  it  most 
probable  that  St.  John's  expression  of  the  lt  seven 
spirits "  before  the  throne  (Apoc.  i.  4)  refers  to 
God  the  Holy  Ghost.  The  Fathers  of  the  Church 
from  the  earliest  times  have  not  been  of  that 
opinion.  St.  Clement  of  Alexandria,  who  died 
about  the  year  220,  distinctly  says, — 

"There  are  seven,  whose  power  is  the  greatest,  the  first- 
born princes  of  the  angels." 

"EITTO  fj.ev  clffiv  ot  T-^JV  /neyiffr^v  Svvafj.iv  expvrfs,  irp<a- 
rSyovoi  ayjf\ci>v  &pxovres. — Strom.,  lib.  vi.  16. 

That  this  Father  held  also  that  there  was  more 
than  one  archangel,  is  evident  from  what  he  says 
in  the  same  book,  speaking  of  Almighty  God, 
"  who  Himself  also  is  separated  from  the  arch- 
any  els." 

Kal  apxayyehtof  avrbv  Kexctf/HO'jUeVoj'. — N.  7. 

St.  Cyprian  also,  who  was  martyred  in  258,  ex- 
pressly says,  in  allusion  to  this  very  passage  of  the 
Apocalypse :  — 

"  Ut  septem  spiritus  et  angeli  septem  qui  assistunt  et 
conversantur  ante  faciem  Dei." — S.  Cyp.,  Ep.  ad  Fortu- 
natum,  n.  xi. 



[3"1  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

And  in  another  place  he  cites  the  parallel  pas- 
sage in  the  Book  of  Tobias :  — 

"  Ut  angeli  septem  qui  assistant  et  conversantur  ante 
faciem  Dei,  sicut  Raphael  angelus  in  Tobia  dicit,  .  .  . 
et  spiritus  septem,  et  candelabra  in  Apocalypsi  septem." 
— Testiinoniorum  adv.  Judceos,  lib.  i.  n.  20. 

St.  Ireneus,  martyred  in  202,  enumerates  in 
many  places  the  various  angelic  orders,  and  always 
mentions  among  them  archangels;  so  that  he  could 
not  have  restricted  that  term  to  St.  Michael  ex- 
clusively. In  one  of  these  he  expressly  says, — 

"Enarrent  numerum  angelorum,  et  ordinem  archangel- 
orum." — Adv.  Hares,  lib.  ii.  cap.  54. 

Again,  speaking  of  God  the  Son,  he  says, — 
"  Semper  revelat  Patrem,  et  angelis  et  archangelis."— 
Ibid.,  cap.  55. 

And  again, — 

"Quoniam  enim  sive  angeli,  sive  archangeli,  sive 
throni,"  &c. — Ibid.,  lib.  iii.  cap.  8. 

St.  Jerome,  on  Daniel  viii.  16,  observes  that 
Gabriel  appeared  to  the  prophet,  not  as  an  angel, 
or  an  archangel,  but  merely  as  a  man  :  — 

"  Videtur  autem  Gabriel  non  angelus  vel  archangelus, 
sed  vir." 

The  Holy  Father  thus  clearly  intimates  that  the 
character  of  an  archangel  belonged  to  St.  Gabriel, 
though  he  appeared  in  this  instance  only  as  a  man. 

Theodoret,  who  nourished  in  the  fifth  century, 
speaks  of  archangels,  and  consequently  did  not 
confine  that  title  to  St.  Michael.  He  represents 
them  as  presiding  over  nations :  — 

Oi  5e  a.px.d.yye\oi  7&s  f&v  &Qv3>v  eirt<TTacrias  eVeTHOTeu- 
6ri<Tav,  us  yua/ca/jioy  e'5i'5a£e  Mcocrfjs. — Theodoret  in  Daniel, 
x.  13. 

But  he  speaks  more  completely  to  our  point 
in  another  place,  and  distinctly  styles  Saint  Ga- 
briel an  archangel :  — 

Kal  irpbs  TOVTOIS  Faj8pi^\  T\)V  apxo.yyf\ov  aj'ofie^taTt- 
£fii>  fT6\W(re.  —  Ibid.  Reprehensio  XII.  Capit.  Cyrilli. 
Anathem.  9. 

Surely  the  voice  of  antiquity  is  decisive  as  to  a 
plurality  of  archangels. 

I  had  referred  to  the  Litany  of  the  Saints  as  of 
"_very  high  antiquity,"  but"E.  A.  D.  takes  the 
liberty  to  doubt  if  it  can  be  found  in  any  genuine 
Liturgy  of  the  first  four  centuries.  The  Liturgies 
contained  the  Order  of  the  Mass,  and  the  Litany 
had  no  place  there;  but  the  invocations  of  angels 
and  saints  in  the  Litany  were  in  use  in  the  sixth 
century,  if  not  earlier. 

MR.  JOHN  A.  C.  VINCENT,  who  first  opened  the 
question  indirectly,  by  inquiring  for  a  distinctive 
emblem  for  St.  Michael,  tells  me  that  he  should 
have  felt  more  flattered  if  I  had  allowed  the  pos- 
sibility of  his  being  acquainted  with  the  ancient 
Litany  of  Saints,  and  that  he  said  what  he  did,  in 
reality,  in  consequence  of  this  acquaintance  ;  for 

that  "  the  sense  of  the  Church,  and  the  language 
of  the  Holy  Fathers,  are  of  very  varying  weight 
with  one  person  and  with  another."  This  means, 
I  presume,  that  with  him  their  weight  is  very 
small.  But  I  paid  him  in  reality  a  much  higher 
compliment ;  for  I  gave  him  credit  for  preferring 
the  long  testimony  of  centuries  in  the  Church  of 
Christ  to  any  private  views ;  and  I  regret  that  I 
was  mistaken.  I  am  at  a  loss  to  reconcile  this  in- 
difference for  the  voice  of  antiquity  on  the  number 
of  the  archangels,  with  such  professions  of  regard  for 
it  on  the  mere  question  of  an  emblem  for  the  chief 
of  them.  However,  had  I  known  what  I  now 
discover,  I  should  have  spared  myself  the  trouble 
of  suggesting  what  has  been  received  so  ungra- 
ciously. If  the  names  and  emblems  of  various 
other  spirits,  styled  archangels  without  authority, 
are  inserted  in  the  Emblems  of  Saints,  it  should  be 
remembered  that  such  insertion  involves  no  ap- 
probation of  their  titles  5  and  that  the  book  is 
intended  rather  for  artists  and  antiquaries  than  for 
theologians.  F.  C.  H. 

Without  entering  into  any  theological  discus- 
sion, I  think  it  may  be  worth  remarking  that  the 
Jews  admitted  four  chief  spirits :  — 

"  There  are  four  armies  of  angels  of  ministry  singing 
praises  before  the  Holy  and  Blessed  One.  The  first,  that 
of  Michael  on  his  right  hand;  the  second,  that  of  Gabriel, 
on  his  left ;  the  third,  that  of  Uriel,  in  front  of  him  ;  the 
fourth,  that  of  Raphael,  behind.  (Pirke,  Rabbi  Eliezer. 
iv.  init.y 

These  are  stated  to  have  had  the  same  standards 
as  the  four  divisions  of  the  Jewish  army  (cf. 
Numbers,  chap.  ii.).  For  the  above  I  am  in- 
debted to  Donaldson's  Christian  Orthodoxy,  at 
p.  136. 

At  p.  376  he  makes  another  important  re- 
mark :  — 

"  Virtually  his  (i.  e.  the  Archangel  Michael's)  func- 
tions, since 'the  earliest  centuries  of  the  Church,  have 
been  absorbed  into  those  of  our  national  patron  St. 

I  am  not  aware  that  this  point  has  been  as  yet 
fully  investigated  by  any  ecclesiologist,  but  I 
think  it  will  probably  explain  the  symbolism  of 
the  Church  of  the  Holy  Angels  alluded  to  by 
F.  C.  H. 

Can  any  of  your  correspondents  inform  me  what 
are  the  usual  symbols  for  St.  Michael  in  the 
Greek  churches  of  Eussia,  where  he  plays  an  im- 
portant part  ? 

I  remember  some  years  ago  noticing  the  figure 
of  the  Archangel  in  the  church  of  St.  Michael, 
Vienna,  but  I  cannot  recall  to  mind  any  special 
symbols  accompanying  it,  nor  have  1  any  book  of 
reference  at  hand  to  refresh  my  memory. 


3rd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



(3rd  S.  ix.  501.) 

It  would  surely  be  very  curious  if  the  slang 
or  patois  of  Italian  boatmen,  leaving  their  own 
country  without  a  trace  of  its  ever  having  existed, 
and  neglecting  France,  which  has  had  at  all  times 
a  very  close  intercourse  with  Italy,  should  have 
come  to  take  up  its  home  exclusively  among  us. 
We  all  know  how  deceitful  are  apparent  analo- 
gies and  resemblances  of  languages ;  and  I  would 
submit  to  your  correspondent  A.  A.  that  neither 
ability  or  travel  is  at  all  times  sufficient  to  enable 
one  to  dig  out  the  origin  of  a  word  derived  from 
the  customs  of  the  past. 

In  the  infancy  of  navigation,  when  sails  were 
merely  auxiliary :  when  a  ship — using  the  term 
generically — never  attempted  to  beat  to  wind- 
ward, weather  and  lee  were  terms  of  very  little 
significance  as  designating  the  sides  of  a  ship; 
and  to  "  keep  his  weather  eye  open  "  would  have 
no  meaning  to  a  steersman  who  had  no  weather 
leech  of  the  sail  to  watch  as  he  was  keeping  the 
ship  "full  and  by."  Hence  the  side  at  which 
the  steer-oar  was  fixed  was  purely  conventional  ; 
and  convention  appears,  for  some  reason  best 
known  to  our  forefathers,  to  have  fixed  it  as  the 
right-hand  side. 

For  the  arguments  (necessarily  somewhat  long) 
in  support  of  this  statement,  I  would  refer  to 
Archeologie  Navale,  par  A.  Jal,  1840,  vol.  i.  pp.  171, 
181,  et  seq. ;  and  I  would  say  that,  from  a  fami- 
liar and  practical  knowledge  of  the  paddle,  I  fully 
agree  with  M.  Jal's  interpretation  of  the  passage 
from  Wace  on  which  he  lays  so  much  stress :  — 

"  Aval  le  hel  si  curt  senestre, 
Ensus  le  hel  pur  curt  a  destre." 

Perhaps  M.  Jal's  paraphrase  of  this  couplet 
suggests  the  real  origin  of  the  word  port,  as  ap- 
plied to  the  left-hand  side  of  the  ship :  "  S?il  veut 
courir  a  gauche,  le  timonier  pousse  en  bas  le 
helm,  et  il  le  porte  en  haut  pour  aller  a  droite." 
The  suggestion  given  by  the  clearly  drawn  dis- 
tinction between  "  pousse  "  and  "  porte  "  is  backed 
by  the  usage  of  the  word  port  till  very  recently. 
It  was  only  in  (I  think)  the  year  1845  that  it  was 
adopted  by  the  Admiralty  and  ordered  to  be  used 
in  all  H.  M.  ships  instead  of  u  larboard  ;"  thus 
doing  away  with  a  certain  liability  to  confound 
two  words  so  much  alike  in  sound,  so  different  in 
meaning,  as  "starboard"  and  "larboard."  Before 
then,  the  word  port  was  little  used  except  with 
reference  to  the  helm:  in  such  phrases  for  in- 
stance as  "  port  your  helm,"  though  it  had 
perhaps,  in  later  years,  been  slowly  creeping  in — 
preparing  the  way,  as  it  were,  for  its  official 

And  as  to  "  larboard,"  I  would  offer  a  guess  for 
the  consideration  of  better  Norse  scholars  than 
myself:  hojre,  or  in  patois  hogre,  which  in  strict- 

ness means  higher,  has  the  signification  of  right. 
Can  lavere  (or  laager  e)  =  loiuer,  ever  have  borne 
the  signification  of  left?  I  cannot  help  thinking 
that  here  we  have  the  origin  of  our  word ;  at  the 
same  time,  I  most  thoroughly  admit  that  I  have 
no  authority  for  doing  so.  S.  H.  M. 

S.  x.  1.) — Notes  from  the  Gent.'s  May.,  v.  37 :  — 

"  The  Princess  Poniatowski.  sister  to  the  King  of 
Poland,  arrived  at  St.  James's." — Sunday,  Julv  19,  1767 
(p.  381). 

"  The  Princess  Poniatowski,  sister  to  the  King  of 
Poland,  and  the  Prince  de  Ligne,  who  accompanied  her, 
visited  Oxford,  and  expressed  great  satisfaction." — Julv 
31,  1767  (p.  426). 

S.  H.  H. 

On  turning  over  some  old  numbers  of  the  New 
Monthly  Magazine  (vol.  iv.  p.  30  and  161,  1822), 
two  contemporary  notices  of  Mrs.  Serres  and  her 
case  will  be  found.  One  is  in  the  third  of  a  series 
of  letters,  entitled  "  Milk  and  Honey,  or  the  Land 
of  Promise;"  being  an  account  of  the  sayings 
and  doings  of  a  family  called  Barrow,  who  are 
supposed  to  have  emigrated  to  America  in  con- 
sequence of  the  "  bad  times  "  in  the  early  part  of 
the  reign  of  George  IV. :  — 

"  But  don't  let  me  lose  what  I  meant  to  express, 
Before  I  left  England  I  saw  a  Princess  ! 
She  lodges  in  Fleet  Street,  next  door  to  Hone's  shop — 
Two  lions  that  make  all  the  passengers  stop. 
Papa  and  '  The  Ex '  *  think  her  case  very  hard  ; 
Says  he  to  me, '  Lyddy,  we'll  both  leave  a  card  ; 
Two  kings  are  her  cousins,  girl,  hold  up  your  neck ; 
Depend  on  it,  Lyddy,  it's  not  a  bad  speck.' 
Like  a  dutiful  daughter  I  did  depend  on  it, 
Went  up  to  my  bed-room  to  put  on  my  bonnet, 
And,  as  the  sun  promised  a  morning  of  dryness, 
I  walk'd,  without  pattens,  to  wait  on  her  Highness. 
A  man  op'd  the  door,  in  coat  which,  I  think, 
Was  dyed,  like  the  rest  of  the  Family's,  pink. 
But  when  Papa  ask'd  if  the  Royal  Princess 
Was  at  home,  and  the  Chamberlain  answered  him 


And  civilty  told  us  to  walk  up  together, 
A  child  might  have  knock'd  me  down  flat  with  a 

feather ! 

Her  Highness,  sweet  soul !  made  us  sit  on  two  chairs, 
And  let  us,  at  once,  into  all  her  affairs  : 
She  told  us,  her  foes  held  her  there  by  a  capias, 
She  meant,  as  she  told  us,  to  move  for  her  habeas, 
But  has  not^perhaps  on  account  of  the  corpus, 
For  her's,  entre  nous,  is  as  big  as  a  porpus. 
She  mention'd,  with  pride,  how  on  last  Lord  Mayor's 


Her  countenance  drew  all  the  people  away  ; 
But  own'd,  while  they  dubb'd  her  the  general  charmer, 
It  might  be  because  there  were  no  men  in  armour. 

"  Adieu  !  royal  dame,  falsely  call'd  Mrs.  Serres ; 
For  you  and  your  sire  are  as  like  as  two  cherries  ; — 
Farewell,  injured  daughter  of  Poniatowski, 
You  soon  should  be  let  out  if  I  held  the  house-key  !  " 

Ex-Sheriff  Parkins. 



[3'd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

In  the  same  volume,  in  an  article  called 
«  Grimm's  Ghost/'  Letter  7,  p.  161,  is  the  follow- 
ing: — 

**  London  under  Water. 

"On  Friday,  28th  Dec.  1821,  Mark  Lane,  Mincing 
Lane,  and  Billiter  Square  ....  Mrs.  Serres,  attended  by 
a  water-bailiff,  rowed  from  her  residence  in  the  last-men- 
tioned place,  to  the  King's  Head  in  the  Poultry,  and  the 
Cumberland  Arms  in  the  City-road  ;  she  then  touched  in 
Poland  Street  ;  but  her  expectations  being  damped  by 
the  humidity  of  the  atmosphere,  she  returned  to  the  hosier's 
at  the  corner  of  Fleet  Street." 

Could  any  of  your  readers  inform  me  as  to  the 
authorship  of  the  above  articles,  which  were  very 
popular  at  the  time  ?  I  have  heard  them  attri- 
buted to  W.  and  Horace  Smith,  but  have  never 
seen  them  in  any  collection  of  their  works.  The 
American  letters  are  very  original,  and  must  have 
been  written  by  some  one  who  had  visited  that 
country.  A.  A. 

Poets'  Corner. 

CEALCHYTH  (3rd  S.  x.  19.)—  Two  curious  mis- 
takes have  been  made  in  this  communication: 
"this  group  seems  as  likely  as  any,"  should  be 
"this  guess"  Winwick  was  not  the  "birth- 
place," but  the  deatfA-place  of  St.  Oswald,  accord- 
ing to  the  well  known  Leonine  verses  on  the 
Church,  beginning  : 

"  Hie  locus,  Oswalde,  quondam  placuit  tibi  valde." 

The  particular  spot  is  still  pointed  out,  and 
agrees  with  the  description  given  in  some  of  the 
old  chronicles.  JANNOK. 

TRUCK  (3rd  S.  ix.  520)  simply  means,  both  as 
substantive  and  verb,  barter.  "Nicholas  Bailey 
and  Johnson  sufficiently  explain  the  word.  Men- 
age (Diet.  Etymol.}  — 

"  Troquer,  Lat,  permature.  Les  Espagnols  disent  aussi 
trocar.  Les  Anglo-Saxons  disoient  to  trucke.  Voyez 
Me'ric  Casaubon,  p.  364,  de  sa  Dissertation  sur  TAncienne 
Langue  Angloise.  Ce  qui  donne  sujet  de  croire  que  ce 
mot  est  Alleman  d'origine,  et  que  le  Francis  troquer  et 
1'Espagnol  trocar  viennent  de  ce  mot  Alleman." 

The  truck  system  is,  therefore,  bartering  labour 
for  provisions,  clothing,  &c.,  instead  of  money 
wages.  Truck  =  handcart,  is  evidently  from 
another  source,  and  probably  connected  with  the 
Greek  TpoX6s.  JANNOK. 

THE  "MIDNIGHT  REVIEW"  (3rd  S.  ix.  463 
602.)—  The  ballad  which  has  been  inquired  after 
will  be  found  inErlach's  Volkslieder  der  DeutscJien 
v<£  v-  P-  341-  Its  title  ia  «  Die  Nachtliche  Heer- 
schau,"  and  it  begins  — 

"  Nachts  um  die  zwolfte  Stunde 

Verlasst  der  Tambour  sein  Grab, 
Macht  mit  der  Trommel  die  Runde. 
Geht  emsig  auf  und  ab." 

The  Emperor  arrives  with  his  staff— 
"  Er  tragt  ein  kleines  Hutohen, 
Er  tragt  ein  einfach  Kleid, 
Und  einen  kleinen  Degen 
Tragt  er  an  seiner  Seit." 

After  the  Review  he  gives  the  word — 
"  Das  Wort  geht  in  die  Runde, 

Klingt  wieder  fern  und  nah  : 
'  Frankreich '  ist  die  Parole, 
Die  Losung  «  Sankt  Helena ! ' " 

The  author  is  Von  Zedlitz,  and  it  has  been  set 
to  music  by  various  composers.  JANNOK. 

PORTRAIT  or  BARNEVELDT  (3rd  S.  ix.  495.) — In 
"  N.  &  Q."  of  June  16  is  an  inquiry  by  J.  M.  as 
to  the  whereabouts  of  certain  portraits  of  Olden 
Barneveldt.  I  have  in  my  picture  collection — I  can 
hardly  call  it  gallery — an  interesting  portrait  of 
him  painted  by  his  friend  Mierevelt,  which  may 
possibly  be  one  of  those  inquired  for.  It  is  sur- 
rounded by  the  names  and  titles  of  the  twenty- 
four  judges  who  condemned  him  to  death,  or,  as  I 
think,  helped  Prince  Maurice  to  murder  him,  and 
an  inscription  assumes  that  they  were  bribed  with 
as  many  hundred  guilders  for  their  subserviency. 

I  shall  be  very  glad  to  show  it  to  your  inquirer, 
but  do  not  wish  to  part  with  it.  The  picture  is  at 
my  house  in  Twickenham.  HENRY  G.  BOHN. 

4,  York  Street,  Covent  Garden. 

WALKING  UNDER  A  LADDER  (3rd  S.  ix.  501.)  — 
I  think  the  superstition  about  the  ladder  must 
owe  its  origin  to  the  fact  that  something  is  likely 
to  fall  on  him  who  passes  between  one  and  the 
house  against  which  it  rests.  The  superstition  is 
connected  with  ladders  only,  for  no  one,  that  I 
ever  heard  of,  objects  to  go  under  a  wooden  sup- 
port, or  prop,  such  as  we  see  occasionally  against 
houses,  There  is  such  a  prop  on  Ludgate  Hill, 
and  it  reaches  nearly  across  the  pavement.  I  took 
the  trouble  the  other  morning  to  watch  the  people 
as  they  came  to  this.  I  can  safely  say  that  of  the 
hundreds  who  passed  whilst  I  watched,  not  one 
went  out  of  his  way  to  avoid  going  underneath 
the  support. 

I  have  also  inquired  amongst  bricklayers  and 
others  who  are  much  about  ladders,  and,  as  far  as 
my  limited  researches  go,  I  find  that  they  have  no 
fear  of  ill-luck  beyond  that  which  might  be  oc- 
casioned by  a  falling  tile  or  brick. 

C.  S.  REVELL. 

EPITAPH  AT  OAKHAM  (3rd  S.  ix.  276.) — The 
epitaph  quoted  by  your  correspondent  was  written 
by  Samuel  Grossman,  and  is  published  in  his 
Young  Man's  Meditation;  or,  Some  few  Sacred 
Poems  upon  Select  Subjects  and  Scriptures.  1664. 
There  are  seven  verses  in  the  original,  of  which 
Mr.  Smirke  quotes  the  first  and  part  of  the  last. 
The  concluding  stanza  is  as  follows :  — 
"  Put  on,  my  soul,  put  on  with  speed, 

Though  the  way  be  long,  the  end  is  sweet ; 
Once  more,  poor  world,  farewell  indeed, 
In  leaving  thee,  my  Lord  I  meet." 

For  the  remaining  stanzas  and  further  informa- 
tion as  to  Grossman,  I  must  refer  your  corre- 
spondent to  the  reprint  of  his  Poems,  in  the  form 

S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66.] 



of  a  sixpenny  pamphlet,  published  by  Mr.  Sedg 
wick  of  Sun  Street.  W.  T.  BROOKE. 

CITATIONS  FOR  VERIFICATION  (3rd  S.  ix.  195. 
Probably  the  hero  is  Theseus  and  his  guilty  frie 

Oi;5e)s  Se  Qviyrwv  TCUS  Tvxais  cuff]paros, 
Ou  BewVj  aoiS&v  etirep  ov  ^euSels  \6ynt. 
Ov  \eKTpa  r   a\\r}\oi(Tii>,  uv  ouSeis  vfaos, 
ou  Seff/j-o^ffi  fita  rvpavviSas 

Hercules  Furens,  vv.  1305-10. 

The  passage  in  Lucian  is,  — 

Momus.  Haw  yow  fj-va-rrfpleav,  5  ZeD,  5e?  iifuv,  & 
tlStvai  Beovs  fJikv  rovs  6eovs,  KvvoKf(pd\ovs  Ce  rovs  KVVO- 
fteepoAouy.  —  Deorum  Concilium,  c.  xi.  t.  ix.  p.  187,  ed 

Perhaps  some  one  better  read  in  ./Eschylus  than 
I  am  will  tell  us  whether  or  not  he  said  "  tha 
Jupiter  infused  more  badness  into  men  than  the 
fire  of  Prometheus  could  burn  out."     I  do  no 
remember  anything  to  that  effect.  H.  B.  C. 

U.  U.  Club. 

LETTERIST  :  BLUE  (3rd  S.  ix.  540.)  —  LETTERTST 
(the  rage  for  coming  new  words  is  much  to  be 
lamented),  speaking  of  the  title  "  blue  stocking/ 
says,  "founded  on,  or  suggestive  of,  what  is  be- 
yond my  comprehension."  The  name  originate 
in  a  literary  society  gathered  by  the  learned  Mrs 
Montague-,  which  was  commonly  known  as  the 
"Blue  Stocking  Club."  The  title  is  said  to  have 
been  gained  by  Mrs.  Montague's  remark  to  a  gen- 
tleman, that  so  little  attention  did  the  members  pay 
to  dress  in  comparison  with  the  cultivation  of  the 
mind,  that  he  might,  if  he  pleased,  appear  in  blue 
stockings  without  exciting  remark  ;  in  other  words, 
that  he  might  attend  the  meetings  in  the  ordinary 
morning  country  dress  —  blue  or  grey  worsted 
stockings.  H.  P.  D. 

Your  correspondent  LETTERIST  has  been  misled 
by  the  orthography  QiparUeu,  morblcu,  &c.  They 
are  corruptions  of  "  par  Dieu,"  "  mort  de  Dieu  :  " 
just  so  palsambleu  for  "par  le  sang  de  Dieu;" 
tete  lieu  for  "tete  de  Dieu;"  sacre  bleu  for 
"sacre*  Dieu;"  corbleu  for  "  corps  de  Dieu;" 
vertu  bleu  for  "vertu  de  Dieu;"  and  lastly,  venire 
l)leu  for  "ventre  de  Dieu."  The  words  are  an 
evil  legacy  of  the  Middle  Ages  :  probably  few,  if 
any,  of  those  who  use  them  are  aware  of  their 
true  import.  The  corruptions  of  oaths  in  common 
speech  would  form  an  interesting  subject  of  dis- 
cussion. Not  many  years  ago  I  remember  an 
article  appeared  on  some  French  novel  of  the  day 
in  TJie  Saturday  Review,  in  which  the  reviewer 
mistook  the  common  French  expression  dame  (i.  e. 
"par  Notre  Dame  la  Stt!  Vierge  ")  for  the  com- 
mon English  damn.  SCISCITATOR. 

532.)  —  The  following  is  an  admirable  translation 
of  the  epigram  on  the  King  of  Prussia.  It  is  given 
in  the  Poetical  Farrago,  with  the  date  1746,  but 
no  author's  name  is  attached  to  it,  nor  is  it  even 
stated  to  be  from  the  French :  — 
"  King,  hero,  philosopher,  author,  musician, 

Freemason,  economist,  bard,  politician ; 

If  a  Christian,  how  happy  would  Europe  have  been ; 

And,  alas  \  if  a  man^  how  transported  his  queen." 

H.  P.  D. 

43RD  LIGHT  INFANTRY  (3rd  S.  ix.  325.)  —  Is 
there  not  a  mistake  in  the  date  ?  Ought  it  not 
to  be  "Horse  Guards,  Jan.  1,  1766,  instead  of 
1866  ?  A5. 

ABRACADABRA  (3rd  S.  ix.  541.) — The  passage 
quoted  by  F.  C.  H.,  and  alluded  to  by  T.  J. 
BUCKTON,  will  be  found  in  w,  944 — 949  of  the 
poem  of  Samonicus  (Weber's  Cwpus  Poetarum 
Latinorum,  p.  1186). 

N.B.  In  Smith's  Dictionary  of  Biography,  iii. 
787,  s.  v.  "Serenus,"  for  "115  hexameter  lines," 
read  1115.  P.  J.  F.  GANTILLON. 

BEACONS  (3rd  S.  ix.  616.) — MR.  ATKINSON  ex- 
presses a  hope  that  information  may  be  sent  to 
"N.  &  Q."  regarding  the  various  Beacon  Hills  in 
this  country.  It  may  also  be  worth  while  to  col- 
lect accounts  of  beacons  raised  on  buildings  or 
church  towers.  As  a  beginning,  I  may  mention 
that,  not  long  since,  a  friend  of  mine  saw  on  the 
top  of  the  steeple  of  Hadley  church  an  iron  pitch- 
pot,  designed  to  be  fired  as  a  beacon  in  case  of 
invasion.  Is  it  known  when,  or  during  what 
troubles,  this  beacon  was  raised  ?  Pennant  writes 
that  the  word  beacon  is  derived  from  the  Saxon 
becnian,  to  call  by  signs.  Before  the  time  of 
Edward  IH.  alarm-signals  were  given  by  firing 
great  stacks  of  wood  ;  but  in  the  eleventh  year  of 
this  reign  it  was  ordered  that  pitch-pots  be 
placed  on  poles  or  on  elevated  buildings.  H.  C. 

ALMACK'S  (3rd  S.  ix.  138,  &c.)  — I  referred  to  a 
passage  from  Chambers's  Encyclopcedia,  in  explana- 
tion of  the  name,  and  have  found  the  circumstances 
identified  in  the  following  :  — 

"  The  celebrated  Dr.  Cullen  was  originally  a  surgeon 
in  Hamilton.  He  had  two  sisters,  one  of  whom  became 
waiting-maid  to  the  Duchess  of  Hamilton.  In  the  course 
f  time,  the  waiting-maid  was  married  to  the  Duke's 
valet,  whose  name  was  Macall.  As  they  were  both 
avourites  of  the  family,  the  Duke  set  them  up  in  a  hotel 
n  London ;  where,  finding  the  Scottish  name  of  Macall 
rather  unfashionable,  they  changed  it  to  Almack." 

This  is  introduced  as  an  incident  told  concern- 
ng  the  origin  of  Almack's  in  Rev.  C.  Rogers's 
Familiar  Illustrations  of  Scottish  Life  (eighth 
housand),  London,  1866,  p.  112.  E.  M. 

I  have  been  unable  to  find  whether  Mr.  Almack 

ver  changed  his  name.     We  think  not.     I  will 

write  to  a  lady  who  would  certainly  know.    My 



[3'd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

grandfather  married  a  niece  of  Mr.  Almack,  who 
left  the  business  to  my  grandfather  upon  his  re- 
tiring. Tnos.  WILLIS. 

Willis's  Rooms,  July  9. 

LADY  "  (3rd  S.  ix.  531.)  — I  was  living-  in  Hamp- 
shire when  this  book  appeared,  and  was  in  con- 
stant communication  with  respectable  Dissenters. 
It  was  pretty  well  understood  among  us  that  the 
work  was  written  by  Miss  Gunn,  a  lady  residing 
at  Christchurch,  and  of  the  Independent  denomi- 
nation. PELONI. 

TELEGRAM  AND  PHOTOGRAM  (3rd  S.  ix.  530.)— 
Without  in  any  way  reopening  the  bygone 
fl  telegram "  controversy,  I  wish  to  remark  that 
7pct(j>7J  (if  the  termination  graph,  in  telegraph,  be 
taken  as  a  noun)  has  more  senses  than  your  cor- 
respondent T.  C.  appears  to  admit.  On  turning 
to  Liddell  and  Scott  (3rd  edit.),  I  observe  refer- 
ences to  Soph.  Track.,  683 ;  Thuc.  i.  129,  in  the 
senses  of  writing  and  letter.  Rost  and  Palm 
supply  a  large  number  of  quotations,  from  Plato 
and  elsewhere. 

Before  the  celebrated  innovation  "telegram," 
we  had  in  our  language  monograph  by  the  side  of 
monogram.  I  do  not  know  if  the  history  of  these 
two  words  has  been  accurately  traced.  I  may  also 
add,  that  the  quotation  for  ypdama  should  be 
Cratylus,  not  "  Critias  "  (431  c.).  SCISCITATOK. 

"  LAZY  LAWRENCE  "  (3rd  S.  ix.  541.)  —  "  Lazy 
Lawrence"  is,  I  think,  the  best  heading  to  adopt 
for  this  discussion,  as  it  is  the  expression  to  which 
we  should  "  hark  back." 

It  is  an  expression  I  have  known  from  my 
childhood.  It  so  happens  that  my  childhood  was 
passed  in  the  east  of  Somersetshire — (by  the  bye, 
I  remember  "  Lawrence  "  being  pronounced  "  Lar- 
rence,"  which  Mr.  Brayley,  in  his  Graphic  Illus- 
trator, writes  "  Larence  ") — but  I  do  not  think  it 
likely  that  the  expression  is  peculiar  to  the  south- 
west of  England ;  indeed  it  would  seem  to  be, 
virtually  at  least,  used  "  both  in  Cambridgeshire 
and  Hertfordshire  " — being  most  likely  ubiquitous 

I  would  conjecture  that  it  originates  from  St. 
Lawrence  being  represented  as  bearing  a  clasped 
book.  The  book's  being  shut  would  suggest  the 
jocular  saying,  "Lazy  Lawrence."  From  St. 
Lawrence  (to  whom,  by  the  bye,  about  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  English  churches  are,  it  is  said, 
dedicated)  being  patron  of  the  most  famous 
church  in  the  Isle  of  Wight— famous  as  the 
smallest  of  English  churches— people  who  lived 
on  "  the  south  coast  of  Hants  "  would,  for  lt  Law- 
rence," substitute  "The  Isle  of  Wight  Man." 
Voild  tout ! 

The  ingenious  conjecture  that  there  is  "  a 
play  upon  the  words  '  Isle  o'  Wight '  and  l  idle 
wight ' "  thus  becomes  unnecessary.  Nor,  to 

waive  my  explanation,  would  it  account  for  the 
introduction  of  the  word  "  Lawrence."  This  dif- 
iculty  has  not  escaped  the  notice  of  the  pro- 
pounder  of  that  solution  of  the  problem. 

Coomb,  near  Woodstock. 

There  is  a  line  in  Barnabe  Googe's  translation  of 
Nfaogeorgus,  under  the  head  of  "  Helpers,"  which 
I  copy  from  Brand  (vol.  i.  p.  363,  Bohn),  con- 
sidering that  the  proverb  may  be  a  provincial 
corruption  of  a  phrase  applied  originally  in  an 
opposite  sense :  — 

And  Laurence  from  tlie  backe  and  from  the  shoulder 
sicknesse  puttes." 

Now,  the  sickness  of  the  idle  man  is  in  the  un- 
willing back  and  lax  shoulder :  so  that,  instead 
of  Lawrence  having  hold  of  him,  he  was  perhaps 
ironically  told  to  go  to  St.  Lawrence, .  and  call 
upon  him,  as  another  supplicant,  for  cure  for  his 
lazy  bones.  I  have  often  heard  the  saying  in 
London,  but  knew  not  whence  imported.  I  think 
there  is  but  one  church  dedicated  to  this  saint  in 
the  Wight,  as  I  believe  that  there  are  but  two  in 
London,  and  those  of  old  formation — St.  Lawrenca 
in  the  Jewry,  and  St.  Lawrence  Pountney,  in  the 
lane  of  that  name.  J.  A.  G. 

CURSIVE  HEBREW  (3rd  S.  ix.  510,  540.)— PE- 
LONI will  find  the  cursive  Hebrew  alphabet  in 
most  school  books  printed  for  the  use  of  Jewish 
children  in  Germany.  I  have  several  of  these 
printed  in  Vienna  by  Anton  Schmidt.  The  title 
of  one  of  them  which  contains  the  Jiidische 
Schrift "  is  Limude  Hakria  («npn  &mO^).  He 
will  find  the  cursive  character  difficult  to  read 
owing  to  the  great  number  of  abbreviations  used 
in  it.  A.  RUSSELL. 

SPANISH-  DOLLARS  (3rd  S.  ix.  497.)— The  Spanish 
dollars  with  the  head  of  the  king  of  England 
stamped  on  the  neck  of  the  king  of  Spain  passed 
for  four  shillings  and  ninepence.  I  have  heard, 
but  cannot  cite  any  authority,  that  a  shij)  loaded 
with  them  was  captured.  The  following,  if  it  has 
not  already  appeared  in  "N.  &  Q.,"  may  be  worth 
insertion :  — 
"  The  times  are  out  of  joint  we  all  must  own, 

When  two  kings'  heads  combined  aren't  worth  one 

E.  N.  II. 

HALL  AND  BENEFIELD  (3rd  S.  ix.  535.)— There 
are  two  mistakes  in  the  reply,  (1)  Quaint  and 
learned  Hall  was  never  "  Dr. ;  "  (2)  his  Exposition 
of  Hosea,  xiii.  12—16,  supplementary  to  Jeremiah 
Burroughs  on  the  preceding  portion  of  the  pro- 
phet, was  published  in  1659-60,  4to.  Burroughs 
and  Hall  along  with  Bishop  Reynolds  on  chap, 
xiv.,  making  a  complete  "commentary"  on  the 
whole  book,  was  edited  and  republished  by  the 
late  excellent  Mr.  Sherman  in  a  portly  royal  8vo, 

3*a  S.  X.  JOLT  14,  '66.] 



which  forms  now  one  of  Mr.  Nichol's  series  of 
Puritan  Commentators.  Hall  designed  no  more 
than  the  above  little  supplement  on  Hosea.  His 
book  has  all  his  characteristics  of  original  thought 
and  insight,  and  scholarliness.  A.  B.  G. 

"  THE  RULE  OF  THE  ROAD  "  (3rd  S.  ix.  521.)— 
I  was  taught  by  my  father  upwards  of  fifty  years 
ago  the  following  :  — 

"  The  rule  of  the  road  is  a  paradox  quite 

In  driving  your  carriage  along  ; 
If  you  go  to  the  left,  you'll  be  sure  to  be  right, 

But  if  you  go  right — you  go  wrong," 
It  is  slightly  different  from  that  in  No.  234  of 
"  N.  &  Q.;"  but  to  my  mind  more  appropriate. 



"  POOR  MAN'S  CATECHISM  "  (3rd  S.  ix.  372, 421, 
542.) — I  have  several  editions  of  this  useful  work, 
but  have  not  seen  the  one  published  by  Richard- 
son and  Son  spoken  of  by  ME.  J.  W.  BONE.  He 
may  well  not  know  what  such  initials  as  A.  S.  R. 
mean;  for  they  have  no  meaning.  They  are  a 
strange  misprint,  for  0.  S.  B.,  which  letters  of 
course  mean  of  the  Order  of  St.  Benedict,  the 
author  having  been  a  Benedictine  monk,  as  stated 
in  my  former  communication.  F.  C.  H. 

QUOTATION  WANTED  (3rd  S.  ix.  533.) — In  reply 
to  the  query  of  W.  H.  WILLIAMS,  I  beg  to  state 
that  the  expression  occurs  in  a  poem  written  by 
Anstey,  author  of  the  Neio  Bath  Guide.  I  re- 
member, many  years  ago,  seeing  a  4to  volume  of 
poems  written  by  him,  in  which,  describing  him- 
self, he  says : — 

"  O  Granta !  sweet  Granta !  where,  studious  of  ease, 
I  slumbered  seven  years  and  then  lost  my  degrees." 


The  original  source  whence  English  poets  have 
drawn  such  phrases  as  "  studious  of  ease,"  &c.,  is 
to  be  found  in  Virgil,  Georgics,  iv.  5G4  :  — 

*'  Illo  Virgilium  me  tempore  dulcis  alebat 
Parthenope,  studiis  florentem  ignobilis  oti." 

Church  Row,  Hampstead,  N.W. 

The  line  (3rd  S.x.  8)  — 

"  So  like  a  shatter'd  column  k^  the  King," — 

which  is,  possibly,  the  quotation  referred  to  by 

your  correspondent,    occurs  in  Tennyson's  Mort 

d Arthur,  s.  f.  J.  B.  SHAW. 

"  The  passions,  prejudices,  interests,"  £c.,  &c. 

These  lines  are  in  the  second  part  of  Shelley's 
Queen  Mob. 

N.B.  For  "  the  least  touch."  read  "  the  weak 
touch."  J.  W.  W. 

HUMAN  FOOT-PKINTS  ON  ROCKS  (3rd  S.  vin. 
434.) — The  mosque  of  Omar,  which  stands  on  the 
site  of  the  Temple  of  Solomon,  contains  a  piece 
of  rock  called  the  Hadjr-el-Sakhara;  or  the  locked- 

up  stone,  on  which  are  shown  the  prints  of  the 
angel  Gabriel's  fingers  (who,  it  is  said,  brought 
it  from  heaven),  and  the  mark  of  Mahomed's  foot 
and  that  of  his  camel :  two  more  of  whose  foot- 
steps are  to  be  seen  in  Egypt  and  Arabia,  and  a 
fourth  at  Damascus.  GOLUNDAUZE. 

THE  OSTRICH  FEATHER  BADGE  (3rd  S.  x.  8.)  — 
Allow  me  to  refer  MR.  BOUTELL  to  three  articles 
in  the  Archceologia  (xxix.  50,  xxxi.  350,  and  xxxii. 
332),  where  the  subject  is  discussed  by  Mr.  John 
Gough  Nichols  and  Sir  Nicholas  Harris  Nicolas. 

EDWARD  Foss. 

SYNOBLE  :  SINOPLE  (3rd  S.  ix.  380.)— I  regret 
to  have  parted  with  some  notes  I  made  upon  this 
subject  a  few  years  ago,  and  at  present  can  only 
lay  my  hand  on  the  following  items  respecting 
it:  — 

"  Tho'  Vert  be  the  French  word  for  Green,  the  French 
heralds  instead  of  it  use  Sinople,  from  a  town  in  the 
Levant,  where  the  best  materials  for  dyeing  green  are 
found.  Let  us  now  see  what  Colombiere  says  of  this 
colour  and  its  signification,  thus:  Synopk  is  so  call'd 
from  the  Latin  word  Synopsis,  which  is  a  sort  of  clay,  or 
mineral,  found  in  the  Levant,  very  proper  for  dyeing 
green." — Coats's  Dictionary  of  Heraldry,  1739. 

SinopsiSj  however — and  rubrica  sinopica,  I  be- 
lieve—  are  used  by  Vitruvius  to  mean  a  sort  of 
red  stone  or  ruddle. 

We  cannot  rely  on  heraldic  writers  for  correct- 
ness in  matters  of  natural  history  or  science  j  but 
a  more  trustworthy  authority,  Landais,  gives  as  a 
meaning  of  sinople,  "sorte  de  craie  verte."  He 
adds :  "  on  donne  ce  nom  en  Hongrie  a  une  mine 
d'or  "  {Dictionnaire  Franqais).  The  word  has  not 
in  the  French  the  meaning  of  the  English  sinople. 

Chambers,  in  his  Cyclopeedia,  under  the  word 
"  SINOPLE,  or  SENOPLE,"  published  1783,  cites 
Pliny  and  Isidore  as  meaning,  by  color  sinopicus, 
a  brownish  red.  He  adds  a  derivation  of  the 
heraldic  term  that  I  think  can  only  be  glanced  at 
as  ingenious,  but  not  maintainable,  as  follows : — 

"  F.  Menestrier  derives  the  word  from  the  Greek, 
prasina  hopla,  green  armories,  by  corruptedly  retrench- 
ing the  first  syllable  pra :  which  is  no  new  thing  among 
oriental  words,  witness  Salonica  for  Thessalonica." 


42,  Bedford  Square. 

A  LOST  NOBLEMAN  (3rd  S.  ix.  473.)— J.  W.  W. 
asks  who  was  the  nobleman  or  person  of  whom 
this  incident  is  related  ?  Possibly  it  may  refer  to 
the  following :  —  In  the  spring  of  1809  my  great 
uncle,  Mr.  Benjamin  Bathurst,  being  employed  as 
Envoy  Extraordinary  on  a  secret  mission  to  the 
Court  of  Vienna,  was  returning  to  England,  and 
rested  for  a  short  time  at  an  inn  at  Perleberg.  His 
carriage  was  waiting  for  him  when,  leaving  the 
house  (before  going  to  it)  he  from  that  moment 
disappeared,  and  his  family  up  to  the  present 
time,  have  never  received  any  satisfactory  ex- 



[3rd  S.  X.  JULY  14,  '66. 

planation  of  his  disappearance.  Every  possible 
inquiry  was  made.  Government  offered  a  reward 
of  1000Z.,  his  relatives  offered  another  1000J.,  but 
all  to  no  purpose.  HENRY  BATHUEST. 

DERBY  DOLLS  (3rd  S.  x.  15.)  — A.  A/s  answer 
hardly  meets  my  inquiry.  I  can  recollect  that,  as 
long  as  upwards  of  thirty  years  ago,  tl  knock  'em 
downs "  were  common  on  race-courses,  and  also 
at  fairs  in  Scotland.  The  prizes,  however,  con- 
sisted of  snuff-mulls,  pipe-cases,  and  boxes  of 
lucifers— but  no  dolls.  I  am  also  informed  that 
these  dolls  were  not  introduced  at  Epsom  till 
about  ten  years  ago :  so  that  my  question,  as  to 
their  origin,  still  remains  unsolved.  RUSTICFS. 

TENNYSON  AND  W.  R.  SPENSER  (3rd  S.  ix. 
631.)  —  The  author  of  the  well-known  lines  to 
Lady  Anne  Hamilton,  was  the  Hon.  William 
Robert  Spencer,  not  Spenser,  as  MR.  JOHN  TAY- 
LOR spells  the  name.  He  was  of  the  family  of 
the  Duke  of  Marlborough,  whose  surname  is 
Spencer  Churchill.  J.  C.  HUDSON. 

ST.  PANCRAS  (3rd  S.  ix.  534.)— Among  the  cele- 
brated persons  interred  in  the  churchyard  of  Old 
St.  Pancras  Church,  you  mention  Mary  Wolstone- 
craft  Godwin ;  but  you  have  omitted  to  mention 
her  husband  "William  Godwin,  author  of  Caleb 
Williams,  Political  Justice,  &c.,  &c.,  who  was 
buried  there  in  1835  or  1836.  I  state  this  on  my 
own  knowledge,  having  been  one  of  the  four 
friends  who  attended  his  funeral. 

J.  C.  HUDSON. 


Messiah  the  Prince  ;  or  the  Inspiration  of  the  Prophecies  of 
Daniel.  By  J.  W.  Bosanquet,  F.R.A.S.  (Longmans.) 

In  this  loosely  written,  but  still  interesting  volume, 
Mr.  Bosanquet  endeavours  to  mediate  between  the  rival 
criticisms  of  Dr.  Pusey  and  Dr.  Williams.  He  stoutly 
maintains  the  genuineness  and  inspiration  of  the  main 
portion  of  the  Book  of  Daniel ;  but  confesses  that  it  was 
for  long  excluded  by  the  Jews  themselves  from  the  Canon 
of  Scripture.  He  rejects  all  arguments  against  its  au- 
thenticity derived  from  the  employment  of  some  Greek 
terms  for  musical  instruments  in  the  earlier  part  of  it ; 
but  he  acknowledges  that  much  of  its  latter  part  belongs 
to  the  times  of  the  Maccabees;  being  first  inserted  as 
marginal  comment,  and  afterwards  incorporated  into  the 
text.  To  this  date  he  .would  refer  the  whole  of  the  llth 
and  part  of  the  10th  chapters. 

Memorials  of  the  Tower  of  London.  By  Lieut.-General 
Lord  De  Eos,  Lieut-Governor  of  the  ToAver.  With 
Illustrations.  (Murray..) 

It  is  pleasant  to  find  a  nobleman  of  Lord  De  Ros's  high 
station  and  attainments  devoting  himself  to  the  task  of 
relating  the  varied  story  of  the  great  national  monument 
entrusted  to  his  charge.  The  book  before  us  comprises  a 
history  of  the  Tower  of  London,  interwoven  with  graphic 

and  gossiping  sketches  of  the  illustrious  and  unhappy  pri- 
soners who  have  lingered  within  its  drearv  walls.  It 
appears  at  a  happy  moment.  A  few  hours  will  make  the 
reader  master  of  its  contents,  and,  if  he  should  be  one  of 
the  many  who  will  visit  the  building  next  week  under 
the  guidance  of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  will  enable 
him  to  enjoy  with  a  double  zest  his  examination  of  a 
spot  so  fertile  with  historical  associations,  and  to  listen 
with  increased  interest  to  the  promised  lecture  of  Mr. 
Hepworth  Dixon.  We  ought  to  add  that  the  volume  is 
nicely  illustrated,  and  has  a  good  Index. 

Apollonius  of  Tyana,  tlie  Pagan  Christ  of  the  Third  Cen- 
tury. An  Essay  of  Albert  Re'ville,  Pastor  of  the  Wal- 
loon Church  in  Rotterdam.  (Hotten). 
This  little  volume  is  got  up  with  a  luxuriousness  of 
type  and  paper  which  reminds  us  of  Pickering's.  But 
M.  Reville's  little  brochure  is  not  likely  ever  to  take  the 
place  of  an  English  classic,  nor  does  it  require  such  a 
stoutness  of  paper  as  would  fortify  it  against  the  daily 
thumbing  of  an  admiring  reader.  The  Life  of  Apollonius 
is  simply  one  of  the  curiosities  of  literature.  The  attempt 
of  expiring  Paganism  (or  of  a  few  court  ladies,  if  our 
author  will  have  it  so)  to  set  up  a  pattern  man  of  their 
own  creation  against  Jesus  of  Nazareth,  fell  dead  upon 
the  world  at  the  time,  and  will  not  bear  resuscitation 

Miscellanea  Genealogica  et  Heraldica.  Edited  by  Joseph 
Jackson  Howard,  LL.D.,  F.S.A.  Part  I.  (J.  E.  Tay- 
lor &  Co.) 

Dr.  Howard,  who  has  long  been  known  as  a  diligent 
and  successful  student  of  the  "  Gentle  Art,"  here  presents 
us  with  the  first  number  of  a  new  journal  devoted  to  the 
circulation  of  information  upon  heraldic  and  genealogical 
subjects.  It  contains  grants,  wills,  pedigrees,  in  short, 
every  thing  of  interest  to  those  engaged  in  genealogical 
pursuits  ;  and  this  first  number  furnishes  proof  of  the  great 
variety  and  value  of  the  materials  at  Dr.  Howard's 

Aunt  Judy's  Magazine.    Edited  by  Mrs.  Alfred  Gatty. 

Nos.  /.,  //.,  and  III.    (Bell  &  Daldy.) 

Those  who  know  Mrs.  Gatty's  Parables  from  Nature, 
Aunt  Judy's  Tales,  and  other  writings,  will  admit  that  few 
know  better  what  are  the  "  literary  wants  "  of  the  young, 
or  are  better  qualified  to  cater  for  them  in  a  wise  and 
kindly  spirit.  A  magazine  for  the  young,  conducted  by 
Mrs.  Gatty,  must  command  the  success  which  it  cannot 
fail  to  deserve. 

MESSRS.  MOXON  will  shortly  publish  Lyra  Elegan- 
tiarum,  a  collection  of  some  of  the  best  specimens  of 
Vers  de  Socie'te'  and  Vers  d'Occasion  in  the  English 
Language,  by  deceased  Authois,  edited  by  Frederick 


THE  INDEX  TO  OUR  NINTH  VOLUME  will  be  issued  with  next  Saturday's 

PENTAGON  is  referred  to  our  last  week's  Notices  to  Correspondents. 

C.  willfind  an  account  of  the  Hon.  Anchitell  Orey  in"  N.  &  Q."  1st  S. 
xi.  147;  Collins's  Peerage,  iii.  359;  and  for  a  pedigree  of  the  family. 
See  Nichols's  Leicestershire,  iii.  682. 

ERRATUM.— 3rd  S.  x.  p.  3,  col.J.  line  32,  for  "  Friday  "  read ' '  Thurs- 

A  Reading  Case  for  holding  the  weekly  Nos.  of  "N.  &  Q."  is  now 
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3rd  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.] 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  21,  1866. 

CONTENTS.— N«  238. 

NOTES :  —Passage  in  Shakespeare's  Second  Part  of  "  King 
Henry  IV.,"  41  —  Bishop  Stapleton,  43  —  The  so-called 
Gainsborough  Portraits  at  Combermere  Abbey,  44  — Ara- 
bian Opinions  on  the  Sources  of  the  Nile  —  Tennyson  : 
Job,  44. 

QUERIES :  — Columbus,  45  —  Adolphus's  "Gammer  Gur- 
ton's  Garland  "  —  Cambridge  Academics  —  Dutch  Biblio- 
graphy —  German  Hymn,  "  Meine  Lebenszeit  verstreicht " 

—  Hobbes's  Portraits— Sir  John  Mandeville— Muschamps 

—  Passage  attributed  to  Macrobius — Pedants  wanted  — 
Quotations  wanted  — The  Porcelain  Tower  at  Nankin  — 
Sabbath  Queries  —  The  Thumb  —  The  Till  Family  —  Waste 
Paper,  45. 

QUERIES  WITH  ANSWERS:  —  "Nobody's  Friends"  —  Mil- 
ton's "  Paradise  Lost "  in  Prose  —  Tanaquil  Faber,  47. 

REPLIES :  —  Nursery  Rhyme,  48  —  "  Pee-wit "  pronounced 
"Pewet,"  49  —  Naufragium  Joculare,  51  — The  Princess 
Poniatowski,  76.  — Sir  John  Vanbrugh's  Plays,  52  — Club 
and  Club,  53  —  Dr.  Watts's  "  Divine  and  Moral  Songs  for 
Children,"  54  — Obsolete  Terms  of  Merchandise  — Royal 
Assent  refused  —  Pomander  —  Swift  —  Dante  —  Gibbon  : 
Procopius :  Theodora  —  Umbrella  —  Concilium  Calchu- 
tense  —  The  Rule  of  the  Footpath  —  Photographic  Miracle 

—  Butler's  "Hudibras"  —  Crawalls — Population  of  An- 
cient Rome—  Mantel-piece  — Pattens  —  Positive  Philo- 
sophy —  Anonymous  Beacons :  Pitch-pots  —  Heraldic  Arms 
A  New  Name  — Throwing  the  Shoe  — Renuie  or  Rannie 
Family — Burials  above    Ground — "Poor    Man's  Cate- 
chism "  —  Cure  for  Goitre  —  Philander's  Macaronic  Madri- 
gal —  Monumental  Devices  —  Cursive   Hebrew  —  Grove 
Family  —  Blue-Stocking  —  Hildebert  —  La  Vend6e  —  S. 
Michael,  54. 

Notes  on  Books,  &c. 

OF  "  KING  HENRY  IV.,"  ACT  IV.  SC.  I. 

•"  Archb.  My  brother  general,  the  commonwealth, 
To  brother  born  an  household  cruelty, 
I  make  my  quarrel  in  particular." 

This  passage  has  certainly  been,  as  DK.  NICHOL- 
SON \remarks,  a  long-abiding  crux  with  the  com- 
mentators, and  it  has  admittedly  baffled  the  com- 
prehension of  a  large  proportion  of  them,  even 
down  to  our  own  days.  In  the  Variorum  edition 
of  1821  is  a  string  of  remarks  upon  it  from  the 
pens  of  Warburton,  Johnson,  Steevens,  Monck 
Mason,  and  Malone ;  and  in  the  great  folio  edition 
by  Halliwell,  1861,  one  still  longer,  detailing  the 
observations  of  Warburton,  Johnson,  Steevens, 
Seymour,  Malone,  Collier,  and  B.  Field;  and, 
further,  the  new  Cambridge  edition  of  18G4  pre- 
sents the  additional  remarks  of  Singer,  Julius 
Lloyd,  and  Spedding,  summed  up  by  the  editors 
themselves,  Clark  and  White,  in  the  following  ac- 
cents of  despair :  — 

"  On  the  whole,  we  are  of  opinion  that  several  lines 
have  been  omitted,  and  those  which  remain  [have  been] 
displaced,  and  that  this  is  one  of  the  many  passages  in 
•which  the  true  text  is  irrecoverable." 

^  Even  Mr.  Dyce,  one  of  the  acutest  of  the  cri- 
tics, confesses  himself  equally  foiled,  and  is  driven 
to  declare  (edit.  1857,  iii.  509),  that  "  the  pas- 

sage, being  plainly  mutilated,  defies  any  satisfac- 
tory explanation." 

The  idea  that  a  line  or  lines  have  been  lost  ap- 
pears to  have  been  first  suggested  by  the  circum- 
stance that  two  lines,  since  restored,  were  actually 
dropped  out  by  the  printer  of  the  first  folio. 

Mr.  Singer  suggested  that,  after  "common- 
wealth," a  line  had  been  lost,  something  to  the 
following  effect — 

"  Whose  wrongs  do  loudly  call  out  for  redress." 

Mr.  Spedding  also  thinks  that  some  lines  have 
been  lost. 

Mr.  Julius  Lloyd  was  "  sure  the  lines  are  trans- 
posed, and  should  be  read  thus  — 

"  I  make  my  quarrel  in  particular 
My  brother ;  general,  the  commonwealth." 

At  the  same  time  regarding  "  the  doubtful  lines," 
"  And  consecrate  commotion's  bitter  edge 
To  brother  born  an  household  cruelty," 

as  il  plainly  continuous." 

Dr.  Johnson  would  have  rectified  a  supposed 
error  by  altering  "  My  brother  general "  to  "  My 
quarrel  general." 

Monck  Mason  suggested  that  "general"  was 
the  substantive  noun,  and  that  "  My  brother- 
general"  meant  Mowbray  the  Lord  Marshal.  To 
this  Malone  was  at  first  disposed  to  assent ;  but 
afterwards  recognised  the  evident  counter-position 
of  the  brother  general  and  brother  born. 

Mr.  Charles  Knight,  in  his  Pictorial  Shakspere, 
1839,  imagined  that  the  obscurity  might  be  re- 
moved by  altering  the  punctuation  of  the  first  line 
to  — 

"  My  brother,  general !  the  commonwealth !  " 
with  this  explanation  — 

"  The  Archbishop  is  impatient  of  Westmorland's  further 
question  ;  and,  addressing  him  as  General,  exclaims  — 
My  brother !  The  Commonwealth !  ^These  are  sufficient 
causes  for  our  hostility." 

But  this  reading  has  not  met  with  any  accept- 
ance, or  even  notice,  from  the  later  editors. 

After  all,  I  now  venture  to  express  my  convic- 
tion that  the  passage  is  complete  and  as  the  poet 
wrote  it,  and  that  it  requires  no  amendment,  but 
merely  explanation,  to  render  it  intelligible.  For 
that  purpose,  the  speech  of  the  Earl  of  Westmor- 
land, to  which  the  Archbishop  replies,  should 
also  be  taken  into  view. 

"  Westmerland.  When  ever  yet  was  your  appeal  de- 
nied ? 

Wherein  have  you  been  galled  by  the  King  ? 
What  Peer  hath  been  suborn'd  to  grate  on  you  ? 
That  you  should  seal  this  lawless  bloody  book 
Of  forg'd  rebellion  with  a  seal  divine, 
[And "consecrate  commotion's  bitter  edge  ]? 

Archbishop.  My  brother  genei-al,  the  Commonwealth, 
[To  brother  born' an  household  cruelty,] 
I  make  my  quarrel  in  particular." 

The  lines  marked  [  ]  are  the  two  that  were 
dropped  from  the  folio. 



[3**  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66. 

Now,  the  last  three  lines  are  undeniably  a 
puzzle,  but  one  which,  like  other  puzzles,  no 
longer  seems  so  inscrutable  when  once  disclosed ; 
and  that  disclosure  may  be  effected  by  tracing  the 
clue  of  their  grammatical  construction.  The  mis- 
apprehensions into  which  one  reader  or  another 
may  chance  to  fall  will  arise  principally  from  the 
inverted  order  into  which,  for  the  sake  of  his 
metre  and  sententious  expression,  the  poet  has 
thrown  his  words.  Hence  substantives  have  been 
mistaken  for  adjectives,  and  adjectives  for  sub- 

As  to  the  verb  of  the  sentence,  there  can  be  no 
dispute,  for  there  is  but  one  verb,  ll  I  make,"  in 
the  third  line.  But  which  is  the  noun  substantive 
following  that  verb  in  the  accusative  case  ?  There 
are  several  j  but  the  first,  and  principal,  is  ft  the 
Commonwealth."  The  Archbishop  makes  the 
Commonwealth,  what? — his  quarrel.  And  how 
does  he  designate  the  Commonwealth?  as  his 
u  brother  general,"  or  general  brother.  And  why 
does  he  quarrel  with  that  brother  ?  Because  that 
lt brother  general"  had  proved  itself  a  household 
cruelty  to  his  brother  born,  or  brother  by  birth. 
So  that  commonwealth,  quarrel,  brother,  and 
cruelty,  are  all  in  the  accusative  after  the  verb 

The  Earl  of  Westmorland  had  asked  the  Arch- 
bishop how  either  his  sovereign  or  any  of  his 
peers  could  so  far  have  injured  or  offended  him, 
that  he,  a  churchman  and  a  prelate,  should  pro- 
ceed to  such  extremities  as  even  to  set  the  seal  of 
his  holy  function  to  open  rebellion,  and  to  sanc- 
tion the  bitter  severity  of  civil  war.  The  Arch- 
bishop replies  that  the  Commonwealth,  or  govern- 
ment at  large,  had  been  the  cruel  enemy  of  his 
house;  wherefore,  he  aimed  at  no  individual 
adversary,  whether  peer  or  monarch. 

It  is  observable  that  this  sense  is  equally  per- 
fect without  the  line  omitted  in  the  folio  :  thus — 

"  My  brother  general  the  Commonwealth 
I  make  my  quarrel  in  particular — 

only  that  the  cause  of  the  quarrel  is  not  assigned. 
Supposing  that  the  poet  had  at  first  written  — 

My  brother's  enemy  the  Commonwealth 
I  make  my  quarrel  in  particular  — 

there  would  even  then  have  been  his  favourite 
antithesis.  But  he  could  not  resist  the  tempta- 
tion that  occurred  to  him  to  introduce  a  second 
figure  of  the  same  kind.  The  common  wealth  was 
a  general  brother,  which  might  be  pitted  against 
one's  personal  brother  or  brother  born.  The 
speaker  was  made  to  attribute  his  loss  of  the  latter 
to  the  cruelty  of  the  former. 

The  characteristic  tone  of  this  conceit  is  per- 
ceived and  recognised  by  Mr.  Spedding;  whilst 
it  is  surprising  that  so  many  others  of  the  critics 
have  ignored  it.  Its  existence  in  this  place  is  a 
proof  that  the  transposition  suggested  by  Mr 

Julius  Lloyd,  and  seconded  by  Dr.  Nicholson,  is 
inadmissible.     Mr.  Spedding's  remarks  are :  — 

"  The  opposition  between  brother  general  and  brother 
born  reads  to  me  like  Shakespeare,  and  not  likely  to  have 
come  in  by  accident :  and  though  the  transposition  of  the 
lines  [suggested  by  Mr.  Lloj'd]  is  ingenious  and  intelli- 
gible, and  in  another  context  might  be  natural,  it  does 
not  come  naturally  in  the  context  proposed." 

Among  the  old  commentators,  George  Steevens 
long  ago  pointed  out  that  Shakespeare  attributed 
the  Archbishop  of  York's  rebellion  to  his  vindic- 
tive feeling  on  account  of  the  loss  of  his  brother 
the  Lord  Scrope;  and  that  the  poet  had  intro- 
duced a  previous  allusion  to  that  occurrence  in 
his  First  Part  of  Henry  IV.  Act  I.  Sc.  3  :  — 

"  Worcester.  Your  son  in  Scotland  being  thus  employed, 
Shall  secretly  into  the  bosom  creep 
Of  that  same  noble  prelate,  well  belov'd, 
TV  Archbishop  — 

"  Hotspur.  Of  York,  is't  not  ? 

"  Worcester.  True;  who  bears  hard' 
His  brother's  death  at  Bristol,  the  Lord  Scrope." 

The  person  meant  is  indisputably  Sir  William 
Scrope,  Earl  of  Wiltshire,  «Lord  Treasurer  to 
Eichard  II.,  who  had  been  beheaded  in  1399,  on 
the  first  triumph  of  the  House  of  Lancaster.  He 
was  not  really  Archbishop  Scope's  brother ;  but  we 
must  not  quarrel  with  Shakespeare  for  this  error, 
for  it  was  among  those  which  he  derived  by  un- 
suspectingly following  Hall's  Chronicle,  in  which 
may  be  found  this  passage :  — 

"  They  devised  certaine  articles  by  the  advise  of  Richard 
Scrope,  Archbishop  of  Yorke,  brother  to  the  Lord  Scrope 
whom  King  Henry  caused  to  be  beheaded  at  Bristow,  as 
you  have  heard  before." 

The  error  arose  thus:  the  Archbishop  was 
brother  to  Stephen  second  Lord  Scrope  of  Mas- 
ham  ;  but  that  brother  survived  him,  and  died 
in  Jan.  1405-6.  The  Lord  Treasurer  beheaded  in 
1399  at  Bristol  was  brother  to  Koger  second  Lord 
Scrope  of  Bolton.  Those  two  Lord  Scropes  were 
second  cousins,  and  consequently  the  Lord  Trea- 
surer and  the  Archbishop  of  York  stood  in  the 
same  relationship.  See  Sir  Harris  Nicolas's  Me- 
moirs of  the  Scropes,  and  their  Pedigrees,  pub- 
lished in  The  Scrope  and  Grosvenor  Controversy* 
1832,  ii.  59,  135. 

I  do  not  find  that  any  of  the  late  editors  have 
been  at  the  pains  to  look  into  this  historical 
point,  and  to  apprise  their  readers  of  the  mistake, 
in  either  passage  where  the  poet  has  committed 
it ;  yet  Mr.  Courtenay,  in  his  Annotations  on  Shake- 
speare, published  in  1840,  had  pointed  it  out  in  a 
note  at  vol.  i.  p.  121. 

In  his  Richard  II.  Shakespeare  had  mentioned 
the  same  unpopular  minister  by  his  higher  title  — 

"The  Earl  of  Wiltshire  hath  the  realm  in  farm  " 

(Act  II.  Sc.  1)— 
and  again  in  Act  II.  Sc.  3,  and  Act  III.  Sc.  4  of 
ihat  play. 

3'*  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.] 



Sir  Bernard  Burke,  in  his  Dormant  and  Ex- 
tinct Peerage  (new  edition,  1866),  has  correctly 
placed  the  Archbishop  of  York  among  the  brothers 
of  Lord  Scrope  of  Masham,  p.  482 ;  but  [he  has 
also  inadvertently  left  his  name  among  the  brothers 
of  the  Earl  of  Wiltshire  in  p.  480. 

Returning  to  verbal  criticism,  it  may  perhaps 
be  fairly  alleged  that  the  obscurity  of  the  passage 
is  heightened  by  the  phrase  "  I  make  the  Com- 
monwealth my  quarrel "  being  introduced  for  "  I 
make  my  quarrel,  or  "complaint,  against  the  Com- 
monwealth." Yet  there  can,  I  think,  remain  no 
doubt  that  the  poet  advisedly  adopted  this  phraseo- 
logy. There  were  so  many  similar  expressions, 
still  familiar  to  us,  in  frequent  use — as,  "  I  make 
the  country  my  choice,"  "  I  make  money  my 
friend,"  "  Fortune  my  foe,"  and  so  on  —  that  he 
might  well  say,  "  I  make  the  commonwealth  my 
quarrel  j "  meaning,  I  make  the  commonwealth  my 
object  of  complaint.  Dr.  Johnson,  in  his  Dic- 
tionary (4to,  1818),  gives  as  the  4th  sense  of 
Quarrel,  a  cause  of  debate,  quoting  Shakespeare 
in  Henry  V. — 

" .    .    .     .    his  quarrel  honourable." 

It  may  be  worth  while  to  add  a  few  further 
remarks  on  the  terms  "  brother  general "  and 
"  brother  born."  They  remind  me  of  some  that 
we  meet  with  in  old  law  treatises,  where,  follow- 
ing the  Latin,  the  adjective  is  placed  after  the 
substantive.  In  the  poet's  time  it  was  very  cus- 
tomary to  use  the  word  "  born  "  after  a  substan- 
tive. A  native  of  the  metropolis  was  "  London 
born,"  and  Shakespeare  himself  ''Warwickshire 
born."  The  term  "  gentleman  born  "  for  a  gen- 
tleman by  birth  was  in  common  use,  and  is  more 
than  once  introduced  by  Shakespeare,  particu- 
larly in  his  humourous  discussion  on  the  designa- 
tion of  Gentleman  in  the  Winter's  Tale,  Act  V. 
Sc.  2. 

The  various  terms  of  relationship,  particularly 
Father  and  Brother,  were  generally  adopted  for 
many  other  reasons  than  actual  consanguinity. 
Not  only  those  we  still  regard  as  brothers-in-law, 
but  also  the  parents  of  a  married  couple  would 
call  themselves  brothers  and  sisters,  and  even  the 
baptismal  sponsors  of  a  child  accepted  the  frater- 
nal relationship  in  a  sacred  sense.  Then  there 
were  sworn  brothers  in  friendship,  brothers  by 
trade  or  fellowship,  and  brothers  in  arms  — 

"  We  few,  we  happy  few,  we  band  of  brothers, — 
For  he  to-day  that  sheds  his  blood  with  me 
Shall  be  my  brother" — 

as  Shakespeare  makes  King  Harry  exclaim  on  the 
eve  of  the  field  of  Agincourt.  All  such  varied 
acceptances  of  the  designation  "brother"  would 
cause  the  "brother  born,"  or  brother  by  birth, 
to  be  a  more  necessary  distinction  than  we  now 
esteem  it.  On  the  other  hand,  the  expression 
"  brother  general "  accords  with  the  extended  ap- 

plication of  the  term  which  is  familiar  in  Holy 
Scripture,  and  may  be  compared  with  that  attri- 
buted to  the  Almighty  as  the  Common  or  Uni- 
versal Father. 

The  phrase  "  an  household  cruelty  "  is  again 
somewhat  strained,  making  "  household "  an  ad- 
jective: still  it  may  be  defended  by  a  modern 
parallel, — our  family  grievances. 

And  so  this  long-drawn  yarn  I  end, 
Which  to  the  critics  I  commend  ; 
And  with  this  Envoi  beg  to  send, 
Beseeching  them,  as  from  a  friend, 
That  first  they  strive  to  comprehend 
The  whole  their  Poet  may  intend, 
Before  their  hands  profane  they  lend 
His  sacred  structure  to  '  amend.' 



Gregory  Stapleton  was  born  in  1748,  at  Carlton 
in  Yorkshire,  and  was  educated  at  the  English 
College  at  Douay.  The  Rev.  Alban  Butler,  who 
was  president  of  the  English  College  at  St.  Omer's, 
dying  in  1773,  Dr.  Stapleton  succeeded  him  in 
the  presidentship  of  that  college.  When  the 
French  Revolution  broke  out,  he  was  made  pri- 
soner with  the  whole  college,  who  remained  in 
close  custody  in  three  places  in  succession  at  Ar- 
ras. While  there,  Dr.  Stapleton  found  means  to 
procure  a  large  and  timely  remittance  of  money 
from  his  friends,  which  he  sent  by  a  trustworthy 
person  to  his  old  fellow  collegians  of  Douay,  who 
were  then  suffering  severe  privations  in  their  im- 
prisonment in  the  citadel  of  Dourlens.  On  May 
15,  1794,  Dr.  Stapleton  and  the  members  of  his 
college  were  removed  to  Dourlens,  and  imprisoned 
in  the  citadel  with  those  of  the  college  of  Douay. 
In  the  following  October  they  were  permitted  to 
return  to  St.  Omer's,  and  were  confined  in  the 
French  college  there,  which,  however,  adjoined 
their  own. 

In  the  beginning  of  1795,  Dr.  Stapleton  ob- 
tained leave  to  go  to  Paris,  to  present  a  petition 
for  the  release  of  both  colleges.  After  many  re- 
pulses, he  at  length,  by  remonstrances,  intreaties, 
and  "money,  obtained  an  order  from  the  Directory 
for  the  release  of  both  colleges,  and  for  passages  to 
England.  On  the  1st  of  March  he  left  St.  Omer's, 
with  all  the  members  of  both  colleges,  being 
thirty- two  from  Douay,  and  sixty-two  from  St. 
Omer's ;  and  all  were  conveyed  to  England  in  an 
American  vessel,  and  landed  at  Dover  on  March  2, 

Soon  after  his  arrival  in  England,  Dr.  Stapleton, 
in  company  with  Bishop  Douglass,  the  Vicar 
Apostolic  of  the  London  District,  waited  upon 
the  Duke  of  Portland  and  Mr.  Pitt  to  solicit  their 
approval  of  a  plan  for  converting  the  school  at 
Old  Hall  Green,  near  Ware,  into  a  regular  col- 
lege. They  were  graciously  received  by  both. 


X.  JULY  21,  'G6. 

The  Duke  had  previously  known  Dr.  Stapleton  j 
"but  both  he  and  Mr.  Pitt  promised  them  favour 
and  encouragement.  Dr.  Stapleton  then  con- 
ducted his  students  to  Old  Hall  Green,  arriving 
there  on  August  15,  1795.  The  house,  with  the 
addition  of  a  building  close  by,  was  fitted  up  for 
the  reception  of  the  students,  'and  Dr.  Stapleton 
was  appointed  president.  A  few  days  after,  on 
the  19th,  the  first  stone  was  laid  of  the  new  col- 
lege of  St.  Edmund.  Dr.  Stapleton  presided  over 
it  till  the  autumn  of  1800;  when,  having  accom- 
panied the  Kev.  Mr.  Nassau  to  Rome  on  important 
"business,  he  was  appointed  Vicar  Apostolic  of  the 
Midland  District,  November  7,  1800.  He  was 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Hierocsssarea  in  partibus, 
"by  Bishop  Douglass,  at  Old  Hall  Green,  on  March 
8,  1801 ;  and  soon  after  took  up  his  residence  at 
Long  Birch,  near  Wolverhampton.  In  the  fol- 
lowing year  he  paid  a  visit  to  St.  Omer's,  and 
died  there  May  23,  1802,  aged  fifty-four. 

F.  C.  II. 


At  vol.  i.  p.  332,  of  the  recently  published  Life 
of  Lord  Comber?nere,  I  find  the  following  para- 
graph, under  the  date  of  1817 :  — 

"In  accordance  with  custom,  Lord  Combermere  re- 
ceived, together  with  his  appointment,  two  full-length 
pictures  of  George  III.  and  his  consort,  copied  by  Gains- 
borough from  the  originals  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynold's.  These 
pictures  are  now  at  Combermere  Abbey.  lit  is  related  of 
Gainsborough  that  George  III.  entertained  such  a  dislike 
to  him,  on  account  of  his  private  character,  that  when 
the  former  was  appointed  Serjeant-Painter,  the  King 
never  could  be  induced  to  sit  to  him  for  the  picture, 
which,  in  virtue  of  his  office,  he'  was  bound  to  paint. 
The  only  resource,  therefore,  left  to  Gainsborough  was  to 
sketch  an  outline  of  the  King's  face  when  he  attended  the 
theatre,  and  to  trust  to  memory  to  fill  in  the  details." 

Here  is  a  beautiful  crop  of  blunders !  1.  Gains- 
borough was  never  king's  painter;  2.  Gains- 
borough disliked  Sir  Joshua  so  cordially  that 
nothing  would  have  induced  him  to  copy  a  pic- 
ture of  the  President's;  3.  Gainsborough  had  no 
occasion  to  resort  to  this  method  of  getting  a 
likeness  —  both  the  king  and  the  queen  sat  to 
him;  4.  George  III.  entertained  no  dislike  to 
Gainsborough.  On  the  contrary,  the  Princess 
Augusta  told  Leslie  that  he  was  a  great  favourite 
with  all  the  royal  family ;  and  there  is  reason  to 
believe  that  on  one  occasion  he  stayed  at  Windsor 
Castle  for  at  least  a  month,  during  which  time  he 
painted  no  fewer  than  seventeen  portraits  of  the 
princes  and  princesses. 

The  post  of  King's  Painter  was  held  by  Allan 
Ramsay,  who  reaped  the  first  harvest  of  these 
portraits  of  George  and  Charlotte,  and  accumu- 
lated a  fortune.  At  his  death,  in  1784,  he  was 
succeeded  by  Reynolds,  who  also  drove  a  thriv- 

ing trade  in  them.  Lawrence  came  after  Rey- 
nolds, and  Wilkie  after  Lawrence.  The  work  is 
now  I  suppose  done  by  photographers. 

The  question,  however,  suggests  itself.  Why  was 
not  Gainsborough  appointed  to  succeed  Ramsay 
instead  of  Reynolds,  whose  skill  the  king  never 
appreciated,  and  towards  whom  it  is  well  known 
he  felt  a  certain  amount  of  aversion  on  account  of 
his  intimacy  with  Wilkes  and  others  ? 


NILE. — I  possess  a  scarce  old  book,  entitled  — 

"  The  Egyptian  History,  treating  of  the  Pyramids,  the 
Inundation 'of  the  Nile,"  &c.  "  According  to  the  Opinions 
and  Traditions  of  the  Arabians.  Written  originally  in 
the  Arabian  Tongue  by  Murtadi,  the  Son  of  Gaphiphus. 
Rendered  into  French  by  Monsieur  Vattier,  Arabick 
Professor  to  the  King  of  France  :  And  thence  faithfully 
done  into  English  by  J.  Davies  of  Kidwelly.  London, 

This  volume,  which  I  have  no  doubt  contains5 
genuine  translations,  is  replete  with  much  curious 
and  interesting  matter.  The  following  extract 
relates  to  the  sources  of  the  Nile  :  — 

"  A  barbarian  Egyptian  of  the  inhabitants  of  Copta, 
skilled  in  the  history  of  Egypt  and  what  concerns  the 
nature  and  properties  of  the  country,  told  me  that  he- 
found  it  written  in  one  of  their  ancient  books  that  the 
Nile  of  Eg3rpt  hath  its  rising  out  of  a  lake  in  the  most 
remote  countries  of  the  west,  on  both  sides  whereof  the 
kings  of  the  Moors  have  their  habitations ;  and  that  by 
the  lake  there  is  a  great  mountain  always  covered  with 
snow,  winter  and  summer ;  out  of  which  there  falls  down 
water,  besides  many  springs  that  are  in  the  lake,  and 
which  do  also  supply  some ;  and  that  it  is  thence  the 
water  of  the  Nile  comes,  which  is  afterwards  augmented 
by  rains,  which  augmentation  happens  in  regard  the 
rains  fall  in  summer  in  the  country  of  the  Moors  ;  whence 
it  comes  that  the  Nile  overflowes  in  summer  and  not  in 
winter  in  Egypt." — P.  150. 

There  is  a  strange  legend  on  the  same  subject 
at  p.  8 :  — 

"  There  was  heretofore  in  ancient  Masre  (which  is 
Emsos)  a  king-priest  named  Gaucaru,  of  the  race  of 
Gariac,  the  son  of  Aram,  of  whom  the  ancient  Egyptians 
tell  several  stories,  part  whereof  are  beyond  all  likelihood. 
He  lived  before  the  Deluge,  which  he  by  his  science  fore- 
saw :  whereupon  he  commanded  the  Daemons  who  ac- 
companied him  to  build  him  a  palace  beyond  the  Equi- 
noctial Line,  which  the  ruins  of  this  universe  could  not 
reach.  They  built  the  castle  seated  on  the  descent  of  the 
mountain  of  the  Moon,  which  is  the  Castle  of  Brass, 
where  are  the  Brazen  Statues,  in  number  eighty-five,  out 
of  the  throats  whereof  issues  the  water  of  the  Nile,  which 
falls  into  a  fen  of  gravel,  whence  the  water  of  the  Nile 
flows  into  Egypt  and  other  climates,  distributed  and  pro- 
portionably  compassed  ;  for  were  it  not  for  that,  it  would 
spread  over  the  greatest  part  of  the  earth." 

II.  C. 

ON  :  JOB. — 

Consider  well,  the  voice  replied, 
His  face  that  two  hours  since  hath  died  ; 
Wilt  thou  find  passion,  pain,  or  pride  ?  " 

3**  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.] 



"  His  sons  grow  up  to  bear  his  name, 
Some  grow  to  honour,  some  to  shame  ; 
But  he  is  chill  to  praise  or  blame." 

Tennyson,  T/ie  Two  Voices. 

"  Thou  prevailest  for  ever  against  him.  and  he  passeth  : 
thou  changest  his  countenance,  and  sendest  him  away." 

"  His  sons  come  to  honour,  and  he  knoweth  it  not  ;  and 
they  are  brought  low,  but  he  perceiveth  it  not  of  them." 

Job,  xiv.  20,  21. 


Where  did  Columbus  die?  When  I  visited 
Valladolid,  a  short  time  ago,  I  was  shown  the 
very  house  in  which  it  is  believed  that  the  il- 
lustrious navigator  breathed  his  last.  It  is  now 
a  private  residence,  in  the  "  Calle  de  Colon," 
Num.  2,  Parrochia  de  la  Magdalena.  Columbus 
is  always  called  Colon  in  Spanish.  Washington 
Irving,  in  his  History  of  the  Life  and  Voyages  of 
Columbus  (vol.  iv.  ed.  London,  1828,  p.  45),  seems 
to  leave  the  question  as  to  the  place  of  his  death 
undecided  :  for  at  p.  29  (vol.  iv.),  the  writer  repre- 
sents Columbus  making  a  journey  to  Segovia,  in 
order  to  have  an  interview  with  Ferdinand  ;  and 
then,  at  p.  45,  he  tells  us  that  Columbus  died  on 
May  20,  1506;  and  in  the  next  page,  "  that  his 
body  was  deposited  in  the  convent  of  San  Fran- 
cisco, and  his  obsequies  were  celebrated  with 
funereal  pomp  in  the  parochial  church  of  Santa 
Maria  de  la  Antiqua  de  Valladolid,"  &c.  There 
seems  to  be  no  mention  made  by  Washington 
Irving,  of  Columbus  having  left  Segovia,  after  his 
interview  with  Ferdinand,  for  Valladolid. 

After  the  death  of  Columbus,  Ferdinand  or- 
dered an  inscription  to  be  placed  on  his  tomb,  in 
the  monastery  of  the  Carthusians  at  Seville, 
where  the  body  had  been  translated  in  1513. 

W.  Irving  gives  the  following  as  the  correct 
form  :  — 

"  For  Castilla  y  For  Leon, 
Nuevo  Mundo  hallo'  Colon." 

But  some  Spanish  writers  give  another  form, 
slightly  different,  thus  :  — 

"  A'  Castilla  y  &  Leon, 
Nuevo  Mundo  did  Colon." 

Can  any  of  your  readers  tell  me  which  is  the 
correct  one,  and  if  the  inscription  is  still  to  be 
seen  in  Seville  ?  J.  D  ALTON. 


I  have  heard  that  the  late  John  Adolphus  had 
nearly  ready  for  the  press  at  the  time  of  his  death 
a  new  edition  of  Ritson's  Gammer  Gurtoris  Gar- 
land. Can  any  one  inform  me  whether  this  is 
true,  and  if  so  what  became  of  the  materials  ? 

P.  B.  H. 

CAMBRIDGE  ACADEMICS. — In  Ackermann's  His- 
tory of  the  University  of  Cambi'idge  (vol.  ii.  p.  312), 
published  1815,  the  examples  of  costume  are 
known  to  have  been  portraits  of  persons  then  resi- 
dent in  the  University.  I  name  some,  and  per- 
haps your  Cambridge  correspondents  may  be  able 
to  complete  the  list:  after  the  lapse  of  another 
half  century  it  may  not  be  an  easy  work  to  fill 
up  these  blanks  :  — 

Dr.  of  Divinity,  in  Ermine  Cope  (Dr.  Milner,  D.D., 
President  of  Queen's,  Dean  of  Carlisle). 

Dr.  of  Divinity,  in  Scarlet  Gown  (Dr.  Chafy,  D.D., 
Master  of  Sidney  Sussex  College). 

Dr.  in  Physic  (Sir  Isaac  Pennington). 

Dr.  in  Music  (Dr.  Hague). 

Non  Regent  M.A.  (Rev.  Professor  Farish). 

There  are  many  examples  of  academical  habit 
yet  to  be  named,  as  will  be  evident  on  examining 
the  original  work.  The  traditions  of  the  present 
generation  may  throw  some  light  on  the  subject. 

E.  W. 

DUTCH  BIBLIOGRAPHY. — Wanted  the  title  and 
date  of  any  work  on  Dutch  bibliography  similar 
to  our  English  works  of  Watt,  Lowndes,  Alibone, 
&c.  &c.,  containing  a  Catalogue  of  books  printed 
in  Holland  and  its  colonies,  and  works  written  in 
the  Dutch  language.  R  INGLIS. 

STREICHT." — Can  any  correspondent  tell  me  who  is 
the  author  of  the  hymn  beginning  — 

"  Meine  lebenszeit  verstreicht," 
and  in  what  publication  it  has  been  printed  ? 


HOBBES'S  PORTRAITS, — Is  there  no  means  of 
ascertaining  who  is  the  painter  of  any  of  the  por- 
traits of  Hobbes  in  the  National  Portrait  Exhibi- 
tion, especially  the  admirable  one  belonging  to 
Sir  Walter  Trevelyan,  No.  975 ;  which,  I  pre- 
sume, is  the  portrait  so  frequently  engraved? 
But  let  me  remark,  at  the  same  time,  that  this 
picture  from  its  condition  does  not  seem  to  be  so 
well  cared  for  by  its  worthy  owner  as  it  deserves. 
Is  it  from  this  picture  that  the  engraving  in  Sir 
W.  Molesworth's  edition  of  Hobbes  was  taken  ? 


SIR  JOHN  MANDEVILLE. — Weever  states  that 
he  saw  the  tomb  of  this  famous  traveller  at  Liege, 
in  the  church  of  the  Guillemites,  and  the  year  of 
his  death  inscribed  upon  it  was  1371.  In  several 
foreign  works  I  find  the  date  mentioned  as  1372. 
In  Guicciardin's  Description  des  Pays-Bas  (1625), 
after  a  brief  account  of  the  Knight's  preference 
for  Liege  as  a  residence,  he  mentions :  — 

"  II  y  mourut  1'an  1372,  et  fut  honorablement  mis  en 
sepulture  au  Convent  des  Freres  Guillemins,  hors  la  porte 
Auren,  et  encore,  &  present,  on  peut  voir  son  tombeau 
avec  de  beaux  e'pitaphes,"  &c. 

I  should  be  glad  to  know  which  of  these  dates 
is  correct,  and  if  any  detailed  account  is  preserved 



[3**  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66 

of  the  church  in  which  Mandeville  was  buried  at 
Liege.  The  building  was,  I  believe,  destroyed 
during  the  French  Kevolution.  W.  J. 

MUSCHAMPS.  —  What  or  where  is  Muschamps, 
in  Middlesex?  By  inquisition  of  jury,  May  11, 
1631,  Sir  John  Cooper,  Bart,  died  possessed  "in 
Middlesex  of  a  messuage  in  Holborn,  called  the 
Black  Bull,  and  divers  tenements  in  Muschamps  " 
(Collins's  Peerage,  by  Brydges,  iii.  547).  C. 

"  We  require  higher  authority  than  that  of  Macrobius 
to  believe  that  Osiris  made  a  "profession  of  Pantheism, 
as  strong  and  much  plainer  than  Spinoza's.     Whatever 
miight  be  their  secret  doctrine,  if  they  had  any,  the 
? priests  would  have  declined  to  utter  what  would  have 
*  pat  an  end  to  their  trade."— A  Short  Examination  ofjhe 
Divine  Legation  of  Moses,  by  a  Layman,  London,  1756, 
;•#?.  164  (p.  29). 

Macrobius  may  be  a  slip  of  the  pen  for  some 
tither  author.  I  cannot  find  any  such  passage  in 
his  work,  nor  in  Warburton's.  Can  any  of  your 
readers  assist  me  ?  J.  H. 

PEDANTS  WANTED.  —  In  Anecdotes  of  History 
and  Literature,  London,  1803,  pp.  192,  it  is 
stated :  — 

"  One  pedant  described  Adam's  coat  of  arms,  another 
catalogued  the  books  of  a  library  before  the  Deluge,  and 
a  third  wrote  a  full-sized  volume  to  prove  that  Latin  was 
utlie  language  spoken  before  the  Fall."— P.  66. 

Who  were  they  ?  J.  K. 


••"  A  want  of  occupation  is  not  rest, 

A  mind  that's  vacant  is  a  mind  distressed." 
"  Satire  should,  like  a  polished  razor  keen, 
Wound  with  a  touch  that's  scarcely  felt  or  seen." 

T.  W. 

Where  can  I  find  the  well-known  remark,  that 
"  the  English  took  their  pleasure  sadly,  after  their 
fashion  "  ?  CALIDORE. 

Where  can  I  find  the  poem  which  contains  the 
following  lines,  which  I  quote  from  memory,  and 
probably  inexactly  ?  — 

"  The  Ethiops'  Gods  have  dusky  cheeks, 

Thick  lips,  and  woolly  hair.* 
The  Grecian  Gods  are  like  the  Greeks, 
As  calm-eyed,  cold,  and  fair." 

I  am  desirous  also  of  obtaining  the  ballad  or 
ode  on  "  Mary,"  of  which  this  is  a  portion  :  — 

"  She's  like  the  keystone  to  an  arch, 

That  consummates  all  beauty : 
She's  like  the  music  to  a  march, 
That  sheds  a  joy  on  duty." 

I  saw  it  once  in  an  old  American  magazine,  but 
no  author  was  named.  E.  M. 


read  in  a  French  work  that  this  interesting  pagoda, 
which  was  erected  by  the  Chinese  in  1277,  was 

recently  destroyed  by  the  rebels.  As  I  have  not 
met  with  any  printed  account  of  its  destruction, 
will  you  kindly  inform  me  of  the  truth  of  this 
statement,  and  if  true  where  an  account  may  be 
found  ?  W. 

SABBATH  QUERIES. — Who  first  used  or  revived 
the  word  sabbath  as  applied  to  the  Lord's  Day  ? 
In  all  the  Breviaries  and  Missals  sdbbalum  signifies 
the  day  we  call  Saturday,  and  dominica  Sunday. 
In  fact  sabbato  is  the  vernacular  Italian  for  seventh 
day,  and  domenica  for  the  first  at  present. 

Who  first  considered  the  Sunday  commences  at 
midnight  on  Saturday  ?  In  all  Roman  Catholic 
countries  it  begins  as  the  Jewish  sabbath  began, 
at  sunset.  English  visitors  at  Rome  used  to  be 
surprised  to  find  the  opera  closed  on  the  Saturday 
night  and  open  on  the  Sunday.  There  surely 
must  be  some  record  of  such  important  changes  as 
these.  S.  N.  M. 

THE  THUMB.  — The  thumb  is  a  very  "sugges- 
tive "  subject,  as  the  pseudo-scientific  phrase  goes. 
Shakspeare's  "Do  you  bite  your  thumb  at  me, 
sir  ?  "  has,  of  course,  much  ado  with  it  (vide  three 
hundred  commentators),  but  many  of  its  other 
attributes  are  by  no  means  threatening.  Ex  gratia, 
it  is  stated  that  if  a  couple  intent  on  marriage 
happen  to  find  themselves  at  church  without  the 
ring,  the  key  of  the  church  door  is  made  a  sub- 
stitute on  the  emergency,  and  the  symbol  is  put 
over  the  bride's  thumb.  There  is  also  a  pretty 
simple  Scottish  love  ballad,  the  first  line  of  which 
is  — 

"  There's  my  thumb,  I'll  ne'er  beguile  thee," 

which  exalts  that  member  of  the  hand  to  be  a 
pledge  of  constancy  equal  to  the  whole  hand.  It 
is,  Witness  my  thumb  j  not,  as  in  other  cases, 
"Witness  my  hand."  —  To  be  under  any  one's 
thumb  is  however  equivalent  to  being  in  a  slavish 
subjection ;  and  Tom  Thumb  is  the  noblest  hero 
of  Dwarfdom.  Whence  all  these  meanings  ? 


THE  TILL  FAMILY. — I  shall  be  much  obliged  to 
any  of  the  readers  of  "N.  &  Q."  who  will  inform 
me  where  I  can  see  a  pedigree,  or  find  any  other 
authentic   source  of  information,   respecting  the 
family  of  Till  of  Tilhouse  in  Devonshire.     The 
arms  are,  Argent,  a  fesse  per  fesse  indented  or,  and 
u.  in  chief  3  trefoils  sa.*          WALTER  J.  TILL. 
Manor  House,  Croydon. 

WASTE  PAPER. — I  saw  in  a  newspaper  some 
time  back  an  advertisement  for  waste  paper ;  I 
tiave  also  heard  that  some  of  the  ragged  schools 
who  have  collecting-carts  for  rags,  bones,  &c.,will 
be  glad  to  call  and  remove  waste  paper.  I,  how- 
ever, neglected  to  make  "  notes "  of  this  at  the 
time,  but  I  have  a  sackful  of  odds  and  ends  of 

[*  Pole's  J)evon,  p.  175,  contains  some  account  of  this 
family. — ED.] 

3Td  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.] 



paper.  I  fill  nearly  a  basket  per  week,  what  with, 
printed  circulars,  letters  torn  up,  &c.  I  should  feel 
very  thankful  to  be  informed,  through  the  columns 
of  '•  N.  &  Q.,"  which  would  be  the  most  useful 
means  of  disposing  of  the  same.  SUBSCRIBER. 


"  XOBODY'S  FRIENDS." — Can  any  one  furnish  a 
clue  to  obtain  information  regarding  a  society 
which  is  believed  to  have  existed  in  the  last  cen- 
tury by  the  name  of  "  Nobody's  Friends  "  ?  The 
writer  of  this  inquiry  will  be  grateful  for  any 
particulars  showing  the  origin  and  nature  of  the 
society,  the  date  of  its  existence,  and  the  name 
and  other  particulars  connected  writh  its  founder, 
believed  to  have  been  one  William  Stevens,  born 
on  March  2,  1732.  in  the  parish  of  St.  Saviour's, 
Southward  W.  H.  W. 

[The  history  of  "  Nobody's  Friends"  will  be  found  in 
the  3femoirs  of  William  Stevens,  Esq.,  Treasurer  of  Queen 
Anne's  Bounty,  by  Sir  James  Allan  Park,  one  of  the  Judges 
of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  8vo,  1812,*  1814, 1823,  and 
1859 — a  work  deserving  a  place  on  the  same  shelf  with 
the  inimitable  biographies  of  Izaak  Walton.  In  short, 
William  Stevens  has  been  justly  denominated  the  Izaak 
Walton  of  the  eighteenth  century  :  for,  whilst  cultivating 
the  things  that  are  lovely  and  of  good  report,  he  con- 
stantly placed  before  him  as  a  pattern  the  mild  virtues 
and  sober  piety  of  that  venerable  man.  Both  were 
tradesmen  as  hosiers,  and  acquired  learning  under  diffi- 
culties during  commercial  life ;  both  were  remarkable  for 
their  uniform  and  habitual  cheerfulness,  for  their  lively 
and  inoffensive  wit ;  and  both  were  happy  in  the  enjoy- 
ment of  the  friendship  of  men  renowned  for  their  wisdom 
and  learning,  for  the  sanctity  of  their  manners,  and  the 
unsullied  purity  of  their  lives.f  Their  honoured  names, 
with  those  of  John  Evelyn,  Robert  Nelson,  Joshua  Wat- 
son, James  Hey  wood  Markland,  Henry  Hoare,  and,  if  we 
may  be  permitted  to  add,  William  Cotton,  will  ever  be 
endeared  to  the  memories  of  the  members  of  the  Anglican 
portion  of  the  Church  Catholic. 

It  was  owing  to  the  unremitting  exertions  of  Mr. 
Stevens,  the  Hon.  Justice  Park,  and  the  Rev.  Dr.  Gaskin, 
that  the  removal  of  those  disqualifications  that  pressed  so 
heavily  on  the  suffering  Scottish  Episcopalians  were  ulti- 

*  Our  copy  of  the  first  edition  of  this  work,  published 
anonymously,  and  without  the  name  of  any  bookseller, 
but  "  Printed  by  the  Philanthropic  Society,  Goodman's 
Fields,"  contains  the  autograph  of  the  Hon/Justice  Park. 

f  Izaak  Walton  wrote  the  Life  of  Bishop  Sanderson  in 
his  eighty-fifth  year,  when,  "silvered  o'er  with  age,"  he 
had  a  just  claim  to  a  writ  of  ease.  William  Stevens  had 
attained  the  age  of  sixt3^-eight,  when  in  1800  he  edited  in 
12  vols.  8vo  an  edition  of  the  Theological,  Philosophical, 
and  Miscellaneous  Works  of  William  Jones  of  Nayland, 
to  which  he  prefixed  a  Life  of  that  remarkable  man—"  a 
man,"  says  Bishop  Horslej^,  "  of  quick  penetration,  of 
extensive  learning,  and  the  soundest  piety." 

mately  achieved,  when  the  ro}7al  assent  was  given  to  a 
bill  for  their  toleration  on  June  15,  1792.  Upon  the 
repeal  of  the  penal  laws  the  same  gentlemen  were  fore- 
most in  raising  one  fund  for  making  a  moderate  addition 
to  the  incomes  of  the  Scottish  Bishops  and  the  most 
necessitous  of  the  clergy,  and  another  for  the  relief  of 
their  widows  and  orphans. 

The  principles  of  religion  and  polity  which  guided  the 
conduct  of  William  Stevens  in  times  of  spiritual  apathy 
and  lukewarmness,  and  of  political  restlessness  and 
anarchy,  became  the  groundwork  of  a  society,  deriving 
its  singular  title  from  the  modest  name  by  which  he 
called  himself,  and  which  has  become  known  to  posterity 
as  "  Nobody's  Friends."  This  club  was  not  to  meet  so> 
often  as  to  make  the  attendance  burdensome,  nor  so 
seldom  as  to  allow  it  to  become  neglected.  Accordingly, 
three  meetings  were  to  be  holden  every  year,  at  the  end 
of  November,  the  beginning  of  March,  and  the  29th  of 
May.  At  the  first  meeting  in  the  spring  of  the  year 
1800,  it  was  composed  of  persons  of  the  highest  station 
for  talents  and  worth  in  the  three  learned  professions, 
and  others  of  a  literary  character,  who  delighted  in  the' 
conversation,  admired  the  principles,  and  honoured  the 
prominent  and  active  virtues  of  Mr.  Stevens's  character,. 
The  society  consists  of  an  equal  number  of  clergy  and 
laity — the  cream  of  the  English  Church — and  probably 
owes  much  of  its  usefulness,  permanence,  and  welfare,  to 
this  combination  ;  and,  notwithstanding  its  humble  origin, 
still  remains  unimpaired  after  a  lapse  of  sixty-six  years. 
The  names  of  its  members  since  its  foundation  are  printed 
in  the  Appendix  to  the  Memoirs  of  William  Stevens,  edit. 
1859,  pp.  168— 213;  and  in  glancing  over  this  list,  it  is 
gratifying  to  find  many  eminent  literary  characters  of 
recent  times  who  have  enriched  the  pages  of  "  N.  &  Q." 
for  the  benefit  of  its  readers,  with  their  valuable  con- 
tributions. ] 

following  is  from  the  Catalogue  of  Palmer,  Cathe- 
rine Street.  Is  there  any  authority  for  the  re- 
commendatory notice  ?  — 

"MILTON'S  PARADISIC  LOST.  —  State  of  Innocence, 
and  Fall  of  Man  rendered  into  PROSE,  with  Historical, 
Philosophical,  and  Explanatory  Notes,  from  the  French 
of  Raymond  de  St.  Maur,  by  a  Gentleman  of  Oxford, 
8vo,  bound,  rare,  8s.  Aberdeen,  1770. 

"  King  George  III.  having  expressed  regret  that  Mil- 
ton had  not  written  his  immortal  work  in  PROSE,  this 
rendering  was  published.  It  is  now  very  rarely  to  be 
met  with,  except  in  the  libraries  of  the  curious." 


[  The  State  of  Innocence  was  first  published  by  Tom 
Osborne  in  1745,  and  it  is  not  likely  that  George  III., 
then  in  the  seventh  year  of  his  age,  would  "  express 
regret  that  Milton  had  not  written  his  immortal  work  in 
prose."  This  new  version  of  the  Paradise  Lost,  which 
was  conceived  to  "  bring  that  amazing  work  somewhat 
nearer  the  summit  of  perfection,"  was  the  production  of 
George  Smith  Green,  an  eccentric  watchmaker  at  Oxford, 
and  author  of  two  unacted  plays,  Oliver  Cromwell,  8vo, 
1752,  and  The  Nice  Lady,  8vo,  1762,  as  well  as  of  a 

mony  of  Milton  i  -      rwfiml  " 


Nicholas  Francis  Dupre  de  St.  Maur,  who  ^  ^  ^ 

the  French  Academy  in  1/33.] 

cnot  find 

name  in  any  biographical 

found  i 

Jesuit  College  01  ^a-L'^L,^  '       f     -D    •„ 

in  the  Roman  Church,  he  left  Normandy  for •***> 
he  was  appointed  by  Richelieu  inspector  of  the  press  of 
the  Louvre.  After  the  Cardinal's  death  he  ret  red  to 
Langres,  and  finally  to  Preuilly,  where  he  openly  pro- 
fessell  the  doctrines  of  the  Reformed  faith.  He  was  im- 
mediately offered  a  chair  in  the  Academy  of  Saumur, 
Which  he  shortly  afterwards  exchanged  for  a  more  eli- 
ecible  appointment  in  Heidelberg,  where  he  died  Sept.  12, 
1672  Le  Fevre  is  best  known  as  the  father  of  Anne 
Dacier,  who  edited  the  classics  for  the  use  of 

(3rd  S.  ix.  350,  401,  499.) 
The  specimens  given  do  not  meet  the  query  of 
GPL.,  who  seems  anxious  to  know  where  the 
rhyme  is  to  he  found  in  print.  Towards  the  end 
of  the  last  century,  there  was  published  a  bcottish 
ballad,  which  became  a  great  favourite  with  the 
country  people,  and  continued  to  be  so  till  that 
veneration  had  passed  away,  and  then  it  only  re- 
mained in  the  recollection  of  a  few  old  people,  the 
writer  of  this  being  one  of  them,  now  an  octo- 
o-enarian  !  It  was  known  by  the  name  of  tl  Cap- 
tain Wedderburn's  Courtship,"  and  commences 
thus :  — 

«  The  Lord  of  Rosslyn's  daughter 

Walked  through  the  wood  her  lane, 
And  bye  cam'  Captain  Wedderburn, 
A  servant  to  the  king  ; 

QUERIES.  I?"  s- x-  J°«j^_ 

He  said  unto  his  serving  man, 

Were  it  not  against  the  law, 
I  wad  tak'  her  to  my  ain  bed, 

And  lay  her  neist  the  wa'. 
«  I'm  walking  here  alane,  she  says, 

Amang  my  father's  trees ; 
And  ye  maun  let  me  walk  alane, 

Kind  sir,  now,  if  you  please  ; 
The  supper  bell  it  will  be  rung, 

And  I'll  be  missed  awa'. 
Sae  I  winna  lie  in  your  bed, 

Either  at  stock  or  wa'." 

Then,  after  a  lengthened  parley — 
"  He  lighted  aff  his  milk-white  steed, 

And  set  the  lady  on, 
And  a'  the  way  he  walked  on  foot, 

And  held  her  by  the  han . 
Till  they  arrived  at  his  lodgings  in  Edinburgh, 
where  she  is  introduced  to  his  landlady,  who, 
beino-  captivated  by  the  appearance  and  beauty  of 
the  lady  proposes  to  make  her  up  a  down  bed, 
and  laT'her  at  the  wa'.  The  lady  thus  expos- 
tulates  — 

«  0  hand  awa'  frae  me,  she  says, 

I  pray  you  let  me  be, 
I  winna  gang  to  your  bed 

Till  ye  dress  me  dishes  three : 
Dishes'three  ye  maun  dress  for  me, 

And  I  maun  ha'e  them  a , 
Afore  that  I  lie  in  your  bed, 

Either  at  stock  or  wa'. 
"  It's  ye  maun  get  to  my  supper, 

A  cherry  without  a  stane, 
And  ye  maun  get  to  my  supper, 

A  chicken  without  a  bane, 
And  ye  maun  get  to  my  supper, 

A  bird  without  a  ga' ; 
Or  I  winna  lie  in  your  bed, 

Either  at  stock  or  wa . 

Then  here  comes  what  is  called  the  Nursery 
Rhyme,  the  cherry  in  the  blossom,  the  chicken  m 
the^heil,  and  the  bird  (a  dove)  which  is  said  to 
have  no  gall.  But  the  lady  is  still  persistent,  and 
puts  the  six  following  questions  :  — 

«  What's  greener  than  the  greenest  grass  ? 

What's  higher  than  the  trees  ? 
What's  waur  nor  an  ill  woman's  wish  ? 

What's  deeper  nor  the  .oeas  ? 
What  bird  sings  first,  and  whereupon 

First  doth  the  dew  doun  fa  i 
Ye  sail  tell  afore  I  lay  me  down 

Either  at  stock  or  wa'." 
These  are  all  answered  in  similar  rh 
fl)  vergris,  (2)  heaven,  (3)  the  devi 
(5)  the  cock,  and  (6)  the  cedar-tree. 
«  Sae  we'll  baith  lie  in  ae  bed, 
And  ye's  lie  neist  the  wa'. 
As  a  last  and  crowning  resource  she  says 
;<  Ye  maun  get  to  me  some  summer  fruit 

That  in  December  grew, 
And  ye  maun  get  a  silk  mantel 

The  waft  was  ne'er  cad  through ; 
A  sparrow's  horn,  a  priest  unborn, 

This  night  to  join  us  twa, 
Or  I'll  nae  lie  in  your  bed, 
Either  at  stock  or  wa . 


3'*  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.  ] 



All  which  can  be  procured :  his  father  has   the 
fruit,  his  mother  the  silk  mantel,  and  the  spar- 
row's bill  and  claws  are  of  horn  ;  and — 
"  The  priest  is  standing  at  the  door 
Just  ready  to  come  in," 

who  had  been  taken  from  his  mother's  side  by  a 
surgical  operation.      Thus  the  courtship  ended, 

.and  — 

"  Little  ken'd  Girzie  Sinclair 

That  morning  when  she  rase, 
That  it  would  be  the  very  last 

O'  a'  her  maiden  days  ; 
But  now  there's  no  within  the  realm, 

I  think,  a  blyther  twa ; 
And  they  baith  lie  in  ae  bed, 
And  she  lies  neist  the  wa'." 

The  ballad  consisted  of  eighteen  or  twenty 
double  stanzas,  and  consequently  much  too  long 
for  insertion;  and  even  after  this  curtailment  it 
may  still  be  unsuitable  for  "  N.  &  Q.,"  which  re- 
mains for  the  editor  to  determine.  PAX. 


(3rd  S.  ix.  511,  543.) 

I  have  heard  the  name  pronounced  puit  in 
scores  of  instances,  and  have  seen  it  written  puit, 
though  where  and  by  whom.  I  cannot  now  recall. 
I  should  say  that  in  many  parts  of  Essex  and 
Suffolk  the  pronunciation  of  the  word  is  puit. 
Here  the  name  is  tufit  (the  u  sounded  much  as  the 
French  u],  or  teeqfit,  with  the  ee  not  dwelt  upon, 
and  the  a  slurred. 

"The  false  lapwing,  alle  full  of  trechirie," 
is  Chaucer's  description  of  the  bird  in  question, 
(Assembly  of  Foules,  1.  348).  I  should  be  very 
glad  to  discover  if  there  be  any  remainder  of 
English  folk-lore  illustrative  of  that  uncompli- 
mentary line.  Chambers  (Popular  Rhymes  of 
Scotland,  p.  160),  speaks  of  the  "  dolorous  cry  "  of 
the  lapwing  or  pecse-weepf  and  of  a  "  traditionary 
antipathy  to  the  bird  in  certain  parts  of  Scot- 
land;" adding,  that  it  is  "held  as  unlucky  on 
account  of  its  having  sometimes  served,  during 
the  persecuting  times,  to  point  out  the  retreats  of 
the  unfortunate  Presbyterians"  in  hiding  "for 
conscience'  sake." 

But  it  is  certain  that  the  ill-name  was  affixed 
to  the  bird  before  the  date  referred  to  by  this 
author,  as  is  evident  indeed  from  Chaucer's  words, 
and  further  still  from  Northern  legends,  of  which 
I  append  one  or  two  :  — 

"  When  our  Lord  was  a  wee  bairn  he  took  a  walk  out 
one  day,  and  came  to  an  old  crone  who  was  busy  baking. 
She  desired  him  to  go  and  split  her  a  little  wood  for  the 
oven,  and  she  would  give  him  a  new  cake  for  his  trouble. 
He  did  as  he  was  bid,  and  the  old  woman  went  on  with 
her  .occupation,  sundering  a  very  small  portion  of  the 
dough  for  the  promised  recompense.  But  when  the  batch 
was  dra\vn  this  cake  was  equally  large  with  the  rest.  So 

she  took  a  new  morsel  of  the  dough,  still  less  than  before, 
and  made  and  baked  another  cake,  but  with  the  like 
result.  Hereupon  she  broke  out  with—'  That's  a  vast  over 
muckle  cake  for  the  likes  o'  you;  thee's  get  thy  cake 
anither  time.'  When  our  Lord  saw  her  evil  disposition 
his  wrath  was  stirred,  and  he  said  to  the  woman — '  I  split 
your  wood  as  you  asked  me,  and  you  would  not  so  much 
as  give  me  the  little  cake  you  promised  me.  Now  you 
shall  go  and  cleave  wood,  and  that  too  as  long  as  the 
world  endures.'  With  that  he  changed  her  into  a  Weep 
(  Vipa.)  So  the  weep  fares  betwixt  heaven  and  earth  as 
long  as  the  world  lasts  ;  and  fare  where  she  will,  she 
says  other  words  never  save  Klyfved!  klyfved!  (Cleave 
wood,  cleave  wood)."  * 

Again  :— 

"  While  as  our  Lord  hung  yet  upon  the  cross,  there 
came  three  birds  flying  over.  The  first  was  the  stork, 
who  cried  Styrk  ham  !  styrk  ham  !  (strengthen  him)  ;  and 
hence  the  bird's  name,  and  the  blessings  which  go  with 
her.  The  second  cried  Sval  ham!  sval  ham!  (cool  or 
refresh  him)  ;  so  she  came  to  be  called  the  swallow,  and 
is  also  a  bird  of  blessing.  But  the  last  was  the  weep,  who 
shrieked  Piin  ham!  piin  ham!  (pine  him,  make  him 
suffer)  ;  and  therefore  she  is  accursed  for  ever  down  to  the 
last  day."— Thiele's  Danish  Traditions,  ii.  p.  304. 

Again :  — 

"  The  weep  is  an  accursed  bird,  who  may  never  be  left 
unmolested,  but  must  ever  fly  restlessly  about  abusing  all 
as  thieves  and  receivers." 

Compare  Chambers's  Rhymes,  p.  161 : — 
"  Peese  weep !  peese  weep  ! 

Harry  my  nest,  and  gar  me  greet !  " 
"  Thieves  geit— thieves  geit ! 

Harry  my  nest,  and  awa'  wi't !  " 

"  The  origin  of  this  ill  condition,"  continues  Thiele,  "  is 
that  the  weep  was  once  on  a  time  a  servant  girl,  and 
much  trusted  by  her  employers;  but  it  so  chanced  that 
she  stole  a  pair  of  gold  scissars  from  her  mistress,  and 
when  charged  with  the  theft,  wished  that  if  she  had  done 
any  such  thing  she  might  become  a  bird,  and  be  doomed  to 
fly  about  in  the  air,  scolding  all  men  for  thieves  and 
robbers,  and  producing  her  offspring  in  morasses  and 
reed  beds.  So  she  was  changed  into  a  weep  then  and 
there,  and  for  a  token  of  the  offence  which  had  drawn 
the  punishment  upon  her,  the  weep's  tail  feathers  resemble 
a  pair  of  scissars,  and  with  her  ceaseless  cry,  Tyvit! 
tyvit !  f  she  flites  with  all  as  thieves."— Ib.  304." 

Molbech  (Danish  Dialect  Lexicon}  says  that  in 
one  district  of  Denmark  the  peese-weeps  are  held 
to  be  metamorphosed  old  maids ;  the  extinct  old 
bachelors  being  still  to  be  found  in  the  form  of 
green  sandpipers.  The  former  fly  restlessly  about 
the  bogs  and  moors,  which  are  the  common  dwel- 
ling-places of  themselves  and  the  sandpipers,  piti- 
fully and  unceasingly  exclaiming  "  Hvi  vi'  do  it  ? 
hvi  vf  do  it  ?  "  (Oh !  why  wouldn't  you  ?)  Where- 
upon the  sandpipers  (to  whom  the  plaintive 
question  is  addressed),  in  their  turn,  and  on  the 
wing  too,  reply  "  Fo  we  turr  it,  fo  we  turr  it " 
(Because  we  durst  not),  with  the  closing  peal  of 

*  Hylte'n-Cavallius's  Warend  och  Wirdarne,  p.  346. 
Grimm  refers  to  this  story  as  told  of  the  red-headed 
woodpecker  in  Norway.  See  Dasent's  Norse  Talcs,  p.  245. 

f  It  is  remarkable  that  this  form  of  the  bird's  cry  coin- 
cides exactly  in  sound  with  our  Cleveland  tufit. 



[3r<*S.  X.  JULY  21, 'CO. 

insulting  laughter  "haa!    ho!   hoa!"^ which  is 
constantly  heard  from  the  birds  in  question.     - 

Danbv  in  Cleveland. 

Peewit  writes  Bewick ;  good  old  Bailey  and 
Johnson,  pewct,  smdipuet;  and  quaint  old  Plot,  in 
his  Staffordshire,  pewit.  And  he  gives  an  account 
of  these  "birds  that  may  amuse  some  readers  of 
"N.  &Q." 

"  The  Pewits,  being  of  the  migratory  kind,  come  an- 
nually to  certain  pools  in  the  estate  of  the  right  worshipful 
Sr  C/Skrymsher,  Knt.,  to  build  and  breed,  and  to  no  other 
estate  in  or  near  the  county,  but  of  this  family,  to  which 
thev  have  belonged  ultra  hominum  memoriani,  and  never 
moved  from  it,  though  they  have  changed  their  station 
often.  They  anciently  came  to  the  old  Pewit  pool  above 
mentioned  (p. 2 15),  about  \  a  mile  S.W.of  Norbury  Church, 
but  it  being  their  strange  quality  (as  the  whole  family 
will  tell  you,  to  whom  I  refer  the  reader  for  the  following 
relation)"  to  be  disturbed  and  remove  upon  the  death  of 
the  head  of  it,  as  they  did  within  memory  upon  the  death 
of  James  Skrymsher,  Esq.  to  Offley  Moss,  near  Wood's- 
Eves,  which  Moss,  though  containing  two  gentlemen's 
land,  yet  (which  is  very  remarkable)  the  Pewits  did  dis- 
cern betwixt  the  one  and  the  other,  and  built  only  on  the 
land  of  the  next  heir,  John  Skrymsher,  Ksq. ;  so  wholly 
are  they  addicted  to  this  family.  At  which  Moss  they 
continued  about  three  years  and  then  removed  to  the 
old  Pewit  pool  again,  where  they  continued  to  the  death 
of  the  said  J.  Skrymsher,  which  happening  on  the  Eve  to 
our  Lady  Day,  the  very  time  when  they  are  laying  their 
eggs,  yet  so  concerned  were  they  at  this  gentleman's  death, 
that  notwithstanding  this  tye  of  the  law  of  nature,  which 
has  ever  been  held  to  be  universal  and  perpetual,  they 
left  their  nests  and  eggs,  and  though  they  made  some 
attempts  of  laying  again  at  Offley  Moss,  yet  they  were 
still  so  disturbed  that  they  bred  not  at  all  that  year. 
The  next  year  after  they  went  to  Aqualate,  to  another 
gentleman^  estate  of  the  same  family,  Avhere  (though 
tempted  to  stay  with  all  the  care  imaginable)  yet  con- 
tinued there  but  two  years,  and  then  returned  again  to 
another  pool  of  the  next  heir  of  J.  Skrymsher  deceased, 
called  Shebben  Pool,  in  the  parish  of  High  Offley,  where 
they  continue  to  this  day,  and  seem  to  be  the  property, 
as  I  may  say  (though  a  wildfowl)  of  the  right  worshipful 
Sr  C.  Skrymsher,  Knt.,  their  present  lord  and  master."— 
(Pp.  231,  232.) 

Plot  then  describes  the  time  when  the  pewits 
came  to  the  islands  which  are  prepared  for  them 
in  the  pools,  by  cutting  down  the  reeds,  &c.  j  the 
manner  in  which  they  make  their  nests;  the 
number  of  their  eggs,  and  the  time  of  incubation ; 
and  then  tells  us  that — 

"  About  a  month  after,  the  young  are  almost  ready  to 
fly,  which  usually  happens  on  the  third  .of  June,  when 
the  proprietor  of  the  pool  orders  them  to  be  driven  and 
caught,  the  gentry  coming  in  from  all  parts  to  see  the 
sport.  The  manner  is  thus.  They  pitch  a  rabbit-net  on 
the  bank  side  in  the  most  convenient  place  over  against 
the  hafts  (islands),  the  net  in  the  middle  being  about  ten 
yards  from  the  side  (of  the  water),  but  close  at  the  ends 
in  the  manner  of  a  bow ;  then  six  or  seven  men  wade  into 
the  pool  beyond  the  Pewits  over  against  the  net,  with 
long  staves,  and  drive  them  from  the  hafts,  whence  they 
all  swim  to  the  bank  side,  and  landing,  run  like  Lap- 
wings into  the  net,  where  people,  standing  ready,  take 

them  up,  and  put  them  into  two  pens  made  within  the 
bow  of  the  net,  which  are  built  round  about  3  yards' 
diameter,  and  a  yard  high  or  somewhat  better,  with 
small  stakes  driven  into  the  ground  in  a  circle,  and  inter- 
woven with  broom  and  other  raddles."— (Pp.  232,  233.) 

"  In  which  manner  there  have  been  taken  of  them  in 
one  morning  50  dozens  at  a  driving,  which,  at  5s.  per 
dozen  (the  ancient  price  of  them)  comes  to  I'll.  10s. ;  but 
at  several  drifts  that  have  ancienth*  been  made  in  the 
same  morning,  there  have  been  as  many  taken  as  have 
been  sold  for  thirty  pounds,  besides  what  have  been  given 
as  presents." 

Plot  adds,  that  three  days  of  driving  within 
fourteen  days  of  the  2nd  of  June  were  usual,  and 
that  it  had  been  observed  that  — 

"  When  there  is  great  plenty  of  them,  the  Lent  corn  of 
the  country  is  so  much  the  better,  and  so  the  cow  pastures 
too,  by  reason  they  pick  up  all  the  worms  and  the  fern 
flies,  which  though  bred  in  the  Fern,  yet  nip  and  feed  on 
the  3'oung  corn  and  grass,  and  hinder  their  growth." — 
(P.  233.) 

At  the  same  page  there  is  a  very  good  plate, 
showing  the  pool  and  the  catching  of  the  pewits 
as  described. 

Is  there  any  other  instance  known  of  pewits 
breeding  in  company  in  the  manner  thus  described? 
As  far  as  my  own  experience  goes,  they  breed 
separately ;  generally  in  land  which  wants  drain- 
ing, and  about  July  they  congregate  in  large  flocks 
or  knots,  like  starlings ;  and  at  that  time  of  the 
year  a  sportsman  of  the  olden  time,  when  I  was  a 
boy,  used  to  take  them  in  their  haunts  on  the 
banks  of  the  Trent  with  nets,  which  he  set  with 
stuffed  birds  as  a  lure,  and  to  which  he  had  a 
rope,  by  which  he  pulled  the  nets  over  the  birds. 

C.  S.  G. 

Under  the  reference  (p.  543)  it  is  shown,  as 
might  be  expected,  that  Tennyson  had  authority 
for  using  peewit  as  a  rhyme  to  cruet.  Bailey  also 
says  "Ptnoety  a  bird,  apuet"  Its  more  general  pro- 
nunciation, however,  is  in  accordance  with  the 
bird's  cry — two  long  syllables,  pee-wit,  or  rather 
pee-iveet,  by  which  name  they  are  often  called  by 
country  people,  the  wcet  being  strongly  accented. 
In  the  Midland  Counties  I  have  heard  the  bird 
called  beivitched,  its  cry  being  supposed  to  express 
the  sound  of  that  word,  an  extra  stress  being  here 
also  given  to  the  second  syllable.  Thus,  the  bird 
is  named  from  his  cry,  like  the  cuckoo  that  "  told 
his  name  to  all  the  hills,"  and  the  American 
"whip-poor-will"  and  the  goat-sucker's  "Willy- 
come-go;"  " who-are-you/'  and  "work-away." 


This  bird  of  many  an  alias  is  called  in  Lincoln- 
shire (Tennyson's  county)  a  plover,  and  by  the 
lower  class  a  jriwipe.  Near  Lincoln  there  is  a  pub- 
lic-house going  by  the  name  of  the  Piwipe  Inn. 
There  is  a  strange  legend  respecting  the  name  of 
Tyrwhitt.  After  some  battle,  the  founder  of  this 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  21,  ?66.] 



Lincolnshire  family  was  nearly  lost  in  a  morass, 
when  these  birds  led  friends  to  his  assistance  by 
flying-  about  the  spot  with  the  cry  "  Tyr-whit ! 
tyr-whit !  tyr-whit !  "  In  grateful  remembrance 
the  family  have  ever  since  borne  in  their  arms 
three  plovers. 


I  send  an  extract  from  Yarrell's  British  Birds 
(vol.  ii.  p.  418)  :  — 

"  The  French  in  imitation  of  the  sound  of  its  note,  call 

this  bird  dixhuit. Charles  Anderson,  Esq., 

of  Lea,  near  Gainsborough,  sends  me  word  that  a  very 
ancient  Lincolnshire  family,  the  Tyrwhitty,  bear  three 
peewits  for  their  arms  ;  and  it  is  said  from  a  tradition 
that  it  was  in  consequence  of  the  founder  of  their  family 
having  fallen  in  a  skirmish  wounded,  and  being  saved  by 
his  followers,  who  were  directed  to  the  spot  where  he  lay 
by  the  cries  of  these  birds,  and  their  hovering  over  him." 

The  words  pew-itt,  pee-ivitt,  and  tew-itt,  are  all 
used  with  the  word  plover  in  the  Fylde,  Lanca- 
shire. H.  T.  C. 

(3rd  S.  x.  8.) 

The  "  Greek  comic  sketch  "  to  which  De  Quin- 
cey  refers,  in  the  extract  here  quoted,  occurs  in 
the  epitome  of  the  second  book  of  the  Deipno- 
sophistce  of  A  thence  us  (cap.  5) ;  and  has  been 
very  literally  as  well  as  spiritedly  rendered  by 
Mr.  Yonge,  in  his  version  of  the  jovial  old  philo- 
sopher of  Naucratis,  published  in  Bonn's  Clas- 
sical Library.  For  the  benefit  of  such  readers  of 
"N.  &  Q."  as  may  neither  be  acquainted  with 
the  original  Greek,  nor  have  Mr.  Yonge's  trans- 
lation at  hand,  I  am  tempted  to  insert  the  passage 
from  the  latter  here :  — 

"  Timseus  of  Tauromenium  relates  that  there  was  a 
certain  house  at  Agrigentum  called  the  Trireme  on  this 
account : — Some  young  men  got  drunk  in  it,  and  got  so 
mad  when  excited  by  the  wine  as  to  think  that  they 
were  sailing  in  a  trireme,  and  that  they  were  being  tossed 
about  on  the  sea  in  a  violent  storm; 'and  so  completely 
did  they  lose  their  senses  that  they  threw  all  the  furni- 
ture, and  all  the  sofas  and  chairs  and  beds,  out  of  window, 
as  if  they  were  throwing  them  into  the  sea,  fancying 
that  the  captain  had  ordered  them  to  lighten  the  'ship 
because  of  the  storm.  And  though  a  crowd  collected 
round  the  house,  and  began  to  plunder  what  was  thrown 
out,  even  that  did  not  cure  the  young  men  of  their  frenzy. 
And  the  next  day,  when  the  praetors  came  to  the  hous'e, 
there  were  the  young  men  still  lying  sea-sick,  as  they 
said;  and,  when  "the  magistrates  questioned  them,  they 
replied  that  they  had  been  in  great  danger  from  a  storm, 
and  had  consequently  been  compelled  to  lighten  the  ship 
by  throwing  all  their  superfluous  cargo  into  the  sea. 
And  while  the  magistrates  marvelled  at  the  bewilder- 
ment of  the  men,  one  of  them,  who  seemed  to  be  older 
than  the  rest,  said  :  '  I,  O  Tritons,  was  so  frightened 
that  I  threw  mj'self  down  under  the  benches,  and  lay 
there  as  low  down  and  as  much  out  of  sight  as  I  could.' 
And  the  magistrates  forgave  their  folly,  and  dismissed 

them  with  a  reproof  and  a  warning  not  to  indulge  in  too 
much  wine  in  future.  And  they,  professing  to  be  much 
obliged  to  them,  said  :  'If  we  arrive  in  port  after  having 
escaped  this  terrible  storm,  we  will  erect  in  our  country 
statues  of  you  as  our  saviours  in  a  conspicuous  place, 
along  with  those  of  the  other  gods  of  the  sea,  as  having 
appeared  to  us  at  a  seasonable  time.'  And  from  this  cir- 
cumstance that  house  was  called  the  Trireme." 

In  further  reference  to  this  adventure,  which  has 
served  as  a  theme  to  comic  writers  of  modern 
times,  I  may  adduce  a  remark  made  by  JBrydone 
in  his  Tour  throtiyh  Sicily  and  Malta,  "first'  pub- 
lished in  1773.  In  his  description  of  Agrigentum 
he  notices  its  ancient  character  for  luxury  and 
conviviality,  and.  alluding  to  the  plight  of  the 
pseudo-mariners  just  recorded,  which  seems  to 
have  existed  as  a  standing  joke  of  the  place,  he 
proceeds  to  descant  on  the  phases  of  drunkenness 
as  exemplified  in  his  own  time,  and  thus  remarks 
on  Irish  bacchanalianism  :  — 

"  In  Dublin  I  have  been  told  there  are  more  than  one 
triremes  ;  and  that  this  frolic,  which  they  call  throwing 
the  house  out  of  the  window,  is  bv  no  means  uncoiTimon." 

P.  B. 

Maida  Vale,  London. 

The  "  Greek  comic  sketch  "  of  De  Quincey  is 
in  the  Epitome  of  Athena? us  (ii.  5)  who  introduces 
this  story  apparently  to  show  that  drunkenness 
takes  its  form  from  the  habits  of  the  drunkard : 
hence  we  may  infer  that  they  were  in  this  in- 
stance seamen.  Empedocles,  a  native  of  the  same 
city,  says  that  "  the  Agrigentines  built  as  if  they 
were  to  live  for  ever,  and  feasted  as  if  they  were 
to  die  on  the  morrow."  T.  J.  BTJCKTON. 

Brixton  Hill. 

(3rd  S.  x.  1,  35.) 

I  am  greatly  obliged  to  S.  II.  II.  for  his  re- 
ference to  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  (vol.  xxxvii. 
pp.  381,  426),  in  which  mention  is  made  of  the 
"  arrival  at  St.  James's "  of  the  Princess  Ponia- 
towski,  "  sister  of  the  King  of  Poland;"  as  he  has 
thereby  supplied  a  date  which  I  was  anxious 
to  ascertain.  It  now  appears  that  Mrs.  Serres-' 
"fiction"  had  thus  much  "fact"  to  rest  upon, 
that  a  Princess  Poniatowski  actually  visited  Eng- 
land, if  not  in  1749  in  1767,  only  eighteen  years 
afterwards.  Our  old  friend  Sylvanus  Urban  may 
have  led  her  into  this  mistake  she  made  about 
the  lady  being  "  a  Sister  of  the  King  of  Poland," 
for  Sylvanus'  account  of  her  visit  is  incorrect  in 
several  curious  particulars.  In  the  first  place  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine  speaks  of  the  lady's  arrival 
"AT  St.  James's."  But  on  referring  to  Lloyd's 
Evening  Post,  July  20—22, 1767, 1  find  it  stated  :— 

"  On  Sunday  (19th  July)  arrived  in  St.  James's  Street; 
the  Princess  Poniatowski,"  sister  to  the  King  of  Poland." 

While  from  the  following  number  of  the  same 



JULY  21,  *66. 

iournal  it  appears  that  "the  Princess  Pomatowski, 
lust  arrived  here  from  Warsaw,  is  Consort  of  Count 
Poniatoivski,  brother  of  the  King  of  Poland  — 
not  a  sister,  therefore,  but  a  sister-in-law;  and 
who,  if  she  had  married  Dr.  Wilmot,  would  have 
added  another  to  the  many  bigamies  which  en- 
rich Mrs.  Serres'  romance. 

In  the  same  journal  of  July  31  we  are  told 
"  the  visit  of  a  foreign  Princess  to  this  country  is 
conjectured  by  many  people  to  be  of  a  more  im- 
portant nature  than  a  tour  of  curiosity ;"  and  it 
is  followed  by  a  paragraph  stating,  that  the  arrival 
of  the  Prince  de  Ligne  "in  town,  is  to  open  an 
immediate  channel  of  accommodation  between 
this  Court  and  the  Court  of  Portugal." 

These  illustrious  diplomatists  visited  Oxford 
(from  Nuneham)  on  August  1,  and  thence  pro- 
ceeded to  Blenheim  on  a  visit  to  the  Duke  of 

"We  have  here,  doubtless,  the  germ  of  Mrs.  Serres' 
romance :  the  fact  being  a  visit  to  Oxford,  in  1767, 
of  a  Princess  Poniatowski,  sister-in-law  of  the 
King  of  Poland,  who  only  became  King  in  1764 ; 
the  fiction  based  on  it  telling  of  the  residence  in 
Oxford  in  1749  of  a  sister  of  such  King,  who,  in 
1749,  was  not  King  Stanislaus  Augustus,  but 
Count  Poniatowski. 

This  Count  Poniatowski's  visit  to  England  took 
place  in  1754 — not  in  1749,  as  Mrs.  Serres  ima- 
gined ;  and  the  reader  will  find  a  very  amusing 
account  "  of  the  most  extraordinary  declaration  of 
love"  made  to  him  by  the  then  Duchess  of  Gor- 
don in  Walpole's  letter  to  Chute  of  May  14,  1754 
(Cunningham  ed.,  vol.  ii.  p.  383). 

A.  A.'s  mention,  at  the  same  page,  of  ex-Sheriff 
Parkins's  connection  with  Mrs.  Serres,  affords  me 
an  opportunity  of  showing  what  was  the  opinion 
of  that  lady,  which  the  ex-Sheriff  ultimately 
avowed.  Whether  at  first  he  really  believed 
her  story,  or  only,  like  too  many  others,  sup- 
ported it  as  a  means  of  annoying  the  then  go- 
vernment, may  be  doubted.  But  in  Oct.  1821 
he  laid  before  the  public  the  following  curious 
statement :  — 

"  I  visited  Mr.  Thomas  Wilmot  at  Coventry,  who  in 
the  most  candid  and  honourable  manner  informed  me 
that  he  always  understood,  and  firmly  believed,  Mrs. 
Olivia  Serres  to  be  his  sister,  and  that  his  uncle  the  Rev. 
James  Wilmot  made  his  will  in  1802,  and  died  in  1807, 
leaving  a  small  property  of  about  3000Z. ;  the  interest  of 
which  was  to  be  paid  to  his  and  Mrs.  Serres'  father, 
Robert  Wilmot,  during  his  life,  and  at  his  death  to  be 
equally  divided  between  his  nephew  the  said  Thomas 
Wilmot  and  his  niece  Mrs.  Olivia  Serres,  both  described 
as  such  in  his  will ;  and  that,  on  the  division  of  the 
above  paltry  sum,  she  had  quarrelled  with  him,  and  so 
ill  and  disgracefully  conducted  herself,  that  he  had  drop- 
ped all  correspondence  with  her  ;  and  that  she  was  not 
to  be  trusted  or  believed  in  anything  she  said  or  did,  and 
that  he  would  have  given  her  100/.  per  annum,  to  live  on 
a  common  or  heath,  where  she  could  not  injure  or  annoy 
any  of  her  neighbours,  and  that  she  was  such  a.  firebrand 
that  he  would  not  for  all  the  world  allow  her  to  come 

within  the  door  of  his  house  on  account  of  his  family ; 
and  that  he  should  be  glad  if  she  could  prove  her  rela- 
tionship to  any  one  else,  as  he  wished  to  cut  all  connexion 
with  her." — Gent.  Mag.,  vol.  £cii.  p.  37. 


(3rd  S.  x.  9.) 

The  terms  here  referred  to  do  not  seem  very 
difficult  of  explanation.  They  are  to  be  inter- 
preted, I  believe,  as  follows :  — 

1.  Rising  of  the  lights.  —  This  is  a  popular  ex- 
pression for   some   obstruction   in   the  lungs,  or 
derangement  of  their  functions.     Lights  is  an  old 
term  for  the  lungs,  derived,  as  it  would  seem,  from 
their  specific  lightness  when  distended  with  air 
as  contrasted  with  the  other  parts  of  the  body. 

2.  He  scolds  one  rubbers.     The  word  rubber,  in 
one  of  its  significations,  means  a  contest,  a  game, 
or  a  set  of  games.     A  familiar  use  of  it  occurs  in 
the  expression  "  a  rubber  of  whist."     There  is  also 
an  old  phrase  "  rubbers  of  bowls."     The  passage 
adduced  from  Sir  John  Vanbrugh  is  evidently  a 
metaphorical  allusion  to  a  contest  at  bowls  or 

3.  A  crooked  stick. — This  seems  to  be  a  refer- 
ence to  the  old  story  of  the  lady  who  was  ordered 
to  walk  through  an  avenue  of  trees  with  permis- 
sion to  choose  any  one  she  might  fancy,  but  under 
the  condition  that  what  she  had  once  rejected 
she  should  never  be  able  to  take  again.      She  set 
out  on  her  journey,  and  looking  at  each  tree  as 
she  passed,  was  unable  to  find  one  entirely  to  her 
mind,  but  kept  on  hoping  that  she  might  at  last 
light  on  something  unexceptionable.   Nothing  ab- 
solutely perfect,  however,  could  be  fixed  on,  and 
she  at  last  found  herself  at  the  end  of  the  grove 
and  her  power  of  selection,  one  scraggy,  crooked 
stem  at  the  very  extremity  being  the  only  thing 
left  for  her  'to  take.     She  thus  "  got  the  crooked 
stick  at  last " — a  phrase  which  has  become  pro- 
verbial in  reference  to  a  woman  who,   after  re- 
ceiving and  rejecting  numerous  eligible  offers,  is 
at  last  fain  to  accept  the  addresses  of  a  much  in- 
ferior or  less  desirable  personage.     I  may  mention 
in  addition,  that  I  have  occasionally  heard  the 
expression  "  not  a  crooked  sixpence,"  a  crooked 
sixpence  being,  as  is  well  known,  often  put  at  the 
bottom  of  a  new  purse  for  good  luck,  and  only 
parted  with  at  last  under  the  pressure  of  some 
dire  emergency. 

4.  A  Scotch  pair  of  boots.— An.  allusion  evidently 
to  that  horrible  implement  of  torture  the  boot, 
which  figures  so  prominently  in  the  records  of  the 
persecutions  of  the  Covenanters  in  Scotland  in  the 
reigns  of  Charles  II.  and  James  II.  Vanbrugh 
flourished  in  the  period  immediately  succeeding 
the  Revolution,  when  these  atrocities  must  have 
been  fresh  in  the  public  mind,  and  frequently 

3'd  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.] 



adduced  by  the  Whig  party  as  demonstrative  of 
the  arbitrary  and  ferocious  principles  of  their  ad- 

5.  To  keep  your  back  hand.  —  This  is  a  phrase 
taken  from  some  game,  possibly  of  cards,  but  I  am 
unable  to  say  what.     Or  it  may  be  of  tennis,  as, 
in  reply  to  Toledo  in  the  passage  quoted,  Lopez 
says:    "'Tis  very  kind  indeed.     Pray,  sir,  have 
you  ne'er  a  servant  with  you  could  hold  a  racket 
for  me  too  ?  " 

6.  Norfolk-nog. — Nog  is  defined  by  Mr.  Wright 
in  his  Provincial  Dictionary  as  u  strong  ale."  ^  In 
America  egg-nog  is  a  composition  of  wine  or  spirits 
with  eggs  and  sugar.     The  word  is  said  to  be  a 
diminutive  of  noggin,  a  jug  or  tankard.     Some 
genial  compound  with  ale  as  a  basis  seems  to  be 
what  John  Moodv  recommends  to  his  master. 


Nog  is  a  sort  of  strong  heady  ale,  supposed  by 
Forby  (who  wrote  in  Norfolk)  to  be  peculiar  to 
Norwich.  The  expression  may  perhaps  be  still  in 
use  in  Norfolk,  but  I  have  never  heard  it  there 
nor  in  the  adioininpr  county  of  Suffolk. 

W.  H.  S. 

By  the  first  she  means  the  globus  hystericus. 

2.  Scolds  one  rubbers. — A  bowling-green  expres- 
sion, when  the  balls  rub. 

3.  A  crooked  stick. — An  old-fashioned  Exche- 
quer tally. 

4.  A  Scotch  pair  of  boots. — Those  used  for  the 
torture  in  the  privy  council  at  Edinburgh.     See 
Walter  Scott's  Old  Mortality. 

5.  To  keep  one's  back  hand.  — He   expects  the 
hero,  Don  Lorenzo,  to  be  attacked  by  bravoes,  and 
makes  this  offer  that  is  to  prevent  his  being  stabbed 
in  the  back.     Lorenzo  answers,  "Pray,  sir,  have 
you  ne'er  a  servant  who  could  hold  a  racket  for 
me  too  ?  "     The  expression  seems  to  be  borrowed 
from  the  tennis  court,  where  the  principal  player 
was  backed  up  by  others. 

6.  Norfolk-nog. — A  very  strong  heady  ale  pecu- 
liar to  that  county.     See  Holloway's  Dictionary 
of  Provincialisms,  sub  voce.  A.  A. 

Poets'  Corner. 

"  Lights "  here  clearly  means  "  lungs,"  as  it 
does  in  old  English  ;  and  "  rising  of  the  lights  " 
means  a  morbid  obstruction  or  congestion.  Com- 
pare this  old  phrase,  "rising  of  the  mother  j "  for 
which  see  Richardson's  Dictionary. 


Not  having  a  copy  of  these  plays  to  refer  to  in 
order  to  correct  explanation  by  context,  I  think 
I  can,  nevertheless,  answer  two  of  ME.  PAYNE'S 
queries.  A  Scotch  pair  of  boots  is  no  doubt  the 
well-known  instrument  of  torture  to  extort  the 

confession  of  guilt,  and  called  indifferently  "  the 
boots,"  and  "  the  bootekins."  I  am  not  so  sure  of 
To  keep  your  back  hand  to  myself ;  but,  if  the  con- 
text allows  it,  I  would  take  the  meaning  to  be,  I 
decline  your  further  friendship  or  acquaintance. 
"  The  back  of  my  hand  to  ye  "  signifies  precisely 
so  much  in  the  Scottish  Border  dialects. 


(3rd  S.  ix.  411,  496.) 

You  will  see  by  the  enclosed  cutting  from  The 
Examiner  that  MR.  ANDREWS'S  question  as  to  the 
grounds  for  his  opinion  was  immediately  answered 
by  the  critic  who,  in  the  course  of  a  review  of 
Mr.  Timbs's  Club  Life  in  London,  gave  distinct 
derivations  to  the  two  senses  in  which  the  word 
is  used.  You  will  see  that  the  critic  has  nothing 
to  do  with  the  clerical  error  or  misprint  in  quoting 
what  he  said,  which  causes  one  of  your  corre- 
spondents in  "  N.  &  Q."  of  June  16,  p.  496,  to 
look  down  from  so  sublime  a  height  upon  his  ig- 
norance of  Anglo-Saxon. 

"  CLUB   AND   CLUB. 

"  In  a  late  number  of  our  excellent  and  useful  neigh- 
bour Notes  and  Queries,  Mr.  Alexander  Andrews  has 
quoted  a  passage  from  a  review  in  this  journal  of  Mr. 
Timbs's  pleasant  volumes  of  Club  Life  in  London  to  found 
on  it  a  question  to  the  reviewer.  In  the  passage  quoted 
it  was  said  that '  the  word  club  in  its  social  sense  coin- 
cides in  its  spelling  only  by  an  accident  with  the  quite 
different  word  club  that  means  a  bludgeon  or  a  cudgel,' 
and  that '  the  social  ideal  of  clubbing,  applied  to  the  divi- 
sion of  expense  among  several  persons — as  when  Steele 
wrote  in  the  Tatler,  "we  were  resolved  to  club  for  a 
coach  " — is  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  cleofan,  to  cleave  or 
divide.'  Mr.  Andrews  asks  what  we  take  to  be  the  deri- 
vation of  the  word  '  club '  as  applied  to  a  bludgeon,  and 
whether  the  root  here  given  for  the  word  in  one  of  its 
senses  will  not  serve  also  for  the  other  use  of  it.  Cer- 
tainly a  stout  oak  cudgel,  well  laid  on  the  skull,  may 
prove  a  cleaver.  But  the  etymologists  connect  that  sort 
of  club  with  Sanscrit  cula,  a  lance  or  club,  Latin  clava,  a 
knotty  branch  or  club,  German  kloppel,  and  its  ally 
klopfen,  to  knock,  and  nearer  home  with  kindred  of  the 
giants  that  Jack  killed,  in  the  Welsh,  Clwppa,  a  club. 

"  According  to  Mr.  Hensleigh  Wedgwood,  there  is  a 
remote  common  ancestor  to  club  and  cleave  in  the  notion 
of  a  lump. — Welsh  clob,  a  knob,  clobyn,  a  lump,  Latin 
glob-us,  a  ball,  and  gleb-a,  a  clod.  A 'lump  suggests  co- 
hesion, '  cleaving  to,'  or  division  into  separate  parts, 
*  cleaving.'  And  the  idea  of  lump  and  knob  has  also 
been  applied  to  a  stout  cudgel.  We  may  observe  that  in 
Danish  klub  is  a  club,  and  kltfver  a  cleaver ;  but  kld>ver 
is  the  name  of  the  club  in  a  pack  of  cards.  This  Danish 
use  of  cleaver  in  the  sense  of  club,  and  our  use  of  club  in 
the  sense  of  cleaving  or  division  of  expenses,  point  un- 
doubtedly to  an  analogy,  but  not  quite  in  the  way  here 
suggested.  For  kl<£ver  is  also  Danish  for  clover,  and  tre- 
foil was  the  original  name  of  the  suit  of  clubs.  The  plant 
is  named  from  its  cleft  leaf,  and  there  is  precisely  as  much 
or  as  little  kindred  between  the  words  club,  meaning  a 
bludgeon,  and  club,  meaning  an  arrangement  for  division 
of  expenses.  Some  kindred  there  may  be  to  establish  an 
etymological  relationship  between  the  shamrock  and  shil- 



[3rd  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '6G. 

"  Faith  in  this  common  origin  rests,  it  will  be  seen,  on 
acceptance  of  an  ingenious  but  fanciful  theory  of  rela- 
tionship based  on  analogies  drawn  from  the  cohesiveness 
and  the  divisibility  of  lumps.  No  man  who  has  walked 
over  a  wet  clayfield  will  doubt  the  cohesiveness  of  lumps, 
vet  he  is  not  bound  to  accept  all  the  etymologies  that  can 
be  extracted  by  the  alchemy  of  the  philologist  out  of  the 
clay  upon  his  boots.  It  is  true  that  wig  is  derived  from 
pilus— pilus,  pelo,  peluco,  paruik,  periwig,  wig.  It  is 
true  that  one  and  one  in  such  a  sentence  as  '  one  cannot 
please  every  one,'  are  two  different  words,  with  perfectly 
distinct  etymologies— one  from  homme,  homo,  humus, 
the  ground  ;  the  other  allied  to  un-us  and  evos.  Within 
our  own  historical  period,  at  any  rate,  that  dissimilar 
origin  of  like  words  is  the  case  with  club,  the  bludgeon, 
and  club,  the  community.  Club,  the  bludgeon,  is  the 
elder  word,  and  it  comes  to  us  from  Celts  or  Scandina- 
vians, probably  Scandinavians,  soon  after  the  purely 
Anglo^axon  times.  It  is  first  met  with,  we  think,  in 
the  early  romance  of  Havelok  the  Dane.  Club,  the  com- 
munity ,'on  the  contrary,  we  take  to  be  a  word  descended 
from  the  Anglo-Saxon  cleofan  or  clufan,  to  divide.  That 
may  be  all  wrong.  Etymology  is  the  playground  of  let- 

AN  OLD  READER  OF  "  N.  &  Q." 


(3rd  S.  ix.  493.) 

It  is  true  that  the  date  of  1720  has  been  as- 
signed to  the  first  edition  of  this  charming  little 
book ;  and  among  those  who  have  been  of  that 
opinion,  may  be  named  the  late  Josiah  Conder. 
See  his  Poet  of  the  Sanctuary,  12mo,  1851.  A 
reference,  however,  to  an  early  edition  of  those 
"  Songs,"  affords  good  ground  for  believing  that 
the  first  edition  was  printed  in  the  year  1715. 

A  copy  of  "  the  tenth  edition "  is  now  before 
me :  "  Printed  for  Richard  Ford,  at  the  Angel  in 
the  Poultry,  near  Stocks  Market/'  24mo,  "  1729." 
It  has  prefixed  to  the  Hymns,  "  The  Dedication/' 
in  thirteen  pages,  and  a  "  Preface  "  of  four  pages. 
As  the  former  is  rather  long,  I  venture  to  ask  you 
to  insert  only  a  few  extracts  from  it,  which  may 
aid  MR.  RIGGALL  in  his  inquiry,  and  be  not  un- 
interesting to  some  of  your  readers.  "  The  Dedi- 
cation "  begins  as  follows  :  — 


MRS.  SARAH         } 
MIIS.  MAIIY  and    >ABXEY, 


Daughters  of  Sir  Thomas  Abney,  Knt.,  and 

Alderman  of  London. 
"  My  Dear  Young  Friends, 

"  Whom  I  am  constrained  to  love  and  honour  by  many 
obligations.  It  was  the  generous  and  condescending 
friendship  of  your  parents  under  my  weak  circumstances 
of  health,  that  brought  me  to  their  Country-seat  for  the 
benefit  of  the  air  ;  but  it  was  an  instance  of 'most  uncom- 
mon kindness,  to  supply  me  there  so  cheerfully  for  two 
years  of  sickness  with  the  richest  conveniences  of  life." 

After  paying  a  tribute   of    gratitude    to   Sir 

Thomas  and  Lady  Abney  for  their  kind  attentions, 
the  Doctor  proceeds  to  say  to  his  young  friends : — 

"  Under  the  influence  of  two  such  examples,  I  have 
also  enjoyed  the  pleasure  and  convenience  of  your  younger 
services  according  to  the  capacity  of  your  years.  .  .  . 
And  if  it  would  not  be  suspected  of  flattery,  I  could  tell 
the  world  what  an  acquaintance  with  Scripture,  what  a 
knowledge  of  religion,  what  a  memory  of  Divine  things 
both  in  prose  and  verse,  is  found  among  you." 

And  then,  adverting  to  these  Songs,  he  adds :  — 

"  The  honour  you  have  done  me  in  learning  by  heart  so 
large  a  number  of  the  Hymns  I  have  published,  perhaps 
has  been  of  some  use  towards  these  greater  improvements, 
and  gives  me  rich  encouragement  to  offer  you  this  little 

The  Doctor  closes  his  u  Dedication "  by  im- 
ploring spiritual  and  temporal  blessings  for  his 
youthful  friends,  and  thus  ends :  — 

"  May  the  grace  of  God  make  you  so  large  a  return  of 
all  the  kindness  I  have  received  in  your  family  as  may 
prevail  above  the  fondest  hopes  of  your  parents/and  even 
exceed  the  warmest  prayers  of 

"  Your  most  affectionate  monitor 
and  obliged  Servant,  in  the 
dailv  views  of  a  future  world, 
"  Theobalds,  June  18, 

1715."  "  I.  WATTS." 

As  the  eldest  of  these  three  daughters  of  Sir 
Thomas  Abney,  t(  Sarah,"  was  born  in  the  year 
1703,  her  age,  .and  that  of  her  younger  sisters, 
would  seem  to  indicate  that  the  date  of  the  first 
edition  of  the  "Divine  Songs,'"'  especially  when 
taken  in  connection  with  the  foregoing  "  Dedica- 
tion/' may  be  fairly  assigned  to  the  year  1715, 
and  not  to  1720.  X.  A.  X. 

450,537.)  —  A  further  investigation  of  the  Acts 
of  Tonnage  and  Poundage  gives  the  following 
results :  — 

Cutes,  not  a  sour  wine.     The  Act  says  :  — 

"  And  every  Butt  or  Pipe  of  Muscadels,  Malmasie.", 
Cutes,  Tents,  Alicants,  Bastards,  Sacks,  Canaries,  Mala- 
gaes,  Maderaes,  and  other  Wines  whatsoever,  commonly 
called  Sweet  Wines,  of  the  Growth  of  the  Levant,  Spain, 
Portugal,  or  any  of  them,  or  any  of  the  Islands,  or 
Dominions  of  them,"  &c.,  &c. 

Bankers  of  Verdure,  the  dozen  pieces.  Old 
subsidy,  4/. ;  a  further  subsidy,  4/.  Cannot  be 
cushions  of  grass,  &c. 

Battery,  not  planks.  The  Act  says  :  "  Battery, 
Bashrones,  or  Kettles."  The  hundred-weight,  con- 
taining 112  Ibs.,  9/.  old  and  91.  new  subsidy. 

lieaupers  (not  hats),  the  piece  containing  24  or 
25  yards  :  old  subsidy,  II.  5s. ;  a  further  subsidy, 
I/.  5s. 

Botanoes,  per  piece,  10s. ;  do.         do. 

China  Pease  paid  13s.  4d.  the  pound — also,  China 
Hoots:  old  subsidy,  4s.  10s.  j  further  do.,  II.  10s. 

Parr asin  (vide  Frankincense). 

Hashes,  voc.  Bridges  or  Seaden   Rashes:  the 




single  piece,  containing  15  yards ;  ditto  the  double 
piece  ;  and  Cloth  Rashes. 

Tikes.  Brazeil  tikes,  and  counterfeit  Brazeil,  by 
the  tike. 

Turnal  Tikes,  the  tike,  II.  10s. 

Tikes  of  Stoacl 

Ticking  of  the  East  Country,  by  the  yard. 

I  believe  a  subsidy  was  a  fifteenth  of  the  value 
of  an  article,  or  6/.  13s.  per  cent.     If  so,  further 
light  might  be  thrown  on  the  subject  by  ascer- 
taining the  then  value.  A.  A. 
Poets'  Corner. 

Is  not  Seer  eager  rather  vinegar  of  beer,  than 
good  old  ale?  We  have  attecar,  allekur,  alegar, 
in  the  northern  dialect  as  vinegar  of  ale;  and 
beer-eager  probably  differs  only  in  the  prefix. 


Danby  in  Cleveland. 

EOYAL  ASSENT  REFUSED  (3rd  S.  ix.  519.) — The 
story  that  George  III.  declared  he  would  abdicate 
and 'retire  to  Hanover,  rather  than  give  his  assent 
to  a  Roman  Catholic  Relief  Bill,  is  I  think  given 
in  Lord  Stanhope's  Life  of  Pitt,  but  I  have  not 
the  book  at  hand  for  reference.  The  King  on 
more  than  one  occasion  used  very  strong  language 
on  this  subject,  for  he  felt,  rightly  or  wrongly, 
that  his  assent  to  such  a  bill  would  be  a  vio- 
lation of  his  coronation  oath ;  and  those  most 
opposed  to  his  views  must  acknowledge  his  con- 
scientiousness. In  1801,  on  the  resignation  of 
Pitt's  ministry,  the  King  wrote  to  Lord  Lough- 
borough  :  — 

"  I  consider  the  coronation  oath  as  a  binding  religious 
obligation  on  me  to  maintain  the  fundamental  maxims 
on  which  our  constitution  is  placed — viz.  that  the  Church 
of  England  is  the  established  one,  and  that  those  who 
hold  employments  in  the  state  must  be  members  of 
if.  ...  This  principle  of  duty  must  prevent  me  from 
discussing  any  proposition  tending  to  destroy  the  bul- 
wark of  our  happy  constitution,  much  more*  that  now 
proposed  by  Mr.  Pitt,  which  is  nothing  less  than  an 
overthrow  of  the  whole  fabric." 

On  a  subsequent  occasion,  in  1807,  when  the 
King  required  a  pledge  from  his  ministers  that 
they  would  propose  no  farther  concessions  to  the 
Roman  Catholics,  which  they  refused,  and  were 
consequently  dismissed,  Lord  Eldon,  the  incoming 
Lord  Chancellor,  wrote  thus  to  Dr.  Swire  :  — 

"  The  King  considers  the  struggle  as  for  his  throne ; 
and  he  told  me  but  yesterday,  when  I  took  the  Great 
Seal,  that  he  did  so  'consider  it,  that  he  must  be  the 
Protestant  King  of  a  Protestant  countrv  or  no  King."— 
See  Lord  Campbell's  Lives  of  the  Chancellors. 

II.  P.  D. 

POMANDER  (3rd  S.  ix.  392.)— 

"  The  nail  shines  brighter  by  wearing.  The  poman- 
der smells  sweeter  by  rubbing.  Camomile  grows  better 
by  treading."— Beveridge,  Thesaurus  Theologians,  p.  341, 
Aug.  Cath.  Lib. 


SWIFT  (3rd  S.  ix.  533.)  — Swift  spelt  draper, 
"drapier,"  in  his  celebrated  letters,  because  he 
chose  to  use  the  French  form.  Why  he  preferred 
it  to  the  English  must  remain  a  query. 

H.  P.  D. 

DANTE  (3rd  S.  x.  7.)  —  In  reply  to  your  corre- 
spondent, who  inquires  if  any  Christian  poet 
besides  Dante  speaks  of  our  Saviour  under  the 
title  of  a  heathen  deity,  I  beg  to  draw  his  atten- 
tion to  the  following  passages  from  our  divine 
poets  Milton  and  Spenser,  who  both  speak  of  our 
Blessed  Lord  as  Pan  :  — 

"  I  muse  what  account  both  these  will  make ; 
The  one  for  the  hire  which  he  doth  take, 
And  the  other  for  leaving  his  Lorde's  task, 
When  great  Pan  account  of  shepherds  shall  ask." 
Spenser,  Shepherd's  Calendar  (May). 

"  The  shepherds  on  the  lawn,         , 

Or  e'er  the  point  of  dawn, 
Sat  simply  chatting  in  a  rustic  row. 
"  Full  little  thought  they  then 

That  the  mighty  Pan 
Was  kindly  comedo  live  with  them  below." 

Milton,  Ode  on  the  Nativity. 

The  passage  quoted  by  your  correspondent  is 
imitated  by  Pulci  in  his  Morgante  Maggiore, 
canto  ii.  stanza  1 :  — 

"  O  giusto,  o  santo,  o  eterno  monarca, 
0  sommo  Giove  per  noi  crocifisso." 


A  passage  in  Milton's  "  Ode  on  the  Nativity  " 
may  be  quoted  in  answer  to  ME.  HARRIS'S  query : 
"  Full  little  thought  they  then, 

That  the  mighty  Pan 
Was  kindly  come  to  live  with  them  below." 

I  have  seen  somewhere  a  hymn  by  a  Hindoo 
convert,  in  which  he  transfers  to  the  Christian 
Saviour  the  name  of  the  Supreme  Deity  in  the 
Brahmin  religion  :  — 

"  Brumhu  for  thee  a  body  takes, 
Thy  guilt  assumes,  thy  fetters  breaks." 

I  can  see  neither  "confusion"  nor  "irrever- 
ence "  in  a  figure  of  speech  which  reminds  us  of 
the  common  truth  underlying  all  creeds — the  ac- 
knowledgment of  a  God  and  his  relations  to  hu- 
manity. Dante  only  followed  the  example  of  St. 
Paul,  who  quotes  the  words  of  Cleanthes'  hymn 
addressed  to  Zeus  as  containing  a  truth  of  the 
Christian  revelation  (Acts  xvii.  28.) 

Garrick  Club. 

I  think  this  mixture  of  Heathen  and  Christian 
names  of  the  Deity  is  by  no  means  uncommon  in 
our  early  English  literature,  especially  in  our  old 
plays.     I  give  one  instance,  which  I  happen  to 
remember,  from  the  "  Morality  of  Every  Man  "  — 
"  I  am  sent  for  an  other  way  to  go. 
To  gyve  a  strayte  counte  generall 
Before  the  hyest  Jupiter  of  all." 

Hawkins's  English  Drama,  i.  50. 



X.  JULY  21,  '66. 

I  am  under  the  impression  that  Marlowe's 
Tamburlaine  would  furnish  more  than  one  instance, 
"but  I  have  no  time  to  search. 

Would  not  Milton  (I  ask)  supply  instances  al- 
most as  bold  ?  JOHN  ADDIS,  JUNIOR. 

The  first  verse  of  Pope's  Universal  Prayer  will 
occur  to  most  readers,  although  it  is  hardly,  per- 
haps, a  case  in  point :  — 

"  Father  of  all !  in  every  age, 

In  every  clime,  ador'd, 
By  saint,  'by  savage,  and  by  sage, 
Jehovah,  Jove,  or  Lord !  " 

Your  correspondent's  remarks  about  Dante 
induce  a  recollection  of  numerous  passages  in 
Milton.  J.  W.  W. 

GIBBOX  :  PROCOPIUS  :  THEODORA  (3rd  S.  x. 
16.)  —  It  is  difficult  to  say  whom  Gibbon  meant 
by  the  "distinguished  prelate,  lately  deceased." 
I  used  to  think  that  Clayton,  the  Arian  Bishop  of 
Clogher,  was  the  person  meant ;  but  as  he,  accord- 
ing to  Chalmers,  died  in  1758,  he  could  scarcely 
be  described  in  1784  as  lately  deceased.  Your 
correspondent  thinks  it  was  Warburton — on  what 
grounds  I  do  not  see.  Bishop  Home  says :  (l  I 

think  it  must  have  been  ,  for  they  do  not 

always  go  together."  How  does  this  apply  to 
Warburton?  It  would  be  more  applicable  to 
the  Arian  Clayton,  who  once  made  a  motion 
in  the  Irish  House  of  Lords  to  expunge  the 
Nicene  and  Athanasian  Creeds  from  the  Liturgy, 
and  died  under  prosecution  for  heresy;  but,  as 
I  said  before,  the  dates  do  not  agree.  So  this, 
on  which  I  have  often  thought,  must  for  the 
present  remain  an  open  question.  See  Chalmers's 
Biographical  Dictionary. 

I  believe  that  Bishop  Clayton  had  the  reputa- 
tion, in  society,  of  a  "  jolly  companion."  W.  D. 

UMBRELLA  (3rd  S.  ix.  501.)— A.  A.  asks  why  a 
cardinal,  taking  title  from  a  basilican  church,  is 
attended  by  an  umbrella-bearer  ?  is  this  always 
the  case?  and  how  many  such  basilican  car- 
dinals are  there  ?  The  Basilica  at  Rome  was  a 
forum,  exchange,  and  law  court,  furnished  with 
colonnades.  The  Christian  churches,  built  by 
Constantine,  were  of  the  same  form ;  and  hence 
called  Basilicae,  as  everybody  knows.  The  um- 
brella has,  from  time  immemorial,  been  a  symbol 
of  authority  in  the  East.  It  commonly  accom- 
panies the  Spherulae  and  Patellae  in  the  works  of 
the  old  statuaries,  and  is  laid  at  the  feet  of  heroes. 
It,  with  the  mystic  fan,  Vannum  or  Flabellum  (also 
retained  in  the  Roman  worship),  is  specially  an 
emblem  of  Bacchus.  It  was  greatly  used  at  Con- 
stantinople ;  and  the  judge  sitting  in  the  basilica 
would,  doubtless,  be  accompanied  by  this  as  one 
of  the  insignia  of  his  office.  It  might  almost  be 
asserted  that  this  umbrella  is  the  origin  of  all 
canopies  overshadowing  all  thrones  and  judgment 

seats  whatsoever.  Hence  it  became  a  clerical 

Beatiano,  an  Italian  herald,  says  that  a  ver- 
milion umbrella  in  a  field  argent  symbolizes 
dominion.  It  will  be  found  that  the  scarlet  broad- 
brimmed  cardinal's  hat  and  the  umbrella  have  a 
like  significance.  The  hat  of  the  emperor  at 
Constantinople  was  conical  and  broad-brimmed, 
and  the  chief  counsellors  wore  pyramidal  hats 
according  to  dignity.  An  analogous  hat  became 
the  head-gear  of  all  the  cardinals ;  whilst  in  later 
times  the  umbrella  was  limited  to  such  only  as 
presided  over  or  took  title  from  a  basilican  church. 
A.  A.  may  gather  a  good  many  hints  on  the  sub- 
ject from  Paulus  Paciaudus'  commentary,  De 
Umbellce  gestatione,  printed  at  Rome,  1752.  In 
Liddell  and  Scott's  Lexicon,  (ntidoemv  is  given  as 
equivalent  to  0o/u'a,  this  meaning  a  round  sun-hat ; 
that  an  umbrella,  or  tent.  C.  A.  W. 

May  Fair. 

CONCILIUM  CALCHUTENSE  (3rd  S.  ix.  295,  419, 
523.) — I  have  not  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the 
whole  of  the  paper  on  Chelsea  read  by  the  Rev. 
J.  H.  Blunt,  at  a  meeting  of  the  British  Archae- 
ological Society,  but  the  information  contained 
in  so  much  of  it  as  is  quoted  by  G.  M.  H.,  at 
p.  523,  was  printed,  almost  word  for  word,  nearly 
forty  years  ago,  by  Faulkner,  in  his  History  of 
Chelsea,  vol.  i.  pp.  3,  4,  ed.  1829,  which  work 
seems  to  have  been  the  storehouse  whence  all 
later  writers  on  Chelsea  have  derived  their  in- 
formation. The  similarity  of  the  Cealc-hythe  of 
the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  with  the  Chelchethe 
in  the  Taxation  of  1291,  borders  so  close  upon 
identity,  as,  in  my  opinion,  to  settle  the  question. 
More  than  two  hundred  years  later  than  the  Tax- 
ation, the  name  had  undergone  but  little  change, 
for  in  a  grant  of  lands  on  the  Patent  Roll  of 
4  Hen.  IV.  mem.  13,  it  is  spelt  Chelcheth  (not 
Chelchich,  as  in  the  old  printed  Calendar). 



THE  RULE  OF  THE  FOOTPATH  (3rd  S.  ix.  443.) 
I  have  been  told  that  in  Paris  the  rule  is  for  per- 
sons meeting  to  pass  on  the  left  hand ;  the  reason 
being  that  the  right  hands  are  thus  ready  to  shake 
each  other,  and  avoid  the  awkwardness  often  ex- 
perienced in  England.  F.  C.  B. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC  MIRACLE  (3rd  S.  ix.  474,  521.) 
I  sent  to  "N.  &  Q."  at  different  times  two  or 
three  cuttings  from  the  current  papers  of  the  day 
on  this  "  canard,"  as  the  Pall  Mall  Gazette  terms 
it.  None  of  them  was  from  America.  My  at- 
tention was  first  directed  to  it  when  reading  a 
little  pamphlet  on  the  Coming  of  the  Lord,  by  the 
Rev.  Octavius  Winslow,  D.D.,  in  which  it  is  there 
stated :  — 

"It  has  been  discovered  that  the  last  image  found 
upon  the  retina  of  the  eye  of  a  dying  person  remains  im- 

3*d  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.] 



pressed  upon  it  as  a  daguerrean-plate.  Thus,  if  the  last 
object  seen  by  a  murdered  person  was  his  murderer,  the 
portrait  drawn  upon  the  eye  would  remain  a  fearful  wit- 
ness in  death  to  detect  the  guilty,  and  lead  to  his  convic- 

If  the  comparison  of  the  retina  to  a  looking- 
glass  be  a  just  one,  all  we  can  say  is  that  Dr. 
Winslow's  idea  was  a' pretty  one. 


BUTLER'S  "HTJDIBRAS"  (2nd  S.  vi.  161.)  — In 
my  library  is  a  copy  of  Hudibras  not  mentioned 
in  either  of  the  editions  of  Lowndes.  It  is  in  8vo 
in  three  parts,  each  having  a  separate  pagination 
and  register.  The  first  part  was  "  printed  by  J .  M. 
for  Geo.  Sawbridge,  1709  ;  "  the  second  "  for  R. 
Chiswel,  G.  Sawbridge,  R.  Wellington,  and  G. 
Wells,  1709  j  "  the  third  for  Thomas  Home  at  the 
south  entrance  of  the  Royal  Exchange,  MDCCIX. 

JOSEPH  Rix,  M.D. 
St.  Neots. 

CRAWALLS  (3rd  S.  ix.  532.)  —  It  would  appear, 
if  there  is  no  misprint,  that  the  able  correspon- 
dent of  the  Evening  Standard  of  June  12,  writing 
concerning  disputes  that  have  commenced  at  Ber- 
lin between  the  people  and  the  police,  and  perhaps 
speaking  jocularly,  gives  the  term  craivatt  as  equi- 
valent to  quarrel.  Is  crawatt  intended  to  repre- 
sent a  German  word  ?  Can  it  be  krakcel  ?  ("  Kra- 
keel,  der  Quarrel."  Ebers.}  SCHIN. 

POPULATION  OF  ROME  (3rd  S.  ix.  431, 479,  542.) 
The  most  trustworthy  account  of  the  houses  in 
Rome  is  to  be  found  at  the  end  of  the  works  of 
the  Regionaries.     They  agree  so  nearly  that  it  will 
be  sufficient  only  to  quote  part  of  the  account  of 
the  Curiosum  Urbis.  After  enumerating  the  walls, 
gates,  public  buildings,  &c.,  the   dwellings   are 
mentioned.     These  are  divided  into  two  classes — 
"  insula  "  and  "  domus."  But  they  must  not  be  sup- 
posed to  be  at  all  like  our  self-contained  English 
houses,  with  an  average  population  of  five  or  six. 
They  were   like  what  they  are  in   continental 
towns  to  the  present  day,  tall  buildings  of  many 
storeys,  surrounding  a  large  court-yard,  and  let  in 
sets  to  a  great  number  of  families.     The  "  insula  " 
was  the  entire  block  of  buildings  comprehended 
within  four  streets.     The  lower  part  shops,  with 
a  mezzanine  above  for  the  shop-keepers.     Above 
this  the  first  and  second  floors,  now  called  "  piano- 
nobile  ;"  above  this  sometimes  five  floors  more  con- 
taining rooms  of  lesser  pretension,  and  at  cheaper 
terms.     Juvenal  has  painted  these  tall  buildings 
admirably  (iii.  195,  &c.).     The  third  story  is  afire, 
and  is  so  far  off  from  the  upper  that  the  poor  gar- 
retteer  is  not  even  aware  of  his  danger.     Strabo 
(v.  c.  3,  7)  tells  us  that  Augustus  endeavoured  to 
restrain  the  height  of  all  new  houses  to  seventy 
feet,  which   would  give  an  average   of  ten  feet 
to  a  story,  seven  stories  besides  rooms  in  the  roof. 
The  "  domus  "  was  a  similar  house,  but  not  filling 

the  whole  space  between  four  streets.  It  was 
bounded  on  the  front  and  back  by  two  streets,  and 
on  the  right  and  left  by  other  houses.  Canina's 
(Roma  Antica,  p.  640,  ed.  1850)  reading  of  the 
Regionaries  is  that  there  were  46,602  insula,  and 
1790  domi.  He  got  a  careful  account  of  the  num- 
ber of  persons  now  dwelling  in  a  certain  number  of 
the  modern  isole,  and  found  they  averaged  fifty 
persons,  while  the  case  or  domi  averaged  thirty. 
Of  course,  this  calculation  gives  a  population  of 
2,383,800  persons. 

But  this-  is  only  in  the  fourteen  regions,  or 
within  the  walls  of  the  city,  comprehending  the 
seven  famous  hills  and  the  Pincian,  Janiculum, 
and  Trastevere  districts,  something  as  our  city 
wards  are  called  within  and  without,  and  as  of 
course  they  alone  are  called  "  the  city."  But 
there  was  a  vast  population  in  the  suburbs,  as 
with  us,  stretching  out  for  miles  down  the  Appian, 
Latin,  and  Flaminian  ways,  of  which  we  have 
no  account.  So  if  the  conjecture  be  correct,  the 
population  of  Rome  itself  was  at  least  double  that 
which  Gibbon  supposes  it  to  have  been ;  while 
some  believe,  and  with  probability,  that  there 
was  a  suburban,  population  of  another  million 
outside  the  walls.  A.  A. 

Poets'  Corner. 

It  is  strange  that  no  correspondent  has  made 
reference  to  Merivale's  Romans  under  the  Empire^ 
while  treating  on  this  subject.  The  following 
references  in  the  Index  (I  use  the  small  edition, 
in  eight  volumes),  under  the  heads  lt  Population  of 
Rome,"  and  "  Census,"  will  supply  ample  inform- 
ation. At  the  end  of  chap.  xl.  vol.  v.  pp.  49,  seqq., 
the  ;  iithor  examine^  the  data  for  calculating  the 
popi;  ition  of  Rome,  and  makes  (p.  53)  the  total 
aim  nut  to  have  been  about  700,000. 


MANTEL-PIECE  (3rd  S.  x.  7.)  — Your  correspon- 
dent, CUTHBERT  BEDE,  is  quite  right  in  calling 
Prebendary  Jackson's  suggestion  a  "  flight  of 
fancy."  There  can  be  no  question  about  the  de- 
rivation of  the  word:  Sax.,  mantel;  Old  Germ., 
mantal;  Welsh,  mantell;  French,  manteau;  Italian, 
mantello;  Latin,  mantelhim,  a  cloak  or  covering. 
Hence  the  mantel-piece  is  that  piece  of  timber  or 
stone  in  front  of  a  chimney,  concealing,  covering, 
or  mantling  part  of  that  chimney  or  fireplace. 


PATTENS  (3rd  S.  vii.  101.)  —  The  French  word 
patin,  from  which  patten  is  derived,  is  in  its  turn 
derived  from  the  Greek  WTO?,  a  step,  and  Trarew,  to 
tread.  The  word  patten  is  applied  to  the  foot- 
stall  or  base  of  a  column  or  pillar,  as  well  as  to  a 
clog.  JOHN  PIGGOT,  JUN. 

POSITIVE  PHILOSOPHY  (3rd  S.  ix.  474.) — In  Mr. 
G.  H.  Lewes's  Philosophy  of  the  Sciences  (Bohn's 
Scientific  Series),  your  querist  will  find  an  able 



[3**  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66. 

exposition  of  the  principles  of  Positive  Philosophy. 
I  would  recommend  Auguste  Comte's  Positive 
Philosophy  to  be  read  as  a  sequel  to  Mr.  Lewes's 
work.  J«  S.  H. 

ANONYMOUS  (3rd  S.  x.  7.) — According  to  Ant. 
a  Wood,  Fasti  Oxonienses  (ed.  Bliss,  ii.  171),  Jura 
Cleri  was  written  by  William  Carpender. 


Advocates'  Library. 

BEACONS:  PITCH-POTS  (3rd  S.  x.  37.)— the 
Tuins  of  St.  Catherine's  Chapel,  near  Guildford, 
on  its  north-west  angle,  has,  over  a  small  window 
in  what  has  been  a  circular  staircase,  two  irons 
with  apparently  the  remains  of  hinges,  and  pro- 
bably to  which'  has  been  suspended  a  pitch-pot ; 
as  that  corner  of  the  chapel  is  next  the  road  from 
London  to  Portsmouth.  D.  D.  H. 

HERALDIC  ARMS  (3rd  S.  x.  29.)  —  An  Alpha- 
betical Dictionary  of  Coats  of  Arms  is  published 
by  J.  W.  Pap  worth,' 14,  Great  Marlborough  Street, 
W.  The  subscription  is  one  guinea  per  annum, 
and  one  or  more  parts  are  issued  during  that  time. 
The  last  is  No.  14,  going  down  to  Estoille,  and 
came  out  the  present  year.  .  R.  W.  W. 

London  Institution. 

A  NEW  NAME  (3rd  S.  ix.  491.)— 


Ye  writers  list !— list !  list !  oh  list ! 
Who  "  Notes  and  Queries  "  now  assist, 
Henceforth  we  dub  vou  "  Letterist." 


Than  those  who  in  your  work  assist, 
Where  can  be  found  a  better  list, 
To  claim  the  title  "  Letteristi"? 


THROWING  THE  SHOE  (3rd  S.  ix.  336.)  —  Ur- 
quhart,  in  Pillars  of  Hercules,  says  that  a  slipper 
is  borne  before  a  Moorish  bride  as  token  of  her 
submission  ;  and  that  our  old  custom  is  thence 
derived.  If  so,  the  bridegroom's  man  is  the  pro- 
per person  to  cast  the  shoe.  But  I  have  heard 
that  it  is  done  "  only  for  luck."  F.  C.  B. 

RENNIE  OR  RANNIE  FAMILY  (3rd  S.  ix.  481.)— 
Mr.  Rennie,  of  Melville  Castle,  had  two  brothers ; 
one  was  well  known  towards  the  end  of  the  last 
century  as  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Rennie  and 
Chippendale,  the  first  upholsterers  in  London ; 
the  other  was  a  cloth  merchant  in  Edinburgh,  and 
married  a  Miss  Campbell,  daughter  of  Mr.  Arch. 
Campbell,  brewer,  from  whence  are  descended 
various  well  known  and  highly  respected  families 
in  Scotland.  The  first-mentioned  brother  was 
married  and  left  a  widow,  but  I  think  no  children. 
The  information  given  by  W.  E.  as  to  "  Captain 
-n_:;i  T> — :„  »  appears  quite  correct.  Whence 

David  Rennie : 
came  these  Rennies"? 


BURIALS  ABOVE  GROUND  (3rd  S.  x.  27.)  —  In 
1783,  Margaret,  the  widow  of  Richard  Coosins  of 

Parrock,  Gravesend,  was  buried  in  Cuxton  church, 
Kent.  Under  a  pyramidal  mural  monument  is  a 
vault^with  a  glass  door,  covered  with  a  green  silk 
curtain,  with  a  lock  having  a  key  standing  inside. 
Here,  resting  upon  tressels,  is  a  mahogany  coffin 
with  gilt  furniture,  the  lid  of  which  is  not  nailed 
down.  This  coffin  contains-  the  remains  of  the 
above  lady,  who  is  reported  to  have  been  buried 
in  a  costly  dress  of  scarlet  satin.  J.  P. 

"  POOR  MAN'S  CATECHISM  "  (3rd  S.  x.  39.)— My 
copy  of  this  book  has  the  letters  A-  S.  R.  after 
the  author's  name  on  the  title.  The  edition  is 
that  published  in  1843  by  Thomas  Richardson  and 
Son  of  Derby  for  the  Catholic  Book  Society. 


CURE  FOR  GOITRE  (3rd  S.  x.  24.)  —  I  observe 
that  the  only  case  mentioned  by  your  correspon- 
dent as  having  come  under  his  own  notice  is  that 
of  "  a  young  girl."  Any  medical  man  will  inform 
him  that  young  girls  are  liable  to  enlargement 
resembling  goitre,  arising  from  functional  causes, 
and  often  subsiding  without  any  treatment  what- 
ever. This  is  probably  the  sole  foundation  for  the 
belief  in  such  "  cures  "  as  those  referred  to. 

J.  T.  F. 

viii.  251.) — I  have  found  the  madrigal,  which  I 
copy,  not  fully  appreciating  its  merits  or  under- 
standing its  meaning.  That  it  has  both  I  believe 
on  the  authority  of  Gottsched,  who,  after  laying 
down  the  laws  for  such  compositions,  says  :  — 

"  So  leicht  aber  ein  solch  Madrigal  zu  seyn  scheint :  so 
sehr  muss  man  sich  sonst  bemuhen,  den  Inhalt  desto 
nachdrucklicher  und  artiger  zu  rnachen.  Bey  der  Gelegen- 
heitkan  ich  nicht  umhin,  ein  lustiges  Exempel  einzuriick- 
en,  so  jemand  nach  Art  des  in  Leipzig  und  Sachsen  sehr 
bekannten  Kanisii,  dessen  in  Philanders  Unterredung 
von  der  Poesie  gedacht  wird,  verfertiget  hat,  und  mir  dieser 
Tage  auf  einem  alten  Papiere  in  die  Hande  gefallen.  Es 
heisst :  — 

"  Schluss-Reim-Confect. 
Affaires  h,  vous  Sagesse, 
Apollo  ist  nicht  boss  ; 
Ars  liegt  nicht  an  der  Gross, 
Schweigh  Lud'r,  erwirbest  stoss. 
Don  Ame  deine  Wiird  wohlgelingen, 
Kirch-Saal,  Schul  son  bon  davon  bringen, 
Prob-Silber,  Kopf-Riss,  Hauf-Getummel  ? 
Tobias  Trost,  sans  facon,  behttt'  euch  Himmel ! " 
Leipzig  aldar  den  4  Februar, 

Mithin  gewiinscht  zu  haben 

P.  L. 

Gottsched,  Versuch  einer  kritischen  Dichtkunst,  Th.  ii. 
c.  7,  p.  487.  Leipzig,  1730. 

H.  B.  C. 
U.  U.  Club. 

MONUMENTAL  DEVICES  (3rd  S.  x.  7.)— Your 
correspondent  GEORGE  LLOYD  asks  for  information 
respecting  scissors,  or  shears,  and  the  sword.  For 
the  following  information  I  am  indebted  to  an 

3'd  S.  X.  JULY  21,  '66.] 



interesting  work  published  under  the  sanction  o 
the  Archaeological  Institute ;  I  mean  Sepulchra 
Slabs  and  Crosses,  by  the  Rev.  E.  L.  Cutts,  JB.A 
(P.  41.) 

Shears.  —  Two  types  are  observed,  one  sharp 
pointed,  the  other  with  square  ends.  The  latte 
kind  is  probably  that  which  the  clothier  used  to 
shear  his  cloth,  i.  c.  to -cut  the  nap,  the  blunt  ends 
being  intended  to  preserve  the  cloth  from  injury 
so  that  we  may  assign  this  symbol  to  the  clothier 
Sharp-pointed  shears  may  also  be  an  emblem  oJ 
the  woolstapler,  or  clothier.  On  early  slabs  in 
the  catacombs  we  find  the  pointed  shears,  not  un- 
like these  mediae val  ones  in  shape,  and  the  comb 
and  speculum,  or  magnifying  glass,  which  was  then 
and  still  is  used  for  examining  the  quality  of  cloth, 
and  an  instrument  like  a  cleaver,  probably  a 
scraper  of  some  kind.  These  were  symbols  of  the 
cloth  or  wool  merchant.  Yet  it  is  certain  that 
they  were  sometimes  used  as  the  symbol  of  a  fe- 
male. For  remarks  on  this  subject,  see  Archceo- 
logical  Journal,  No.  xx.  p.  253.  The  shears  and 
key  together  often  occur ;  it  is  probably  a  female 
symbol.  The  sliears  and  comb  indicate  a  wool- 
merchant.  Shears  and  book  occur,  but  have  not 
been  explained.  Cutts  suggests  the  book  is  a 
comb  with  the  teeth  omitted  or  obliterated. 

Sword  is  generally  considered  the  emblem  of  a 
knight.  Grose  mentions  it  as  an  emblem  of  an 
abbot  with  temporal  authority,  and  attributes  a 
stone  with  a  cross  and  sword  at  Bala  Sala,  Isle 
of  Man,  to  an  abbot  of  Bala  Sala.  It  may  have 
been  the  emblem  of  an  esquire,  a  man-at-arms ;  in 
short,  of  any  man  who  commonly  wore  a  sword. 
Sword  and  harp  occurs  seldom,  and  may  possibly 
refer  to  the  warrior  minstrels  of  the  days  of  chi- 

For  further  information  on  this  subject,  I  refer 
your  correspondent  to  Mr.  Cutts's  interesting 
work.  JOHN  PIGGOT,  JUN. 

CURSIVE  HEBREW  (3rd  S.  ix.  510;  x.  18.)— 
PELONI  begs  to  express  his  thanks,  not  merely  for 
the  answers  to  his  inquiry,  but  still  more  for  the 
offers  of  more  direct  assistance.  The  development 
of  such  gentlemanly  courtesy  as  this  must  be  one 
of  the  very  best  results  arising  from  u  N.  &  Q." 
Ballhorn's  beautiful  little  work  fully  meets  the 

GROVE  FAMILY  (3rd  S.  ix.  371.)— The  Grove 
family  are  seated  at  Feme,  Wilts.  The  present 
M.P.  for  South  Wilts  represents  the  elder  branch  of 
the  descendants  of  John  Grove,  of  Bucks. 

Another  branch  is  found  at  Zeals,  near  Mere. 
The  original  grant  of  arms  is  in  the  possession  of 
the  member  for  South  Wilts,— ermine  on  a  chevron 
engrailed  gules,  3  escallops;  the  centre  one  or,  the 
other  two  argent.  Your  correspondent  may  see 
the  pedigree  in  Burke 's  Landed  Gentry. 

E.  W. 

BLUE-STOCKING  (3rd  S.  x.  37.)  —  I  should  have 
been  glad  if  II.  P.  D.  had  given  the  authority  for 
his  statements  as  to  this  term.  The  origin  of 
terms  of  this  kind  may  be  easily  misunderstood 
even  by  those  who  lived  when  they  first  came 
into  use.  Very  likely  there  were  several  contem- 
porary theories.  Boswell,  who  must  have  had 
opportunities  for  forming  a  correct  opinion,  has 
the  following  remarks  in  his  Life  of  Johnson  :  — 

"About  this  time  [1781]  it  was  much  the  fashion  for 
several  ladies  to  have  evening  assemblies,  where  the  fair 
sex  might  participate  in  conversation  with  literary  and 
ingenious  men,  animated  by  a  desire  to  please.  These 
societies  were  denominated  Blue-Stocking  Clubs  ;  the 
origin  of  which  title  being  little  known,  it  may  be  worth 
while  to  relate  it.  One  of  the  most  eminent  members  of 
those  societies,  when  they  first  commenced,  was  Mr.  Stil- 
lingfleet,  whose  dress  was  remarkably  grave,  and  in  par- 
ticular it  was  observed  that  he  wore  blue  stockings.  Such 
was  the  excellence  of  his  conversation,  that  his  absence 
was  felt  as  so  great  a  loss  that  it  used  to  be  said, ;  We 
can  do  nothing  without  the  blue-stockings  ; '  and  thus  by 
degrees  the  title  was  established.  Miss  Hannah  More 
has  admirably  described  a  blue-stocking  club  in  her 
'  Bas  Bleu,'  a  poem  in  which  man}'  of  the  persons  who 
were  most  conspicuous  there  are  mentioned." 

E.  S.  D. 

What  authority  has  H.  P.  D.  for  his  account  of 
the  origin  of  this  term  ?  The  Literary  Gazette 
for  Jan.'  29,  1842,  gives  the  following  quotation 
from  Madame  D'Arblay's  Diary :  — 

"  Mrs.  Vesey  was  a  lady  at  whose  house  the  celebrated 
bas-bleu  meetings  of  the  time  were  first  held,  and  indeed 
with  her  the  phrase  itself  is  said  to  have  originated.  It 
is  related  that,  on  inviting  Mr.  Stillingfleet  to  one  of  her 
literary  parties,  he  wished  to  decline  attending  it,  on  the 
plea  of  his  want  of  an  appropriate  dress  for  an  evening 
assembly.  '  O  never  mind  dress,'  said  she, '  come  in  your 
blue  stockings,'  which  he  was  wearing  at  the  time. "  He 
took  her  at  her  word  ;  and  on  entering  the  room,  directed 
her  attention  to  the  fact  of  his  having  come  in  his  blue- 
stockings ;  and  her  literary  meetings  retained  the  name 
of  bas-bleu  ever  after." 

F.  A.  ESCOTT. 

HILDEBERT  (3rd  S.  x.  29.)— If  Burns  borrowed 
the  thought,  it  is  most  probable  that  he  took  it 
from  Shakspeare :  — 

"  Bardolph.  'Would  I  were  with  him,  wheresome'er  he 
is,  either  in  heaven  or  in  hell !  " 

King  Henry  V.,  Act  II.  Sc.  II. 


LA  VENDEE   (3rd  S.  x.  29.)— This  name  was 
mposed  on  a  part  of  Poitou  by  the  National  As- 
sembly in  1789,  along  with  a  change  in  the  rest  of 
the  provinces,  32  in  number,  into  86  departments, 
named  from  some  marked  natural  feature — a  river, 
chain  of  mountains,  &c.     The  river  La  Vendee 
s  omitted  in  many  maps.  T.  J.  BUCKTON. 

Streatham  Place,  S. 

S.  MICHAEL  (3rd  S.  ix.  139.)— His  symbol  on 
he  old  clog  almanacks  is  a  pair  of  scales,  as  he 
was  supposed  to  weigh  the  souls  of  the  good  and 



JULY  21, '66. 

bad.  William  the  Conqueror  is  said  to  have 
reached  England  on  "the  eve  of  St.  Michael's 
Mass."  (Parker's  Calendar  of  the  Prayer  Book, 
p.  105.)  For  this  cause  many  churches  (about 
(300)  were  dedicated  to  him  (and  all  Angels)  in 
England  during  the  Middle  Ages. 

J.  PIGGOT,  Jinsr. 

"  HOWAKD  "  (3rd  S.  x.  29.)—  The  term  "  ho  ward  " 
as  an  impounder  of  cattle,  is  a  corruption  of  the 
the  word  "  hayward,"  or  warder  or  keeper  of  an 
inclosure  [hay].  "  Hay  ward"  is  a  term  in  very 
common  use,  and  in  some  manors  his  modern  duties 
are  supposed  to  be  those  chiefly  of  detecting  en- 
croachments. (See  Halliwell,  vox  "  Hayward.") 

I  beg  to  inform  W.  W.  that  an  impounder  of 
strayed  cattle  is  called  "the  howard"  in  Hants, 
though  the  word,  when  printed,  is  spelt  "  hay- 
ward."  J.  W.  BATCHELOR. 



The  Biographical  Treasury;  a  Dictionary  of  Universal 
Biography.  By  Samuel  Maunder.  Thirteenth  Edition, 
reconstructed,  thoroughly  revised,  and  in  great  part  re- 
zvritten,  with  about  One  Thousand  additional  Memoirs 
and  Notices,  by  W.  L.  R.  Cates,  Author  of  "The  Pocket 
Date  Book."  (Longman.) 

The  time  for  insisting  on  the  value  and  utility  of  the  series 
of  Treasuries,  which  owe  their  origin  to  the  intelligent  in- 
dustry of  the  late  Samuel  Maunder,  has  long  since  passed. 
When,  therefore,  we  have  to  call  attention  to  a  new  and 
revised  edition  of  his  Treasury  of  Biography,  we  may  con- 
tent ourselves  with  pointing  out  those  characteristics  of 
it  which  mark  its  advantages  over  the  preceding  editions, 
and  make  it  virtually  a  new  work.  In  the  first  place,  the 
whole  work  has  been  subjected  to  a  searching  revision,  by 
which  many  long  standing  mistakes  have  been  corrected, 
many  of  the  statements  have  been  amended,  and  many 
new  'facts  have  been  introduced.  About  900  Biographies 
have  been  entirely  rewritten,  and  more  than  a  1000  New 
Biographies  have  been  introduced.  The  dates  through- 
out the  work  have  been  carefully  revised,  many  have  been 
added,  and  great  pains  have  been  taken  with  the  cross 
references;  and  we  may  add  that  this  new  thirteenth 
edition  exceeds  its  predecessor  in  size  by  no  less  than  167 
pages,  while  each  page  contains  nearly  the  same  amount 
of  matter  as  one  of  the  pages  of  the  one-volume  edition  of 
Dr.  Smith's  Classical  Dictionary.  One  new  feature  de- 
serves especial  mention  —  namely,  a  classified  and  chrono- 
logical index  to  the  principal  names.  And  so  we  com- 
mend The  Treasury  of  Biography  to  all  those  who  desire 
to  possess  a  complete  and  compendious  Encyclopaedia  of 

The  Prayer  Book  Interleaved,  with  Historical  Illustrations 
and  Explanatory  Notes,  arranged  Parallel  to  the  Text. 
By  the  Rev.  W.  M.  Campion,  B.D.,  Fellow  and  Tutor 
of  Queen's  College,  and  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Beamont,  Fellow 
of  Trinity  College.  With  a  Preface  by  The  Lord 
Bishop  of  Ely.  Second  Edition,  revised  and  enlarged. 
We  are  glad  to  find  that  the  favourable  opinion  which 

we  expressed,  of  this  most  useful  book,  has  been-  confirmed 

by  so  quick  a  demand  for  a  new  edition.  In  issuing  this 
the  editors  have  availed  themselves  of  several  hints  given 
by  their  reviewers,  and  added  some  supplementary  illus- 
trations, with  the  view  of  making  this  second  edition 
even  more  complete  than  the  first.  Now  that  the  book  is 
clearly  destined  to  become  a  standard  authority  on  the 
history  of  the  formation  of  our  Prayer  Book,  and  its  re- 
lation to  the  Service  Books  of  other  Communions,  we 
venture  to  suggest  that  an  edition  in  larger  form,  and 
printed  with  larger  type,  would  be  a  boon  to  many  aged 
members  of  the  Church  of  England. 

The   Fine  Arts   Quarterly  Review,   June,  1866.     No.  I. 
New  Series.     (Day  &  Son.) 

When  we  consider  how  large  a  body  in  this  country  is 
interested  in  Art,  partly  through  the  possession  of 're- 
nowned and  hereditary  collections,  parity  as  the  result  of 
the  kind  of  culture  which  distinguished  the  educated 
classes  in  this  country,  we  can  scarcely  doubt  that  this  New 
Series  of  a  magazine,  devoted  to  the  illustration  of  Art  in 
general,  but  more  particularly  of  the  arts  of  design  — 
Architecture,  Sculpture,  Painting,  and  Engraving  will 
receive  ample  patronage.  The  present  number  shows 
that  the  editor  has  profited  by  past  experience,  and  is 
rich  in  biographical  and  critical  papers  calculated  to 
please  and  instruct  art  students  of  every  class :  nor 
ought  we  to  omit  due  commendation  to  the  pains  be- 
stowed by  the  publishers,  Messrs.  Day  &  Son,  in  bringing 
the  various  resources  at  their  command  to  bear  upon  the 
fitting  illustration  of  the  various  papers.  We  heartny 
wish  Mr.  Woodward  success  in  his  New  Series  of  The 
Fine  Arts  Quarterly  Review.  « 



Particulars  of  Price,  &c.,  of  the  following  Books,  to  be  sent  direct 
to  the  gentlemen  by  whom  they  are  required,  whose  names  and  ad- 
dresses are  given  for  that  purpose:  — 

A  separate  copy  of  Lord  Lyttelton's  Tract  on  THE  CONVERSION  OF  ST. 
PALI,,    clt  used  to  be  on  the  S.  P.  C.  K.  List.) 

Wanted  by  Lord  Lyttelton,  Hagley,  Stourbridge, 

ESSAIS  DE  MONTAIGNE.    Edition  de  J.  Bry  (Aine".)    Paris,  1359.    Tome 
premier,  1  fraac  le  volume. 

Wanted  by  Rev.  George  Tragett,  Awbridge  Danes,  Romsey. 

LAMB'S  TALKS  PROM  SHAKSPEARB:  with  a  Memoir  of  Charles  Lamb  by 
John  Watson  Dalby.    Each  Play  illustrated  by  Robert  Cruikshank. 
London:  J.  Pigot  &  Co.,  59,  Fleet  Street  and  Manchester,  1837. 
Wanted  by  Mr.  S.  K.  T.  Mayer,  18,  Norfolk  Street,  Strand,  W.C. 


CORNUB.  The  letters  of  Sir  Thomas  Fairfax  among  the  Civil  War 
Trac's  in  the,  British  Museum  are  entered  separately  in  the  nrw  blue 
Catalogue  under  "  Fairfax.'"  It  is  probable  a  great  many  volumes  will 
have  to  be  consulted  for  the  whole  collection. 

ERRATA 3rd  S.  x.  p.  12,  col.  ii.  line  12  from  bottom,  insert  "not" 

after  " could ;"  p.  13,  col.  i.  line  2  from  top,  for  "  Conventions"  read 
"Convention;"  p.  31,  col.  ii.  line  27  from  bottom,  lor  "Buchanan" 
read  "Buchan;"  line  G  from  bottom,  for  "quotation"  read  "ques- 
tion;" p.  38,  col.  ii.  line  23  from  top,  for  "  formation"  read  "founda- 
1  tioii." 

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"NOTES  &  QUERIES"  is  registered  for  transmission  abroad. 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



LONDON,  SATURDAY,  JULY  28,  1866. 

CONTENTS.— NO  239. 

NOTES  :  — The  Pictures  once  at  Strawberry  Hill  attributed 
to  English  History,  61  —  The  Hon.  Henry  Erskine's  Poeti- 
cal Productions,  62  —  Georgia  in  1738,  63  —  Houstone  of 
Houstoune,  64  — A  Shakespeare  Scholarship—  Shakspe- 
rian  Prices  in  1805  — Gipsies  in  Australia  —  Change  of 
Name :  Cavalier  to  Caverley ;  Calverley  to  Calvert,  64. 

QUERIES:  — Queen  Anne's  Children  —  Bell  Query  — The 
Bible  Chronology  —  Passages  in  Camoens  and  Spenser  — 
Early  Emigrants'  to  Barbadoes  —  "  Edward  and  Egwina  " 
Family  of  Goodrich :  To  American  Readers  —  Lady  Han- 
ham  —  Hogarth's  Picture  of  Balthasar  Family  —  Legal 
Phrase  —  Loredano  :  Chaplin  —  Mitchell  Family  —  Pensy  : 
Smittle  —  B.  Prescot's  Anticopernican  Book  —  "  Rhyme 
nor  Reason"— Phrases  in  Southern  —  Pure  Scarlet  in 
Illuminations  —  Scotch  Clergymen,  1687  —  Spencer  Family 

—  Testamentary  Burial  —  The  Giant  Woglog,  65. 
QTTEBIES  WITH  ANSWERS  :  —  Thwaite  —  St.  Mary's,  Crown 

Street,  Soho  —  Scaramouche  —  Monument  at  Devizes  — 
Moss-Trooper  —  William  Fulbecke  —  Dyker  —  Scot  and 
Lot,  68. 

REPLIES:  — Dighton's  Caricatures,  70 -  The  Douglas  and 
Wigtori  Peerages,  71  —  Whipping  Grown  Girls,  72  —  The 
Ostrich  Feather  Badge,  73  —  Starboard  and  Larboard,  74 

—  Meaning  of  Howard,  Ib.  —  Shorthose  Family  —  Cita- 
tions for  Verification  —  Quotations  —  Bell  Founder's  Name 

—  Sinople  —  Male  and  Female  Births  —  Carbon  Prints  — 
Sir  John  Mandeville  — Princess  Poniatowski,  &c.— Dante 
— Berne  Lyght— Adolphus's  "  Gammar  Gurton's  Garland  " 
—Sabbath  Queries,  75. 

Notes  on  Books,  &c. 


Horace  Walpole,  in  his  Gallery  at  Strawberry 
Hill,  liad  three  pictures  which  he  regarded  as  of 
great  interest  and  importance  in  connection  with 
the  royal  family  of  England ;  and  so  they  would 
certainly  have  been,  had  he  been  correct  in  his  in- 
terpretation of  them.  They  were  called  by  him — 
1.  The  Marriage  of  King  Henry  the  Sixth;  2. 
The  Portraits  of  Humphrey,  Duke  of  Gloucester, 
&c. ;  3.  The  Family  of  King  Henry  the  Fifth. 

The  first  and  third  of  these  are  engraved  in 
Walpole's  Anecdotes  of  Painting,  both  in  the  old 
edition,  and  again  in  that  produced  by  Major,  and 
edited  by  Dallaway. 

The  first  and  second  are  now  to  be  seen  in  the 
special  Exhibition  of  Portraits  at  South  Kensing- 
ton, both  exhibited  by  the  Duke  of  Sutherland,  by 
-whom  they  were  purchased  at  the  Strawberry  Hil 

The  third  fell  into  other  hands,  and  I  am  not 
aware  where  it  is  now  preserved.  I  may,  how- 
ever, be  permitted  to  refer  to  an  explanation  of  it 
differing  from  Walpole's,  which  I  advanced  in 
the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  July,  1842,"  I 
really  relates  to  our  royal  house,  which  the  other 
two  pictures  do  not  j  but  I  conclude  that  the  per- 
sons represented  are  not  the  family  of  Henry  the 
Fifth,  but  that  of  Henry  the  Seventh,  with  whose 
number  of  three  sons  and  four  daughters  the 

groups  behind  their  respective  parents  correspond. 
They  are  not,  however,  portraits  of  any  value,  for 
the  children  who  died  in  infancy  are  represented 
of  uniform  size  with  those  who  lived  to  maturity, 
as  is  often  the  case  upon  monuments  both  of  stone 
and  brass,  and  in  painted  glass. 

Turning  to  the  other  pictures  now  on  view  at 
lensington,  I  may  remark  that  the  intelligent 
correspondent  of  "N.  &  Q."  who  usually  signs 
FTJXTA  TTJRKIM  has,  at  p.  26  of  the  present  volume, 
correctly  characterised  Horace  Walpole's  inter- 
>retation  of  the  Duke  of  Gloucester  picture  (No. 
27  at  South  Kensington)  as  u  absurd."  He  has 
referred  to  what  was  written  on  the  subject  both 
in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  in  1842,  and  more 
recently  in  the  Transactions  of  the  London  and 
Middlesex  Archaeological  Society.  But  he  evi- 
dently has  not  seen  a  still  later  exposition  of  this 
picture  which  appeared  in  The  Builder  of  the  30th 
June  last  ;  nor  may  it  have  fallen  in  the  way  of 
some  of  the  readers  of  "N.  &  Q."  to  have  read 
any  of  these  articles.  As  long-established  errors 
are  proverbially  long-lived,  and  they  cannot  be 
too  often  or  too  thoroughly  rebutted,  I  beg  per- 
mission to  recapitulate  the  leading  points  in  re- 
gard to  which  the  fantastic  theories  of  Horace 
Walpole  have  been  contradicted. 

"  No.  10.  MARRIAGE  OF  HENRY  VI." 
In  this  picture  Walpole  discovered  the  portraits 
of  King  Henry  and  his  Queen  Margaret,  Cardinal 
Beaufort,  Archbishop  Kempe,  Humphrey  Duke  of 
Gloucester,  and  others.  The  head  of  the  bride  is 
engraved  as  the  portrait  of  Margaret  of  Anjou  in 
Harding's  Shakspeare  Illustrated,  and  the  whole 
group  is  copied  as  the  Marriage  of  Henry  VI.  in 
Knight's  Pictorial  History  of  England  (of  course 
repeated  in  his  Old  England],  and  again  by  a  dif- 
ferent cut  in  Knight's  Pictorial  Shakspere.  (In 
the  latter  the  nimbus  around  the  head  of  the 
bridegroom  is  omitted.) 

The  picture  is  really  one  of  those  which  were 
not  uncommon  among  the  works  of  painters  of 
religious  subjects,  intended  to  represent  the  Mar- 
riage of  Saint  Joseph  and  the  Blessed  Virgin, 
and  termed  by  connoisseurs  a  Sposalizio.  The 
nimbus  round  the  head  of  the  bridegroom,  the  in- 
scription on  the  hem  of  the  bride's  robe,  and  the 
evident  indication  of  her  approaching  maternity, 
are  all  in  conformity  with  the  usual  convention- 
alities of  the  subject,  and  put  out  of  question 
Walpole's  most  fanciful  and  gratuitous  hypothesis. 
The  picture  is  probably  Flemish,  and  nearly  half 
a  century  later  in  date  than  the  marriage  of  Henry 
the  Sixth. 



In  this  picture  Horace  Walpole  imagined  that 
he  again  discerned  the  portrait  of  Humphrey- 
Duke  of  Gloucester,  and  on  its  outer  jdoors,  for  it 
is  a  triptych,  those  of  Archbishop  Kempe  and 



S.  X.  JUKY  28,  '66. 

Cardinal  Beaufort.  The  assumed  .head  of  the 
Duke  was  engraved  for  his  portrait  in  Harding's 
Shdkspeare  Illustrated,  1791,  and  so  was  the  head 
of  the  assumed  Cardinal ;  whilst,  at  a  later  date, 
the  whole  figure  attributed  to  the  Archbishop  was 
engraved  (at  the  suggestion  of  the  late  Mr.  A.  J. 
Kempe,  F.S.A.)  for  the  Gentleman's  Magazine, 
Nov.  1845. 

It  is,  like  the  other,  a  religious  picture,  and  its 
subject  only  the  very  common  one  of  the  Adora- 
tion of  the  Three  Kings.  This  would  be  too  obvi- 
ous for  misapprehension,  had  not  the  middle  panel, 
containing  the  Virgin  and  her  Child,  been  taken 
out  from  it.  Walpole's  "Duke  of  Gloucester" 
is  one  of  the  three  Kings  kneeling  to  the  Holy 
Infant.  A  standing  figure,  described  by  Walpole 
as  "  a  saint  holding  the  Duke's  cap  of  state  in  one 
hand,  and  a  golden  chalice  in  the  other,"  is  another 
of  the  magi,  bringing  his  own  offering,  and  holding 
in  the  other  hand  his  own  cap.  The  third  will  be 
seen  in  the  background,  "  in  the  act  of  adoration," 
as  Walpole  himself  describes  him,  and  in  the 
background,  also,  is  the  manger  or  ox-stall,  usual 
in  this  subject. 

The  whole-length  figures  on  the  outside  doors 
of  the  triptych  are  equally  identified,  but  not  as 
mediaeval  portraits.  One  of  them,  who  was  con- 
verted by  Walpole  into  Cardinal  Beaufort,  is  St. 
Jerome,  with  his  customary  symbol  of  a  lion; 
and  the  other,  christened  Archbishop  Kempe,  is 
St.  Ambrose,  notified  by  his  scourge.  / 

It  is  only  the  arms  painted  in  a  corner  of  this 
picture  that  connect  it  with  English  history. 
They  are  those  of  Tate  impaling  Wood,  denoting 
the  marriage  of  Sir  Robert  Tate,  who  was  Lord 
Mayor  of  London  in  1488,  with  Margaret,  daughter 
of  Richard  Wood,  sometime  Mayor  of  Coventry. 
The  Tates  had  a  chantry  chapel  in  the  church  of 
Allhallows  Barking,  near  the  Tower  of  London  j 
and  in  that  chapel  I  imagine  this  picture  may 
once  have  hung.  Like  the  former,  it  is  probably 
a  Flemish  picture,  bought  in  the  market  when 
required  by  Sir  Robert  Tate,  and  merely  made 
commemorative  of  him  by  the  addition  of  his 

I  have  pointed  out,  in  the  Transactions  of  the 
London  and  Middlesex  Society,  that  it  is  an  in- 
teresting circumstance,  tending  to  show  that  Sir 
Robert  Tate  was  a  patron  of  the  art  of  painting, 
that  he  directed  in  his  will  the  provision  of  "  a 
table  of  the  Martyrdom  of  St.  Thomas,"  &c. 




It  is  rather  curious  that  the  same  number  of 
"N.  &  Q."  (3rd  S.  x.  3),  in  which  appears  an 
early  humorous  poem  by  Lord  Chancellor  Erskine 
(furnished  by  me),  should  contain  also  an  in- 

quiry whether  there  was  ever  a  collection  made 
and  published  of  the  tf  convivial  poems "  of  his 
brother  the  Lord  Advocate  ?  Having  the  honour 
to  be  connected  with  the  family  of  these  eminent 
public  characters  (which  I  mention  in  order  that 
I  may  write  with  less  constraint,  and  readers  may 
receive  cum  grano  sails,  if  they  please,  any  com- 
mendations of  their  compositions  which  may 
voluntarily  or  involuntarily  ooze  from  my  pen),  I 
am  perhaps  in  as  good  a  position  as  any  one  at 
the  present  day  to  reply  to  the  above  question. 
At  least  I  may,  by  attempting  it,  assist  in 
eliciting  from  other  quarters  more  complete 

With  regard  to  Mr.  II.  Erskine's  "convivial 
poems,"  whether  any  of  that  precise  description 
exist,  I  am  unaware.  On  turning  to  the  Editor's 
reference  in  the  Annual  Register,  I  find  that  the 
"  Parody  on  '  Blest  as  the  immortal  gods  is  he,'  " 
is  "  said  to  be  written  by  the  Hon.  H.  Erskine ;" 
and  though  it  probably  was,  none  of  his  friends 
or  admirers  need  be  very  anxious  to  establish  its 
authenticity.  Of  the  "  Ode  to  Eight  Cats,"  &c., 
I  had  never  heard.  I  possess,  however,  a  copy 

"  The  Metrical  Miscellany  ;  consisting  chiefly  of  Poems 
hitherto  unpublished.  London :  Cadell,  Jun.,  and  W. 
Davies,  in  the  Strand,  1802." 

This  octavo  volume  contains  pieces  by  the  Hon. 
H.  Erskine  of  a  much  higher  order,  viz.  "  Imita- 
tion of  the  Idyl  of  Moschus  on  the  Death  of 
Bion,"  10  pp.,  and  which  in  fact  seems  to  be  (I 
cannot  help  saying)  a  tolerably  close  and  exqui- 
sitely beautiful  translation.  There  are  likewise 
therein,  besides  some  shorter  pieces,  "Imitations" 
of  two  odes  of  Horace,  and  "The  Emigrant,  an 
Eclogue ;  occasioned  by  the  late  numerous  Emi- 
grations from  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  written 
in  1773,"  6  pp.).  To  this  heading  is  appended  as 
a  foot-note,  by  the  (anonymous)  editor :  — 

"  *  The  Emigrant '  is  the  only  poem  of  Mr.  E.'s  that 
has  been  published  before.  As  its  subject  is  well  known 
to  have  been  by  no  means  fictitious,  it  reflects  as  much 
honour  on  the  feelings  of  the  author  as  on  his  poetical 

To  which  I  will  venture  to  add,  that  it  is  com- 
posed in  the  same  sweetly  pathetic  Dorian  strain 
as  the  translation  of  the  Idyl. 

Here  I  may  state  that  when,  some  forty  years- 
ago,  I  was  visiting  the  excellent  and  talented 
widow  of  Henry  Erskine  at  Ammondell,  she  showed 
me  some  of  his  poetical  effusions  in  MS.  (the  same 
principally,  if  I  recollect  aright,  which  were 
printed  in  the  Miscellany  before  quoted),  and  a 
laudatory  estimate  of  their  literary  merit  written 
by  T.  Campbell,  the  poet,  while  on  a  visit  there 
(during  which  he  had  read  out  to  her  some  of 
his  own  fresh  poems).  On  making  inquiry  for 
these  very  recently,  in  consequence  of  ME.  BLAIK'S 
question,  of  the  widow  of  the  late  Earl  of  Bu- 

3**  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



chan,  I  was  informed  that  his  Lorship,  being  de- 
sirous to  collect  all  his  father's  poetical  and  other 
writings,  in  order  that  full  justice  might  be  done 
on  their  account  to  his  memory,  was  much  dis- 
appointed at  not  being  able  to  find  the  composi- 
tions in  question  among  the  papers  left  by  his 
stepmother  at  her  decease.  {So  if  these  yet  exist, 
they  are  probably  widely  dispersed.  I  am  in- 
formed that  Chambers 's  Journal,  from  about  the 
year  1820  to  1825,  contain  some  extracts  from 
Henry  Erskine's  verses,  with  notices  of  his  life. 
To  these  I  have  not  access  at  present.  He  died 
in  1817. 

Moreover,  several  questions  having  been  put 
lately  in  "  N.  &  Q."  regarding  the  authorship  and 
the  proper  wording  of  the  following  lines,  it  may 
not  be  irrelevant  to  superadd,  that  I  have  always 
understood  their  author  to  have  been  the  same 
"  Henry  Erskine,"  and  that  their  original  wording 
was:  — 

"  The  rule  of  the  road  is  a  paradox  quite ; 

For  in  driving  your  carriage  along, 
If  you  turn  to  the  left  you  are  sure  to  go  right, 
If  you  turn  to  the  right  you  go  wrong." 

These  and  other  verses,  by  both  of  the  brothers 
Erskine,  have  been  often  and  variously  written 
and  printed,  with  alterations  that  are  not  im- 

I  will  now,  if  allowed  space  enough,  in  con- 
clusion, cite  another  epigram  by  Henry  Erskine  : — 

*'  To  One  who  was  grieving  for  the  Loss  of  his  Watch. 
"  Fret  not,  my  friend,  and  peevish  say, 

Your  losses  worse  than  common  : 
For  'gold  makes  wings,  and  flies  away,' 

And  time  Avill  wait  for  no  man.' 

T.  A.  II. 

Your  notes  upon  the  witty  Harry  Erskine, 
will,  I  hope,  serve  to  incite  the  desired  publica- 
tion of  his  many  humorous  sayings  and  pro- 
ductions. I  remember  one  of  the  lively  Lady 
Wallace,  complaining  of  some  scandal  touching 
her.  "  Would  ye  believe  it,  Harry,  they  absolutely 
said  I  had  twins."  "  Phoo,"  replied  the  wit, 
"  that  is  nothing :  I  only  believe  the  half  of  what 
I  hear."  Nearly  all  the  Erskines  were  humorists 
and  the  cause  of  wit  in  others.  When  the  Chan- 
cellor, Tom,  became  quiet  in  opposition,  on  being 
made  a  Knight  of  the  Thistle,  and  sported  the 
green  ribbon,  it  was  observed  that  he  was  the 
Green  Man  and  Still.  BUSHEY  HEATH. 

I  agree  with  the  remark,  that  many  witticisms 
are  ascribed  to  Henry  Erskine  which  he  never  made, 
and  many  of  these  hackneyed  and  quite  unworthy 
of  him.  The  following  is  genuine,  for  I  had  it 
many  years  ago  from  a  gentleman  who  overheard 

it  uttered.  When  Henry  was  Dean  of  the  Faculty 
of  Advocates,  he  employed  a  tradesman  to  make 
some  repairs  in  the  Parliament  House  (Edin- 
burgh). Corning  into  it  on  the  day  immediately 
preceding  the  meeting  of  the  Court,  he  found 
these  repairs  in  a  very  unfinished  state;  and 
addressing  the  tradesman,  who  happened  to  be 
present,  he  said  :  u  Is  this,  Sir,  all  you  have  done 
in  the  three  months  you  have  had  for  the  pur- 
pose ?  You  dilatory  dog  !  I  believe  that  had  you 
been  employed  to  build  the  Ark,  we  would  *not 
have  had  the  Flood  yet."  G. 


GEORGIA  IN  1738. 

The  enclosed  letters  may  possess  some  interest 
to  your  American  correspondents  should  you  think 
it  worthy  of  publishing  them  in  "  N.  &  Q."  They 
were  both  doubtless  addressed  to  the  Right  Hon. 
Thos.  Winnington,  who  was  at  that  time  Pay- 
master of  the  Forces.  The  second  is  from  General 
Oglethorpe,  I  presume  the  same  who  figures  so 
frequently  in  Walpole's  amusing  Correspondence. 

Stanford  Court,  Worcester. 

"  Blandford  Jekyl  Sound,  Georgia, 
"  Sir—  September  218t,  1738. 

"  I  do  myself  the  honour  to  acquaint  you  with  my 
arrival  at  this  place  with  the  Transports  the  18th  instant, 
and  on  the  19th  landed  General  Oglethorpe  and  his 
Troops  all  in  good  health,  and  I  think,  both  able  and 
willing  to  beat  double  the  number  of  Spaniards,  if  they 
should  be  put  to  the  Tryal,  which,  from  Mr.  Oglethorpe's 
Letter  to  me,  a  Copy  of  which  I  have  sent  to  the  Admi- 
ralty, we  have  reason  to  expect :  it  is  certain  there  is  a 
large  reinforcement  gone  from  the  Havannah  to  St.  Au- 
gustine, part  of  which  are  marched  upon  the  outskirts  of 
Carolina  ;  besides,  they  have  several  Rowboats,  which 
carry  from  thirty  to  sixty  men,  one  of  which,  about  ten 
days  ago,  fired  [on]  one  of  our  Scout  Boats  out  of  St. 
John's  River,  a  little  to  the  Southward  of  this  place  ;  and 
as  there  is  not  one  Gun  mounted,  or  Carriages  for  that 
service  to  defend  this  Harbour,  which  is  of  the  greatest 
consequence  to  the  Colony ;  I  think  it  my  duty  for  the 
Security  of  it  to  comply  with  Mr.  Oglethorpe's  Request ; 
but  as  the  Intentions  of  the  Spaniards  may  be  some  time 
before  they  are  certainly  known,  I  shall  [wait]  with 
great  impatience  for  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty's  Com- 
mands, and  I  hope  I  have  rightly  construed  my  Orders, 
that  my  Conduct  may  meet  your  approbation.  My  Ship's 
Company  is  now  in  "perfect  health,  but  we  have  had  a 
fever  that  has  run  through  the  whole,  tho',  thank  God,  it 
did  not  prove  very  mortal,  having  buried  only  eleven 
people.  I  was  much  out  of  order  myself,  but  it  turned 
into  a  violent  lit  of  the  Gout  in  my  right  foot,  so  that  I 
hardly  knew  Avhich  to  chose,  Death  or  the  Pain.  I  had 
almost  forgot  to  acquaint  You,  that  I  had  the  misfortune 
to  lose  my  Foremast  at  Sea,  it  being  rotten  quite  through, 
and  fear"  I  shall  meet  with  some  difficulty  in  getting 
another  fitted  at  this  place. 

"  I  hope  this  will  find  You  in  a  perfect  state  of  health, 
for  which  You  have  my  hearty  prayers,  and  as  I  am  a 
bad  hand  at  Compliments,  I  "beg  you  will  excuse  my 



JULY  28,  '66. 

rving  you  this  trouble,  and  permit  me  to  assure  you  that 
am,  with  the  highest  Sense  of  Gratitude, 
"  Sir, 

"  Your  most  obedient 
"Humble  Servant, 


«  P.S.— I  hope  it  is  not  yet  too  late  to  get  me  continued 
at  this  place  since  the  Spaniards  are  making  such  Pre- 
parations of  warr." 

"  Dear  Sir,— 

"  Here  are  some  Worcestershire  Gentlemen  who  daily 
drink  your  health.  I  wish  they  do  not  commit  Idolatry, 
for  they  seem  to  remember  You  with  as  much  Veneration 
as  the  Greeks  did  their  Gods  over  their  Cups.  Next  to  the 
King  the  Libation  is  to  You.  Captain  Burrish  is  fore- 
most. I  hope  you  will  use  your  Interest  for  to  continue 
him  stationed  in  Georgia.  The  ships  stationed  at  Charles 
Town  are  of  no  use  to  us,  for  the  same  South  Wind  which 
would  bring  up  the  Spaniards  to  attack  us  keeps  them 
who  lye  to  the  Northward  from  coming  down  to  our  As- 

"  Give  me  leave  to  acquaint  You  with  the  Situation  of 
the  Colony  of  Georgia,  and  at  the  same  time  desire  your 

"  The  Parliament,  to  defray  the  Charges  of  the  Im- 
provements of  the  Colony  of  Georgia,  and  the  Military 
Defence  thereof,  used  to  grant  £20,000  for  a  year.  The 
King  ordered  a  Reg1  for  the  defence  of  the  Colony,  and 
thereupon  the  Trustees  were  contented  to  abate  £12,000 
in  their  demands,  which  was  the  charge  of  the  Military 
Defence,  and  £8,000  only  was  granted  to  them.  But  as 
the  Regiment  did  not  arrive  till  near  a  year  afterwards, 
the  Trustees  were  obliged  to  support  the  Military  Charge 
of  the  Colony  during  that  whole  time,  which  was  very 
dangerous  by  reason  of  the  threatened  Invasion  from  the 
Spaniards ;  of  which  You  received  so  many  accounts.  No 
Officer  of  the  Trustees  dared  abandon  a  Garrison,  reduce 
any  men,  or  dismiss  the  Militia,  whilst  the  Spaniards 
threatned  the  Province,  and  the  King's  Troops  were  not 
arrived  to  relieve  them.  A  Debt  of  near  £12,000  is  con- 
tracted because  by  unforeseen  accidents  the  Regiment 
was  delayed,  and  the  Military  Expence  was  continued 
till  their  Arrival  though  the  Parliamentary  Grant  ceased. 

"  I  must  entreat  therefore  your  Assistance  to  the  Trus- 
tees on  their  Application  to  Parliament  for  a  Sum  suffi- 
cient to  discharge  this  Debt ;  for  if  the  people  who  fur- 
nished with  necessaries  a  Colony  then  threatned  with 
Invasions,  and  the  people  who  then  bore  Arms  for  the 
Defence  of  it,  and  thereby  secured  that  Important  Fron- 
tier till  the  Arrival  of  the  King's  Troops  should  be  ruined 
by  not  being  paid  their  just  Demands,  It  would  prevent 
hereafter  any  Frontier  Colony  from  receiving  Assist- 

"  I  hope  You  will  excuse  my  taking  the  Liberty  of  trou- 
bling You  on  this  Occasion,  but  I  am  persuaded  You  have 
so  much  Inclination  to  support  your  Friends  and  the 
service  of  j^our  Country  that  You  will  not  refuse  your 
Assistance  to  him  who  is 

"  Dear  Sir, 

"  Frederica  in  Georgia, 
"  20  Nov.,  1738. 

"  The  Hon*ie  Thomas  Winnington,  Esq." 

Your  most  obedient 
'  Humble  Servant, 



Sir  Patrick  Houstoune  of  that  ilk  was  created  a 
baronet  by  patent,  dated  at  Whitehall  last  day  of 
February  1668.  He  espoused  Anne,  daughter  of 
John  Lord  Bargany,  by  whom  he  had  five  sons 
and  four  daughters.  Anne,  the  second  daughter, 
married  Sir  William  Hamilton,  of  Whitelaw,  one 
of  the  Senators  of  the  College  of  Justice,  by  whom 
she  had  no  children.  Becoming  a  widow  she 
espoused  Adam  Cockb  urn,  of  Ormiston,  Lord  Jus- 
tice Clerk,  by  whom  she  had  issue.  Sir  Patrick 
died  in  1696. 

The  lady's  first  marriage  created  much  merri- 
ment, for  Whitelaw  was  very  old,  and  Miss  Anne 
very  young.  She  reaped  the  reward,  however,  of 
the  sacrifice,  if  it  could  be  called  one,  for  Sir  William 
(a  most  unpopular  judge)  did  not  live  very  long; 
and,  having  left  her  a  fortune  of  somewhere  about 
seven  thousand  pounds,  she  was  enabled  to  "  buy," 
as  some  satirical  lines  of  the  time  had  it,  a  hus- 
band more  suited  to  her  age. 

Sir  John  Houstone,  her  eldest  brother,  was 
M.P.  for  Renfrew  for  upwards  of  twenty  years. 
He  married  Lady  Anne  Drummond,  daughter  of 
John,  Earl  of  Melfort  (born  March  3,  1671),  by 
whom  he  had  a  son  John,  one  of  the  members  of 
parliament  for  Linlithgow,  who  succeeded  to  the 
title,  and  married  Margaret  Shaw,  a  daughter  of 
Sir  John  Shaw  of  Greenock,  Bart. 

"  Sir  John  Houston  died,"  says  Wodrow  in  his 
Analecta,  Jan.  27,  1722,  "in  the  flower  of  his 
age — a  man  of  excellent  sense,  and  a  very  deep 
reach.  He  left  that  old  and  once  great  estate  in 
such  low  circumstances  as  that  some  say  there 
will  be  more  than  two  hundred  thousand  sterling- 
debt  when  the  whole  estate  is  sold." 

Wodrow  was  right  in  his  supposition.  The 
large  possessions  of  the  family  passed  from  them, 
and,  but  for  his  mother,  the  last  member  in  the 
male  line  would  have  been  penniless.  The  un- 
happy marriage  of  the  last  Sir  John  was  ended 
by  a  separation ;  and  the  disclosures  contained  in 
the  legal  proceedings  afforded  much  amusement  to 
the  lovers  of  scandal  in  the  north  during  the 
middle  of  last  century. 

The  Houstoune  baronetcy  is  not  inserted  in  the 
list  printed  by  Beatson,  in  his  very  useful  and 
generally  accurate  Political  Index,  from  which  it 
may  be  inferred  that  it  was  not  recorded  in  the 
Great  Seal  Kecord  of  Scotland.  It  may  have  been, 
from  its  being  dated  at  Whitehall,  recorded  in 
England  ;  but  it  was  no  uncommon  circumstance 
for  patents  of  honours  never  to  be  recorded  at  all, 
and  this  even  where  the  grants  had  reference  to 



Shakespeare  Scholarship  at  the  Melbourne  Uni- 
versity. It  was  founded  with  funds  collected 
in  the  tercentenary  year  of  Shakspeare's  birth  to 

S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



erect  a  statue  to  the  poet,  but  subsequently  ap- 
plied to  the  more  utilitarian  purpose.  It  con- 
fers on  the  holder  a  benefit  of  fifty  pounds  a 
year  for  three  years.  The  competition  for  the 
scholarship  consists  of  essays  on  the  life  and  writ- 
ings of  our  great  dramatist :  so  that  the  study  of 
Shakespeare's  works  does  not  seem  likely  to  de- 
cline in  this  part  of  the  world.  D.  BLAIR. 


SHAKSPERIAN  PRICES  IN  1805. — The  following 
extract  from  an  unpublished  letter  from  Malone 
to  Bishop  Percy,  written  in  August,  1805,  will  no 
doubt  be  read  with  interest  by  Shaksperian  col- 
lectors of  the  present  day :  — 

"  Xow  that  I  am  on  this  subject,  I  must  not  omit  to 
inform  you  of  my  new  acquisition — no  less  than  the  ori- 
ginal edition  of  Venus  and  Adonis,  4to,  1593,  bought  out 
of  a  country  catalogue  at  so  extravagant  a  price  that  I 
am  ashamed  to  mention  it.  However,  I  do  not  at  all 
repent  of  my  bargain.  It  is  worth  to  me  all  the  money  I 
gave  for  it ;  for,  on  collation,  I  obtained  from  25  to  30 
new  readings,  and  most  of  them  valuable.  For  this  piece 
and  Marlow's  Dido  I  offered,  by  publick  advertisement, 
25  years  ago,  the  sum  of  two  guineas  for  each,  then 
thought  a  great  price.  Dido  I  afterwards  bought  at  the 
sale  of  Dr.  Wright's  books  for  sixteen  guineas,  and  this 
sum  for  a  long  time  was  considered  ne  plus  ultra  for  such 
curiosities.  The  booksellers,  however,  now,  taking  ad- 
vantage of  the  present  rage  for  old  English  poetry,  do  not 
confine  themselves  within  that  limit.  This  late  discovery 
induces  me  to  hope  that  some  day  or  other  the  original 
edition  of  Hamlet  may  be  found,  which  I  am  persuaded 
was  in  1602,  though  none  earlier  than  1604  has  yet  been 

J.  0.  H. 

GIPSIES  IN  AUSTRALIA.  —  The  first  appearance 
of  a  gipsy  tribe  in  the  Australian  colonies  is  thus 
chronicled  in  a  New  South  Wales  newspaper  of 
date  May,  1866 :  — 

"  The  Orange  Guardian  mentions  that '  the  first  gipsies 
seen  in  Australia  passed  through  Orange  the  other  day, 
en  route  for  Mudgee.  Although  they  can  scarcely  be 
reckoned  new  arrivals,  as  they  have  been  nearly  two 
years  in  the  colony,  they  bear  about  them  all  the  marks 
of  the  gipsy.  The  women  stick  to  the  old  dress,  and  are 
still  as  anxious  as  ever  to  tell  fortunes ;  but  they  say  that 
this  game  does  not  pay  in  Australia,  as  the  people  are  not 
so  credulous  here  as  they  are  at  home.  Old  "  Brown 
Joe "  is  a  native  of  Northumberland,  and  has  made  a 
good  deal  of  money  even  during  his  short  sojourn  here. 
They  do  not  offer  themselves,  generally,  as  fortune  tellers, 
but  if  required  and  paid  they  will  at  once  "  read  your 
palm."  At  present  they  obtain  a  livelihood  by  tinkering 
and  making  sealing-wax.  Their  time  during  the  last 
week  has  been  principal!}'  taken  up  in  hunting  out  bees' 
nests,  which  are  very  profitable,  as  they  not  only  sell  the 
honey,  but,  after  purifying  and  refining  the  wax,  manu- 
facture it  into  beautiful  toys,  so  rich  in  colour  and  trans- 
parency that  it  would  be  almost  impossible  to  guess  the 
material.' " 




"  Sir  Walter  [Calverley  Blackett]  was  on  a  visit  to 
me  in  Berkshire,  when  I  lived  there  in  the  lifetime  of  my 

father,  who  died  in  1760.  Sir  Walter  asked  me  to-  go 
with  him  to  see  the  Rev.  Thos.  Walker,  who  resided  on 
his  living  of  Tylehurs  [Tilehurst  near  Reading],  and 
who  married  a  lady  who  called  herself  Calverley.  When 
we  were  returning,  Sir  Walter  was  displeased,  and  said, 
that  when  he  was  at  University  College,  Oxon,  he  met 
with  a  member  of  said  college,  who  was  the  son  of  a 
French  Dancing-master  named  Cavalier,  who  desired  to 
call  himself  Calverley  and  take  the  arms,  which  Sir 
Walter  permitted.  ...  In  my  time,  when  a  member  of 
New  College  [M.A.  1757],  there  was  a  descendant  of  the 
said  Dancing-master  at  University  College  who  called 
himself  Calverley." — Extract  from  a  Letter,  written  in 
1824,  by  Sir  John  Trevelyan  to  his  grandson  (Sir  W.  C. 

Ill  the  "  List  of  Graduates  "  are  two,  which  are 
probably  the  two  individuals  above  mentioned, 
who  however,  it  will  be  perceived,  had  not  as- 
sumed literally  the  whole  of  the  name,  having 
left  out  the  first  Z,  as  in  fact  the  name  Calverley 
is  often  pronounced :  — 

"  Thos.  Caverley,  Bra.,  M.A.  1726. 
Geo.  Caverle}-,  Univ.,  M.A.  1759." 

They  were  most  probably  father  and  son,  and  the 
lady  sister  of  George. 

In  Dodsworth's  Collectanea,  in  the  Bodleian 
Library  (vol.  Ixxix.  p.  29),  is  the  copy  of  an 
instrument  dated  1597,  from  Garter  and  Norrey, 
granting  a  coat  of  arms  to  John  Calvert  alias 
Calverley  of  Cokeram,  Lancashire,  son  of  Thomas, 
son  of  William,  son  of  John  that  first  came  into- 
Lancashire,  who  was  fourth  son  of  Sir  William 
Calverley  of  Calverley.  John  Calvert  had  a  son 
Eichard,  a  grandson  John,  and  a  great-grandson 
Richard,  all  living  in  1645. 



QUEEN  ANNE'S  CHILDREN. — Can  any  corre- 
spondent tell  the  exact  number  of  Queen  Anne's 
children  ?  They  are  said  by  some  authorities  to 
have  been  seventeen,  and  some  nineteen — a  larger 
number  than  those  of  any  other  British  sovereign 
before  or  since.  The  most  complete  list  I  can 
find  is  in  Sandford,  but  this  only  gives  twelve 
out  of  the  number. 

Anne  married  Prince.  George  of  Denmark, 
July  28,  1683,  and  had  issue  :  — 

"  A  daughter,  stilborn,  May  12, 1684. 
Lady  Mary,  born  June  2,  1685  ;  died  Feb.  8, 1686. 
Lady  Anne-Sophia,  born  May  12,  1686  ;  died  Feb.  2, 

An  abortive  male  child,  of  which  H.  R.  H.  miscarried. 

Oct.  22,  1687. 
William,  Duke  of  Gloucester,  born  July  24, 1689 ;  died 

July  30,  1700. 

Lady  Mary,  born  Oct.  1690,  and  died  soon  after. 
George,  born  April  17, 1692 ;  buried  next  day.    Died 

one  hour  after  his  baptism. 
A  stilborn  female  child,  born  March  23,  169§,  and 

buried  next  dav. 



[3"*  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66. 

A  daughter,  of  which  the  Princess  miscarried,  1696. 
A  son,  of  which  the  Princess  miscarried,  1697. 
A  sou  stilborn,  Sept.  15,  1698. 
A  son,  of  which  H.  E.  H.  miscarried,  Jan.  24, 1699. 

Well  may  Queen  Anne  "be  called  the  last  of  an 
unfortunate  house !  GK  W.  M. 

BELL  QUERY.  —  In  the  church  of  Weston  in 
Hertfordshire  are  four  "bells  bearing  the  following 
inscription:  "1624,  R,  Gray,  me  fecit  milonem." 
What  is  the  meaning  of  milonem  ? 

G.  E.  D.  N. 

THE  BIBLE  CHRONOLOGY. — Dean  Milman,  in 
his  History  of  the  Jeivs  (vol.  i.  Preface,  p.  xxix. 
note,  3rd  ed.),  writes  as  follows :  — 

"  It  is  certainly  a  curious  fact  that  it  is  impossible  to 
ascertain  Avhen,  and  by  what  authority,  what  is  usually 
called  the  Bible  Chronology  found  its  way  into  the  margin 
of  our  English  Bibles.  Being  Archbishop  Usher's,  or 
Scaliger's  modified  by  Usher,  it  cannot  of  course  be  earlier 
than  "the  Restoration  ;  no  doubt  it  appeared  in  its  present 
place  verv  much  later.  The  authorised  printers  of  the 
Bible,  the'  Stationers'  Company,  the  Universities  of  Ox- 
ford, Cambridge,  and  Edinburgh,  have  no  record  of  the 

Surely  some  of  the  correspondents  of  "N.  &  Q." 
might  discover  when  this  took  place,  and  the  first 
edition  in  which  it  appeared.  This  might  pos- 
sibly lead  to  the  solution  of  the  question  relating 
to  the  authority  by  which  it  was  done.  I  should 
also  "be  glad  of  any  information  on  the  subject  of 
marginal  references.  E.  S.  D. 

"  It  is  not  surprising  that  heavy  scholars,  such  as  Banier 
and  Pluche,  should  have  believed  that  the  pagan  deities 
were  all  originally  extraordinary  men  or  ordinary  sta- 
tues ;  but  who  would  have  looked  for  such  a  notion  in 
real  poets  as  Camoens  and  Spenser."  (P.  51.) — Essay  on 
the  Interpretation  of  Scripture.  By  Robert  Butler,  A.M. 
London,  1781. 

A  reference  to  the  passages  in  Camoens  and 
Spenser  will  oblige.  G.  A.  P. 

GEORGE  CARINGTON  presents  her  compliments 
to  the  Editor  of  "N.  &  Q./'  and  in  looking  over 
the  number  (3rd  S.  i.  488),  under  the  head  "Bar- 
badoes,"  finds  it  stated  that,  in  the  State  Paper 
Office,  there  are  lists  of  the  names  of  the  pas- 
sengers to  Barbadoes  between  the  years  1638  and 
1640.  MRS.  G.  CARINGTON  has  sought  this  in- 
formation in  every  quarter  for  years.  Do  earlier 
lists  exist  ?  How  is  it  possible  to  obtain  copies 
of  these  lists  ?  Is  there  a  list  of  the  passengers 
who  sailed  with  Capt.  Powell  in  the  John  and 
William,  Feb.  17,  1625  ?  Any  one  putting  MRS. 
G.  CARINGTON  in  the  way  to  obtain  this  inform- 
ation, will  confer  a  great  obligation  upon  her,  as 
it  is  the  clue  to  some  researches  she  has  long 
prosecuted  in  vain,  and  she  will  be  glad  to  re- 
munerate them  for  their  trouble.  In  saying  this, 

MRS.  G.  CARINGTON  concludes  the  expense  of 
obtaining  copies  of  such  lists  is  not  exorbitant. 
Roxburgh  Villa,  Clifton. 

"EDWARD  AND  EGWINA." — In  1776  there  was 
printed  at  Salisbury  Edward  and  Egwina,  or  The 
Feast  of  Ceres,  a  little  pastoral  drama  of  16  pages, 
printed  by  Hodson,  Salisbury.  The  dramatis  per- 
sona— I.  Edward,  son  of  Alfred  King  of  Britain. 
II.  Morcar,  his  friend.  III.  Egwina,  a  young  Shep- 
herdess. IV.  Astnea,  an  aged  Shepherdess,  skilled 
in  astrology.  This  little  drama  is  set  to  music  by 
Mr.  Goss.  It  is  named  in  the  Bioc/r.  Dramatica,  but 
that  work  does  not  give  the  author's  name,  and 
does  not  even  mention  where  it  was  printed.  Is 
there  any  mention  of  the  anonymous  author  in  the 
literary  history  of  Salisbury  or  elsewhere  ?  Who 
was  the  Mr.  Goss  who  set  it  to  music  ? 


The  undersigned  will  be  much  obliged  by  inform- 
ation, addressed  Box  62,  Post  Office,  Derby,  Eng- 
land. He  seeks  to  trace  out  the  pedigree  of  an 
English  family  of  the  above  name.  He  reaches 
the  grandfather's  grandfather  of  the  present  gene- 
ration, John  Goodrich  (his  wife  Mary)  born  pro- 
bably in  America,  whither,  it  is  believed,  William 
and  John  Goodrich,  brothers,  ancestors  of  said  first- 
named  John,  emigrated  about  the  middle  or  early 
part  of  the  seventeenth  century.  Goodwin's  Ge- 
nealogical Notes  records  the  descent  of  numerous 
Goodriches  in  America,  from  the  above  emigrants 
William  and  John,  down  to  present  times,  in- 
cluding more  than  one  John  with  a  wife  Mary,  of 
likely  dates.  But  such  a  John  is  wanted,  with  a 
son  John  (not  found  in  Goodwin's  book),  grand- 
father's father  of  the  present  generation,  who  set- 
tled at  Topsham,  Devonshire,  England,  about  the 
end  of  the  eighteenth  century,  he  and  his  family 
having  been  driven  from  America  by  the  war.  He 
was  a  native  of  Virginia. 

The  original  JUnglish  locale  of  the  family  is  also 
sought.  Goodwin  suggests  Suffolk,  and  inquiries 
are  being  made  there.  That  locality  is  not  incon- 
sistent with  an  origin  in  Lincolnshire,  of  which, 
and  an  emigration  from  Boston  in  that  county, 
and  a  descent  from  the  family  of  Thomas  Good- 
richj  Bishop  and  Lord  Chancellor,  temp.  Edw.  VI., 
there  is  great  probability.  F.  .T.  J. 


"  The  Lady  Hanham  is  taken  up  and  sent  prisoner  to 
the  Tower."— Luttrell's  Diary,  i.  585. 

"  The  Lady  Hanham  and  the  Lord  Montgomery,  the 
Marquis  of  Powis's  son,  came  from  the  Tower  to  the 
Court  of  King's  Bench,  by  Habeas  Corpus,  being  com- 
mitted for  suspicion  of  treason  :  they  were  both  admitted 
to  bail  by  four  sureties  each.  Nov.  1689." — Id.  601. 

The  28th  "  being  the  last  day  of  the  terai,  several  per- 
sons appeared  at  the  Court  of  King's  Bench,  pursuant  to 
their  recognizances.  Some  of  them  were  discharged,  as 
Sir  John  Fenwick,  the  Lady  Hanham,  &c."— -Id.  010. 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



Who  was  this  Lady  Hanham?  As  the  year 
was  1689,  the  charge,  no  doubt,  was  Jacobitism. 

E.  T. 

I  have  a  picture  by  Hogarth  representing,  on  the 
right  foreground,  a  musician  seated,  handing  a 
fiddle  to  a  girl  of  about  twenty ;  another  girl  is 
in  the  background;  a  lady  seated,  and  a  small 
boy  standing  at  her  knee,  in  left  foreground.  On 
the  back :  "  Denner  Balthasar,  himself  and  family, 
painted  for  Mr.  D'Asada," — as  well  as  I  can  read 
it.  Who  was  this  Denner,  or  Dennis,  Balthasar  ? 
and  who  was  Mr.  D'Asada  ?  J.  R.  HAIG. 

LEGAL  PHRASE. — Can  any  of  your  legal  readers 
explain  this  ? — "•  Wher  upon  he  hath  bound  hime- 
selfe  by  tackynge  of  a  jd  upon  and  a  sumsett." — 
Diary  of  Philip  Henslowc,  1596.  F.  A.  ESCOTT. 

LOREDANO  :  CHAPLIN. — The  General  Magazine, 
April,  1751,  p.  176,  in  a  notice  of  Lander  or  Mil- 
ton, sa3rs :  — 

"Loredano  had  given  a  like  description  of  sin,  and 
Chaplin  had  ascribed  the  invention  of  gunpowder  to 

References  will  oblige.  J.  R. 

MITCHP.LL  FAMILY.— Un  archeologue  fra^ais, 
M.  de  la  Morinerie,  a  1'honneur  d'adresser  a  ses 
collegues  en  archeologie  du  pays  d'Ecosse  la  ques- 
tion suivante : 

Trouve-t-on  la  trace  dans  les  ouvrages  im- 
prinies  et  dans  les  manuscrits  usuels  d'une  famille 
ecossaise  du  noni  de  Michel,  Michael,  ou  Mitchell, 
qui  portait  pour  armoiries :  D'or,  a  la  fasce  d'azur 
chargee  de  3  besants  d'argent,  et  accompagnee  de 
3  merlettes  de  sable,  2  en  chef,  et  1  en  pointe  ? 

Cette  famille,  d'apres  la  tradition,  est  venue  en 
France  sous  Charles  VI  a  1'^poque  des  guerres 
entre  la  France  et  1'Angleterre.  On  lui  donne 
pour  auteur  John  Michel  ecuyer,  qui  faisait  partie 
d'une  compagnie  amenee  d'Ecosse  a  Orleans  £n 
1419,  sous  le  commandenient  de  John  Coqueborne. 

II  so  pent  que  les  armoiries  aient  subi  quelques 
modifications  a  la  suite  de  1'etablissement  de  la 
famille  sur  le  Continent.  L.  DE  LA  MORINERIE. 

Boulevard  du  Temple,  No.  25,  &  Paris,  France. 

PENSY  :  SMITTLE. — Can  any  of  your  correspon- 
dents <rive  me  the  derivation  "of  the  above  words, 
both  of  which  I  have  lately  met  with  in  Cumber- 
land. ^  A  sick  woman  tells  me  she  has  a  pensy 
appetite,  she  can  only  eat  something  very  nice. 
Another  person,  speaking  of  a  little  dog  that  has 
been  much  petted,  says,  "  he  is  so  pensy,  he  will 
not  touch  new  milk."  I  find  the  word  in  the  Glos- 
sary to  the  Waverley  Novels,  published  at  Edin- 
biirgli  by  Robert  Cadell,  1847.  The  meaning 
given  is,  "  proud  and  conceited." 

Smittlc,  which  I  find  in  Coles's  English  Dic- 
tionary marked  as  a  north-country  word,  meaning 
"to  infect,"  was  used  the  other  day  by  a  woman 

in  reference  to  a  fatal  case  of  fever  which  had 
just  occurred  in  a  neighbour's  family.  She  said, 
she  heard  it  was  a  smittle  complaint.  S.  L. 

should  feel  extremely  obliged  for  some  informa- 
tion concerning  the  author  of  the  following  book  : 
"  The  inverted  Scheme  of  Copernicus  with  the  pre- 
tended Experiments  upon  which  his  followers  have  founded 
their  hypotheses  of  Matter  and  Motion,  compared  with 
facts,  and  with  the  experience  of  the  senses  and  the  doc- 
trine of  the  formation  of  Worlds  out  of  atoms  by  the 
power  of  Gravity  and  Attraction,  contrasted  with  the 
formation  of  one  World  by  the  divine  Power  as  it  is  re- 
vealed in  the  history  of  Creation.  By  B.  Prescot,  Liver- 
pool. 1822." 

Namely,  can  the  terms  of  a  citation  of  Whis- 
ton's  Memoirs,  in  the  62nd  page,  justify  the  trans- 
lation of  it  by  Delambre  (Histoire  de  V Astronomic 
du  xviii*  Siecle,  Paris,  1827,  p.  51)  as  follows  ? — 

"  Newton  etait  d'un  caractere  le  plus  craintif,  le  plus 
cauteleux,  et  le  plus  soupconneux  que  j'aie  jamais  connu : 
et  s'il  eut  etc  vivant  quand  j'ecrivis  centre  sa  chronologic, 
je  n'eusse  pas  ose'  publier  ma  refutation ;  car,  d'apres  la 
connaissance  que  j'avais  de  son  caractere  (alias  de  ses 
habitudes,  Arago,  Notices  Scientifiques,  torn.  iii.  324), 
j'aurais  du  craindre  qu'ilne  me  tudt." 

Reps' titeur  a  1'Ecole  Poly  technique,  a  Paris. 

"  RHYME  NOR  REASON." — We  have  often  heard 
the  expression,  "  There's  neither  rhyme  nor  reason 
in  it,"  and  it  seems  to  be  considered  more  em- 
phatic than  "'It's  unreasonable."  Why  so?  and 
what  has  caused  this  curious  conjunction  of  words  ? 
The  nearest  approach  to  it  I  can  remember  in 
print  is  Browning's  lt  Is  there  a  reason  in  metre  ?  " 

F.  A.  ESCOTT. 

PHRASES  IN  SOUTHERN.  —  If  I  am  not  tres- 
passing too  much  on  your  space,  may  I  ask  what 
is  the  meaning  of  the  words  italicised  in  the  fol- 
lowing passages,  viz. :  — 

"  You  have  discretion  enough  to  win  all  our  money, 
I'll  take  your  word  for  any  thing  but  an  Alpieu" — South- 
ern's Maid's  last  Prayer,  p.  46,  ed.  1721,  vol.  ii. 

"  Pox  o'  this  scraping  and  tooting ;  shall  we  eclipse, 
Tom,  and  make  it  a  liankum?  " — Id.  p.  67. 

"  Kiss  her !  have  a  care  what  you  say :  I  warrant  she 
scorns  your  words  ;  such  fine  folk  are  not  us'd  to  be  slopt 
and  kiss'd." — Id.  Oronoko,  p.  204. 

"  I  am  Slipper,  which  hath  his  best  grace  in  summer  to 
be  suited  in  Lakus  skins." — Greene's  Jas.  I V.  p.  128,  ed. 

"  I'll  gather  moly-rocus,  and  the  herbs 
That  heal  the  wounds  of  body  and  of  mind." 

Id.  p.  85. 

"  And  for        ancient  custom  of  Vail  staff", 
Keep  it  still,  claim  privilege  from  me.'' 

Id.  Pinner  of  Wakejield,  p.  205. 

Should  any  of  your  correspondents  who  may 
kindly  answer  my  queries,  feel  disposed  to  write 
to  me  instead  of  taking  up  your  valuable  space,  I 
append  my  full  address.  CORNEHUS  PAINE. 

Oak  Hill,  Surbiton,  Surrey. 



s.  X.  JULY  28,  '66. 

some  time  ago  employed  pure  scarlet  in  illumin- 
ating the  illustrations  to  some  books  which  I 
greatly  value,  I  am  now  fearing  for  the  perman- 
ence of  the  colouring.  Can  any  of  the  readers  of 
"N.  &  Q."  oblige  me  by  suggesting  any^neans  of 
preventing  the  decomposition  which  will  I  fear 
take  place,  though  as  yet  there  are  no  perceptible 
indications  of  it?  Would  a  wash  of  any  other 
colour — say  vermilion  and  Chinese  white — an- 
swer the  purpose,  if  applied  upon  the  pure 
scarlet  ?  J.  WOODWARD. 


SCOTCH  CLERGYMEN,  1687. — I  find  the  manner 
of  designating  Scotch  clergymen  (Episcopalian  or 
Presbyterian)  in  deeds  and  registers,  of  date  prior 
to  the  Kevolution,  extremely  puzzling.  Thus,  in 
an  entry  in  the  Edinburgh  register  of  births  in 
1687,  two  of  the  witnesses  are  "Mr  William 
Smyth,  minister,"  and  "Mr  George  Smyth,  at 
Daick," — the  latter  being  episcopal  incumbent  of 
the  parish  of  Dawick,  in  Peeblesshire.  Why 
should  the  former  be  called  "  minister,"  without 
reference  to  his  living?  And  why  should  the 
latter  be  described  by  his  living,  without  refer- 
ence to  his  sacred  office  ?  Am  I  justified  in  sup- 
posing that,  if  "minister"  alone  appear  after  a 
man's  name  in  a  deed  dated  1687,  he  no  longer 
held  a  living  at  the  time  ;  but  had  been  "outed," 
or  had  demitted  his  charge  ?  As  far  as  my  ex- 
perience goes  (which  is  perhaps  rather  limited),  I 
should  say  that  the  usual  way  of  designating  a 
clergyman,  at  the  date  referred  to,  would  be 
thus :  "  Mr.  Geo.  Smyth,  minister  at  Daick  Kirk  j" 
but  finding  so  many  different  ways  of  describing 
them,  it  has  occurred  to  me  that  the  question  of 
Episcopacy  or  Presbytery  may  have  something  to 
do  with  the  case.  I  hope  some  of  your  Scotch 
correspondents  may  be  able  to  throw  light  on  this. 

F.  M.  S. 

SPENCER  FAMILY.  — At  the  time  of  the  Ameri- 
can revolution,  William  Spencer  was  a  well- 
known  citizen  of  Savannah  in  Georgia,  holding 
various  appointments  from  H.  M.  government. 
Information  is  wanted  as  to  relatives  in  England. 
He  had  a  brother,  John  Spencer,  in  Savannah, 
and  a  daughter,  Mary  Elizabeth,  also  connections 
of  the  name  of  Bowen ;  but  he  was  a  native  of 
England,  and  I  wish  to  be  informed  of  his  place 
of  birth  and  connections  ?  LOYALIST. 

TESTAMENTARY  BURIAL.  —  3  Maii,  1538,  &c. 
Whitaker's  Craven,  p.  28.  What  is  a  testamentary 
burial?  D. 

THE  GIANT  WOGLOG.  —  One  of  the  mythic 
heroes  of  whom  my  venerable  friend,  the  late 
Mr.  Douce,  was  wont  to  discourse,  and  -whose 
history  he  was  anxious  to  learn,  was  the  Giant 
Woglog.  I  have  just  seen,  in  the  Catalogue  of 

Books  issued  by  Mr.  E.  Pearson,  of  St.  Martin's 
Lane,  a  reference  to  this  redoubtable  hero.  In  de- 
scribing a  Bewick  volume  of  woodcuts  from  a 
book  entitled  "  A  Pretty  Book  of  Pictures  for 
Little  Masters  and  Misses ;  or,  Tommy  Trip's  His- 
tory of  Birds  and  Beasts  (Newcastle  :  Printed  by 
T.  Saint,  1779),"  Mr.  Pearson  says  :  — 

"  The  vignettes  include  the  Giant  Woglog  trying  to 
seize  Tommy  Trip,  the  Student." 

Now,  as  from  this  it  is  evident  that  Bewick 
knew  something  of  Giant  Woglog,  I  venture  to 
inquire  whether  any  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  possesses 
a  copy  of  Tommy  Trip;  and  if  so,  whether  it 
contains  the  history  of  the  Giant  Woglog,  or 
whether  his  "History"  is  still  preserved  in  the 
memory  of  any  Newcastle  student  of  folk-lore  ? 


THWAITE.  —  What  is  the  meaning  of  the  suffix 
thivaite  which  occurs  in  so  many  Cumberland 
names,  as  Axm&thwatte,  Crossthwaite,  Bassen- 
thwaite,  &c.  ?  F.  G.  W. 

Exeter  Coll.  Oxon. 

[The  meaning  of  thwaite  is  nearly  the  same  as  the 
Saxon  field,  a  forest  clearing.  It  is  very  common  in 
Norway ;  it  occurs  forty-three  times  in  Cumberland,  and 
not  once  in  Lincolnshire.  (Isaac  Taylor's  Words  and 
Places,  edit.  .1865,  p.  159.)  Consult  also  Kelham's  Nor- 
man Dictionary,  and  Todd's  Johnson,  art.  "  Thwaite  "  and 
Thwite."  Hearne  remarks,  that  the  explication  of  this 
word  warranted  by  Sir  E.  Coke,  is  "  a  wood  grubbed  up  and 
turned  to  arable."  Whenever  this  land  was  given  to  any 
church,  the  donors  were  thus  commended  by  the  prayers 
of  the  congregation  in  the  ancient  form  of  the  Bidding 
Prayer:  "Ye  shalle  bydde  for  tham  that  this  cherche 
honour  with  book,  with  bell,  with  westiments,  with  thwayte, 
oder  with  lyght,  oder  with  eny  oder  ournaments  to  roof, 
oder  to  grounde  with  londe,  oder  with  rent,  where  through 
God  and  our  Lady,  and  all  halben  of  hevene  beth  the  fairer 
inservit  her,  oder  elliswar."  (Letters  written  by  Eminent 
Persons  in  the  Seventeenth  and  Eighteenth  Centuries,  1813, 
i.  194.) 

In  Cumberland  the  term  thwaiting  (pronounced  thwet- 
ing)  is  applied  to  the  operation  of  clearing  any  spot  of 
wood.  The  words  prefixed  to  thwaite  in  many  instances 
are  the  Christian  or  surnames  of  the  persons  who  made 
the  clearings;  as  _4e?aw-thwaite;  Simon-thw&ite,  &c.; 
whereas  Lang-ihwa,ite,  Zow-thwaite,  SmaZ-thwaite, 
Mickle-thwaite,  and  others,  describe  the  extent  or  situa- 
tion of  the  clearing,  and  the  character  of  the  vegetation 
which  succeeded  the  clearance. —  Gent.  Mag.  Nov.  1856, 
p.  530.] 

ST.  MARY'S,  CROWN  STREET,  SOHO.  —  What  is 
to  be  understood  by  the  inscription  over  the  west 
door  of  St.  Mary's,  Crown  Street,  Soho,  which 

3*d  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



was  formerly,  I  believe,  a  Greek  or  Kussian 
chapel,  or  at  any  rate  belonging  in  some  way  to 
the  Church  of  the  East  ?  J.  F.  S. 

[This  inscription,  as  given  in  "  X.  &  Q."  3rd  S.  iii.  171, 
where  our  correspondent  will  find  an  interesting  account 
of  the  building,  seems  to  admit  of  this  interpretation : 
"In  the  year  of  salvation  1667,  this  church  was  raised 
by  the  Greek  race,  the  King  being  the  most  serene  Charles 
the  Second  ;  the  head  of  those  born  in  the  purple  [z.  e.  of 
the  royal  family],  being  the  Archon  Lord  [Royal  High- 
ness) James ;  the  Arch-hierarch  [Bishop],  the  Right 
Reverend  Henry  Compton,  at  the  expense  of  the  above, 
and  of  the  rest  of  the  arch-hierarchs  and  well-born 
[nobles]  the  [query,  a  word  omitted]  of  our  congrega- 
tion the  most  lowly  Joasaph  Georginos  [query-,  Bishop] 
of  Somers,  he  of  the  Isle  of  Melos." 

SCARAMOUCHE. — I  have  always  heard  this  word 
applied  to  a  boy  who  was  wicked  and  mischie- 
vous. What  is  the  correct  meaning  of  the  word, 
and  whence  the  derivation  ?  Was  scaramouche  a 
person,  as  I  find  a  Vie  de  Scaramouche  was  pub- 
lished in  1699  in  12mo  ?  TRETANE. 

[  Scaramouche,  as  denned  by  Richardson,  a  skirmisher, 
a  buffoon,  so-called  from  the  skirmishing  antics  he  per- 
forms. The  Biographic  Universelle,  under  the  head  of 
"  Scaramouche,"  refers  to  Angelo  Constantini,  the  cele- 
brated Arlichino,  and  who  wrote  La  Vie  de  Scaramouche, 
par  le  Sieur  Angelo-Constantini,  Comedien  Ordinaire  du  Ttoi 
dans  sa  Troupe  Italienne,  sous  le  nom  de  JHezelin.  A  Paris, 
1695.  This  is  styled  in  the  1813  edition  of  the  Biographie 
(under  the  head  "  Coiistantini ")  "  une  facetie  assez  rare ;" 
but  it  appears  to  be  a  real  biography  of  "  Tiberio  Fiorilli, 
surnomme'  Scaramouche,  qui  naquit  &  Xaples  en  Tan  mil 
six  cent  huit."  It  contains  many  curious  details  of  thea- 
trical life,  and  illustrations  of  manners  and  customs ;  and 
in  the  thirty-ninth  chapter,  which  narrates  the  death  of 
Scaramouche,  there  is  a  passage  which  may  have  given 
Byron  a  hint  for  the  lines  — 

"  Sighing  that  Nature  formed  but  one  such  man, 

And  broke  the  die — in  moulding  Sheridan." 
"  Voila  qui  fut  la  fin  du  plus  illustre  Come'dien  qui  ait 
jamais  paru  sur  le  Theatre  Italien  ;  et  Ton  peut  dire  sans 
hyperbole,  que  la  nature  apres  1'avoir  fait  en  cassa  la 
moule."  He  was  buried  with  great  pomp  on  December  8, 

MONUMENT  AT  DEVIZES.  —  It  is  said  that  there 
is  a  monument  in  the  market-place  of  Devizes,  in 
Wiltshire,  recording  the  death  of  a  person  who 
i^recated  the  divine  vengeance,  and  perished 
ins\ntly.  Is  there  such  a  monument  ?  If  there 
1S>  vhat  inscription  is  there  on  it  ? 


[In  xurray's  excellent  Hand-Book  for  Wilts,  J)orset, 
andSom»setj  the  writer,  speaking  of  the  monument  in- 
qunecl  aftc-  by  our  correspondent,  says  at  p.  54  :  — 

e  Ma-ket  Cross,  designed  by  Wyatt,  bears  an  in- 
sciption  to  i,Cord  an  awful  event  which  occurred  here  in 
LM-  A  wonan  named  Ruth  Pierce  having,  with  two 

others,  bought  a  sack  of  wheat,  and  each  paid,  as  was 
thought,  their  part  of  the  money,  a  deficiency  was  found, 
and  Ruth  was  accused  of  not  having  paid.  To  this  she 
replied,  '  She  wished  she  might  drop  down  dead  if  she  had 
not.'  She  had  scarcely  spoken  the  words  when  she  fell 
down  and  expired,  having  the  money  concealed  in  her 

MOSS-TROOPER.  — What  is  a  moss-trooper,  and 
why  so  called  ?  F.  A.  ESCOTT. 

[A  moss-trooper  is  one  of  those  banditti  who  inhabited 
the  marshy  country  of  Liddesdale,  and  subsisted  chiefly  by 
rapine.    People  of  this  description  in  Ireland  were  called 
Bogtrotters,  apparently  for  a  similar  reason  :  — 
"  A  fancied  moss-trooper,  the  boy 
The  truncheon  of  a  spear  bestrode. 
And  round  the  hall,  i-ight  merrily, 
In  mimic  foray  rode." 

Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel,  c.  i.  St.  19. 
This  was  also  the  usual  appellation  of  the  marauders 
upon  the  Border :  "  They  are  called  moss-troopers,"  says 
Fuller,  Worthies,  edit.  1840,  i.  339,  "  because  dwelling  in 
the  mosses,  and  riding  in  troops  together.  They  dwell  in 
the  bounds,  or  meeting,  of  two  kingdoms,  but  obey  the 
laws  of  neither.  They  come  to  church  as  seldom  as  the 
29th  of  February  comes  into  the  calendar." — See  Jamie- 
son's  Scottish  Dictionary,  s.  v.  ] 

WILLIAM  FTJLBECKE. — Where  shall  I  find  par- 
ticulars as  to  the  birth-place  and  family  of  William 
Fulbecke,  author  of — 

"  An  Historical  Collection  of  the  Continuall  Factions, 
Tumults,  and  Massacres  of  the  Romans  and  Italians  dur- 
ing the  space  of  120  years  before  the  Empire  of  Augustus 
Csesar,  4to.  Lond.  W.  Ponsonby,  1601. 

"  An  Abridgement,  or  rather  a  Bridge  of  Roman  His- 
tories to  pass  the  nearest  way  from  Titus  Livius  to  Corne- 
lius Tacitus,  4to.  1608  ?  " 

K.  P.  D.  E. 

[William  Fulbecke,  the  law  writer,  was  born  in  the 
parish  of  St.  Benedict,  Lincoln,  in  1560  (where  his  father 
died  mayor  of  that  city,  in  1566),  and  was  educated  at  St. 
Alban  Hall  and  Corpus  Christ!  College,  Oxford.  Con- 
sult Wood's  Athencs  (Bliss),  i.  726,  and  Rose's  Biog.  Dic- 

DYKER. — An  explanation  is  required  of  the 
word  "  Dyker  "  as  used  in  the  following  title  on 

an  old  portrait,  "  Sir .  the  Dyker." 

X.  Y.  Z. 

[For  want  of  the  name  of  the  worthy  knight,  and  the 
history  of  his  portrait,  we  can  only  offer  a  conjectural 
explanation,  as  it  is  just  possible  the  word  Dyker  may 
have  been  used  satirically.  In  old  statutes  we  find  an 
officer  called  Dykereeve  or  Dykegrave,  who  had  the  over- 
sight of  the  dykes  in  the  fen  countries ;  whereas  Jamie- 
son  (s.  v.)  informs  us  that  a  Dyker  is  "  a  person  whose 
employment  is  to  build  enclosures  of  stones,  generally 
without  lime,"  and  gives  the  following  example  of  the 
use  of  the  word  from  the  Acts  of  Charles  II.,  vii.  235,  ed. 
1814:  "Commission  for  judgeing  Elizabeth  Crafford, 



[3'd  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66. 

Katharine  Coupland,  spous  to  Thomas  Johnstoun,  dylier, 
dilate  guilty  of  the  abhominable  cry  me  of  witchcraft."] 

SCOT  AND  LOT. — Can  you  inform  me  the  nature 
of  the  taxes  called  Scot  and  Lot,  anciently  re- 
quired to  be  paid  "by  the  electors  of  certain 
boroughs,  and  whether  they  were  government  or 
municipal  taxes  ?  B.  M.  JALLAND. 

[Scot  and  Lot  (Sax.  sceat,  pars,  and  Hot,  L  e.  sors)  is  a 
customary  contribution  laid  upon  all  subjects  according 
to  their  ability.  (Spdman.}  Nor  are  these  old  words 
grown  obsolete,  for  whoever  in  like  manner  (though  not 
by  equal  proportion)  are  assessed  to  any  contribution, 
are  generally  said  to  pay  scot  and  lot.  33  Hen.  VIII. 
c.  9  :  see  also  11  Geo.  I.  c.  18,  as  to  elections  in  London.] 


(3rd  S.  ix.  523,  451 ;  x.  13.) 
I  possess  a  book  containing  eighty  of  Dighton's 
caricatures,  all  of  which  are  coloured.  The  dates 
on  the  engravings  range  from  January  4,  1793,  to 
August,  1812  ;  and  the  publisher's  address  is 
variously  given — as  Charing  Cross ;  No.  12,  Char- 
ing Cross ;  No.  6,  Charing  Cross ;  No.  4,  Spring 
Gardens,  Charing  Cross ;  No.  21,  New  Bond  Street; 
and  Oxford.  The  titles  of  many  of  the  engravings, 
most  of  which  are  full-length  portraits,  are  pun- 
ning ones ;  in  order  to  understand  which,  at  the 
present  time,  we  require  a  key.  That  key  is 
supplied  in  my  copies  by  some  faded  ink  subscrip- 
tions, evidently  contemporary,  giving  the  names 
of  the  subjects.  In  the  following  list  I  show 
these  names  in  italics  :  — 

1.  Agamemnon  a  GREAT  General.  Taken  on  the  Steyne 
at  Brighton.     Genl.  Dalrr/mple. 

2.  A  View  near  Hyde  Park  Corner.     Mr.  Tattersal 

3.  A  Gloomy  DAY'.    Taken  on  the  Steyne  at  Brighton. 
Mr.  Day. 

4.  George  the  IIIrd,  aged  72,  1810.    Reign'd  50  years. 
A  Royal  Jubilee.    Taken  at  Windsor  by  R.  Dighton, 
Spring  Gardens. 

5.  The  MAJOR  part  of  the  Town  of  Portsmouth.  Major 

6.  A  View  from  Trinity  College,  Cambridge.    Bishop 
of  Bristol. 

^  7.  A  Lawyer  and  his  Client.    This  represents  the  sati- 
rical contrast  of  a  fat  lawyer  and  a  lean  client. 

8.  Molineaux.    This  represents  the  black  pugilist  in 

9.  A  View  from  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford.    Mr.  Ford. 

10.  Lord  Dashalong  Bent  on  Driving.     Lord  Sefton. 

11.  A    Noble    Commander    from    South    Gloucester. 
Taken  on  the  Steyne  at  Brighton.     Lord  Berkley. 

12.  A  Noble  A'idedecamp.     Lord  Petersham. 

13.  A  View  of  Norfolk.     This  title  is  headed  by  a 
ducal  coronet,  and  the  portrait  is  evidently  that  of  "the 
Duke  of  Norfolk. 

14.  A    View    from    Merton    College,    Oxford.      Mr. 

16.  A  View  irom  Trinity  College,  Oxford.    Mr.  Kelt. 

16.  John  Bellingham.    Taken  at  the  Sessions  House, 
Old  Bailey,  May  15th,  1812. 

17.  A  View  from  Jesus  College,  Oxford.    Dr.  Hughes. 

18.  A  View  taken  from  Chatham  Row,  Bath.     Dr. 

19.  A  Noble  Duke.    Taken  on  the  Steyne  at  Brighton. 
Duke  of  Grafton. 

20.  A  Noble  General.     Lord  Harrington. 

21.  The  Specious  Orator.    "  Will  your  Ladyship  do 
me  the  honor  to  say  50,OOOZ. — a  mere  trifle — a  brilliant 
of  the  first  water.     An  unheard-of  price  for  such  a  lot, 
surely."     Mr.  Christie. 

22.  Triumph  of  the  British  Flag  over  the  French  Eagles 
and  Colours,  taken  by  our  Brave  Soldiers  in  different 
Actions,  as  they  appear'd  in  the  Park  May  18th,  1811. 

23.  A  View  taken  from  Christ  Church  Meadows,  Ox- 
ford.    Drs.  Jackson  and  Webber. 

24.  The   Classical  Alma  Mater   Coachman,    Oxford. 
Mr.  Bobart. 

25.  Lieut.-Gen.  Macdonald. 

26.  My  Ass  in  a  Band  Box.    This  engraving  repre- 
sents a  costermonger-like  man   on  a  donkey,  which  is 
standing  in  an  oblong  box.    What  does  it  mean  ? 

27.  Members  of  the  Whig  Club.    This  represents  two 
men  seated.    Under  one,  evidently  the  Duke  of  Norfolk, 
are  the  words  "  Charly,  keep  a  civil  Tongue  in  your 
Head  ;"  and  under  the  other,  "  Jocky  of  Norfolk  be  not 
so  Bold." 

28.  Mother  Goose  of  Oxford.    An  old  woman  with  a 
basket  of  flowers. 

29.  No  title.     Prince  of  Orange. 

30.  Old  Q— uiz,  the  old  Goat  of  Piccadilly  :  — 

A  Shining  Star  in  the  British  Peerage, 
And  a  usefull  Ornament  to  Society. — Fudge. 

31.  The  Father  of  the  Corporation  of  Oxford.    Omnibus 
Carus.     Alderman  Fletcher. 

32.  Mr.  Braham  in  the  character  of  Orlando.    To  Mr. 
Thos.  Dibdin  (the  Author  of  The  Cabinet,  &c.)  this  Print 
is  inscrib'd  by  his  Friend,  Robt.  Dighton. 

33.  A  Gentle  Ride  from  Exeter  Change  to  Pimlico. 
Mr.  Clarke. 

34.  A  View  taken  at  Oxford.    Mr.  Smith.' 

35.  The  Lady  of  the  Lake.      (Six  lines  from  Scott's 
Lady  of  the  Lake.}    A  Billingsgate  fish-wife  in  a  boat  on 
the  Thames. 

36.  "  Vil  you  give  us  a  Glass  of  Gin  ?"  (under  a  coarse 
oyster-girl)."  "  I'll  see  you  D — nd  first"  (under  a  surly  cos- 
termonger  with  vegetables). 

37.  "Hold,  Pizarro  —  hear  me!  if  not  always  justly, 
at  least  act  always  greatly." — Pizarro.     Mrs.  Siddons. 

38.  lohn  Doe  and  Richd.  Roe.  Brothers  in  Law. 

39.  A    View    from    Peter    House,    Cambridge.      Dr. 

40.  No  title.     Captains  Pack  and  Fenwick. 

41.  A  Jack  in  Office.    This  represents  an  exciseman 
with  an  indelicate  dog. 

42.  Descriptions  of  Battles  by  Sea  and  Land,  in  Tir' 
Volumes,  from  the  King's  Library's  at  Greenwich  v™ 
Chelsea.    This  represents  two  mutilated  pensioner?. 

43.  Ireland  in  Scotland,  or  a  trip  from  Oxford  ftne 
Land  of  Cakes.     Mr.  Ireland.  n 

44.  A  View  taken  from  Bladus  Buildings,  Bath  Co««- 
scllor  Morris. 

45.  An  Officer  of  the  10th,  or  Prince  of  Wafe  s  IIus- 
sars,  taken  from  Life.     Col.  Quintin. 

46.  No  title.     Dr.  Parsons. 

47.  If  you'd  know  who  this  is,  READ.  ' 

48.  A  View  from  Merton  College,  Oxford  Dr.  An/frr. 

49.  A  View  of  a  TKMPLE  near  Buckiigham.     his 
represents  a  very  corpulent  military  man. 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



50.  A  View  from  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge.    Dr. 

51.  A    View   of  the    Telegraph,    Cambridge.      Dick 

52.  The  late  Right  Revd.  Dr.  Samuel  Horsley,  Lord 
Bishop  of  St.  Asaph. 

53.  Madame  Catalan!  in  Semiramide.  Her  first  appear- 
ance in  England,  Dec.  13th,  1806. 

54.  The  Principal  Arch  of  Lambeth  Palace.  Dr.  Moore. 

55.  A  View  from  Magdalen  College,  Cambridge.    Dr. 

56.  Hamlet  in  Scotland.    A  Large  Manager  in  a  Great 
Character  (a  line  from  Hamlet).     Stephen  Kemble. 

57.  A  Celebrated  Public  Orator.    Dr.  Crow. 

58.  "  I  von't  take  a  Farden  Less."    A  very  fat  butcher 
smoking  a  pipe. 

59.  A  Master  Parson  and  his  Journeyman.     A  fat 
clergyman  and  a  thin  curate. 

60.  A  View  from  Oriel  College,  Oxford.    Dr.  Eveleigh. 

61.  A  View  from  St.  Aldates,  Oxford.     Dr.  Grosvenor. 

62.  A  View  from  Baxter's  Livery  Stables,  Cambridge. 
Mr.  Baxter. 

63.  A  Fashionable  Lady  in   Dress  and  Undress.    A 
double  picture,  with  a  lady  at  her  toilette  :  in  one  wig- 
less,  and  nearly  naked ;  "in  the  other,  made  up  arid 

64.  A  Lawyer  and  his  Agent.    The  Devil  prompting  a 

65.  A  First  Rate  Man-of-War,  taken  from  the  Dock- 
yard, Plymouth.     Admiral  Young. 

66.  A  View  from  Brazen  Xose  College,  Oxford. 

67.  Mr.  Cooke  :  "  Ha !  am  I  King'?  'tis  so,  but  Ed- 
ward lives."    From  a  Drawing  in  the  possession  of  Thos. 
Harris,  Esq. 

68.  "  We  serve  a  King  whom  we  Love— a  God  whom 
we  Adore." — Pizarro. 

69.  A  View  from  the  Swan  Brewhouse,  Oxford.    Mr. 

70.  A  Hero  of  the  Turf  and  his  Agent.    Hellish  and 

71.  A  View  of  Somerset.    A  military  man  on  horse- 

72.  A  View  taken  from  the  Town  Hall,  Oxford.    Mr. 

73.  An  Officer  of  the  15th,  or  King's  Hussars.    Taken 
from  Life.     Major  Forrester. 

74.  A  Noble  Student  of  Oxford.     Lord  G.  Grcnville. 

75.  An  Officer  of  the  7th,  or  Queen's  Hussars.    Taken 
from  Life.     Col.  Kerrison.    ' 

76.  A  Striking  View  of  Richmond.    A  black  pugilist 
in  attitude. 

77.  A  View  from  the  Pump  Room,  Bath.      General 

78.  No  title.    A  wooden-legged  man  with  a  pigtail. 
Brooke  Watson. 

79.  Sir  David  Dtindas,  K.B.,  Commander-in-Chief. 

80.  The  Towns-end.    A  farmer-like  man  with  a  stick. 

Were  there  two  Dightons?  Some  of  those 
engravings  which  have  the  address  Charing  Cross 
bear  R.  Digh  ton's  name  ;  and  one  of  those  which 
have  the  address  Spring  Gardens  bears  the  name 
of  Dennes  Dighton.  Dr.  Doran,  in  his  Their 
Majesties'1  Servants  (ii.  433),  says  :  — 

Deighton,  an  actor  of  Drury  Lane,  was  a  clever  painter, 
and  "  the  first  who  exhibited  slightly  caricatured  like- 
nesses of  his  colleagues — enough  to  indicate  some  queer 
peculiarity,  but  not  enough  to  give  offence.  These  used 
to  attract  the  public  round  his  shop-window  in  Charing 
Cross,  till  Deighton  (or  Dighton,  as  the  Sadler's  Wells 
bills  used  to  record)  had  to  make  his  exit.  The  « Hundred 

Guilder  Print,'  by  Rembrandt,  was  missing  from  the 
British  Museum  ;  and  to  that  print  access  had  been  given 
by  Beloe,  the  keeper  of  the  prints,  to  Deighton.  There 
was  a  scandal  which  sent  the  actor  into  exile,  arid  cost 
the  translator  of  Herodotus  his  place." 

Is  the  Doctor  right  in  his  orthography  of  the 
artist's  name  ?  All  my  engravings  give  the  spel- 
ling as  Dighton.  EDWAKD  J.  WOOD. 

5,  Charles  Square,  N. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  126,  157,  326,  438,  514) 

1.  The  Wigton  Peerage.  —  From  what  has  now 
been  elicited  it  would  seem  that  the  fourth  and 
fifth  Earls  of  Douglas  used  the  territorial  desig- 
nations  of  "  Dominus   Galwidire  "  and  "  Comes 
Wigtonise"  somewhat  indifferently.     As  ancient 
Gallowav  included  Wigton   and    Nithsdale,   its 
"  Lordship  "  represented  a  wider  territory  than  the 
Earldom  of  Wigton. 

2.  The  Douglas  Peerage. — Here,   MR.  IEVEKT&, 
so  far  from  giving  me  the  evidence  (if  it  existed) 
in  correction  of  the  facts  stated  and  views  ex- 
pressed in  my  last,  as  I  invited  him  to  do,  has 
simply  accused  me  of  getting  "  into  utter  confu- 
sion" and  has,  it  appears,  in  so  doing  fallen  into 
error  himself!     In  stating  that  the  Knight  of  Lid- 
desdale  "  was  the  natural  son  of  the  good   Sir 
James,  and  must  not  be  confounded  with  William 
de  Douglas,  Lord  of  Liddesdale,"  he  is  impugning 
the  undoubted  fact  that  the  knight  was  the  lawful 
son  and  heir  of  Sir  James  Douglas  de  Laudonia, 
and  head  of  the  Douglases  of  Dalkeith,  a  totally 
distinct  branch  of  this  great  family. 

The  mistake  as  to  the  knight's  real  parentage 
first  appeared  in  Hume  of  Godscroft's  History,  and 
was  (as  I  stated  in  my  last  article)  corrected  by 
Euddiman.  It  was  probably  repeated  in  Dou- 
glas's Peerage,  a  work  abounding  in  errors,  and 
apparently  in  Wood's  edition  of  that  work  in  1813  ,• 
subsequently  reiterated  in  Mr.  Cosmo  Imies's  Pre- 
face to  the  Maitland  Club  edition  of  the  Chartulary 
of  Glasgoiv,  1843  (p.  xxxviii.),  and  finally,  as  was 
thought,  set  at  rest  by  Mr.  Elddell  on  the  irrefra- 
gable authority  of  numerous  charters  and  other 
evidence  cited  in  his  Sleioartiana,  pp.  82-5,  and 

If  ME.  IEVDTG  is  a  partizan  of  the  opposite 
view  he  should  have  said  so,  and  proved  his  case, 
instead  of  simply  reasserting  error.  Any  tyro  in 
Scottish  history 'knows  that  William  de  Douglas, 
afterwards  first  earl,  who  murdered  the  knight  of 
Liddesdale  in  1353,  and  had  a  gift  of  his  estate  of 
Liddesdale,  was  a  different  person  from  the  knight. 
Besides  these  two  Williams  there  was  another 
contemporary  William  de  Douglas,  a  bastard 
brother  of  the  Knight  of  Liddesdale,  and  known  in 
history  as  Vaisne,  or  "the  elder,"  as  a  distinctive 



[3'd  S  X.  JULY  28,  '66. 

epithet.  We  might  ask  why  he  is  not  also  in- 
cluded in  Mr.  Wood's  caveat  quoted  by  ME. 
IRVING?  But  it  is  a  piece  of  "utter  confusion  " 
to  call  the  Knight  of  Liddesdale  the  brother  of 
Archibald  the  Grim,  who  it  is  pretty  well  ascer- 
tained was  the  only  natural  son  of  the  good  Sir 
James  j  and  the  terms  in  which  these  two  persons 
are  successively  nominated  in  the  entail  of  1342, 
referred  to  in  my  last,  seem  to  place  this  beyond 
doubt,  though  ME.  IEVING  passes  the  quotation 
over  in  silence. 

For  my  authority  that  Margaret,  Countess  of 
Angus  and  Marr,  granted  charters  down  to  1415, 
I  refer  ME.  IEVING  to  the  Appendix  to  Mr. 
Eiddell's  Remarks  on  Scotch  Peerage  Law  (1833), 
No.  3,  p.  159,  where  a  deed  of  that  particular 
date  is  mentioned  as  being  in  the  MS.  Chartulary 
of  Coldingham  in  the  Library  of  the  Faculty  of 
Advocates !  Since  the  date  of  Mr.  Elddell's  work 
I  believe  this  chartulary  has  been  printed  in  the 
Surtees  Society  volume  for  1841,  so  that  ME. 
IEVING  is  doubly  to  blame  in  ignoring  it.  And, 
as  I  am  quite  aware  that  Isabella,  Countess  of 
Marr  and  Lady  of  the  Garioch  in  her  own  right, 
was  a  different  person  from  the  Countess  of  Angus 
and  Marr,  the  suggestion  that  she  was  the  granter 
of  the  above  deed  does  not  require  notice, 

A  dispassionate  perusal  of  the  able  argument 
on  the  subject  of  the  Angus  family  contained  in 
the  last-quoted  work  by  Mr.  Eiddell  (pp.  154-164) 
can  hardly  fail  to  convince  any  unbiassed  inquirer 
that,  the  notion  of  Margaret  Stewart,  Countess  of 
Angus  and  Marr,  and  mother  of  George,  first 
(Douglas)  Earl  of  Angus,  having  been  married  to 
his  father  William,  Earl  of  Douglas,  is  quite  un- 
tenable. ME.  IEVING  certainly  has  done  nothing 
to  upset  it  so  far  as  I  see.  It  is  begging  the  ques- 
tion to  say  that  the  delay  in  settling  the  succession 
on  the  death  of  Earl  James  was  connected  with 
the  status  of  George  of  Angus.  There  may  have 
been  other  causes  for  this  which  we  cannot  now 
discover.  It  may  have  been  connected  with  Earl 
James's  own  sons  for  anything  we  know.  One  of 
these,  William  Douglas,  on  Dec.  5, 1389,  received 
from  his  grandmother  Margaret,  Countess  of 
Douglas  and  Marr,  and  Sir  John  Swinton,  domi- 
nus  de  Marr  jure  uxoris,  her  second  husband,  a 
charter  of  the  barony  of  Drumlanrig,  POSSIBLY  in 
satisfaction  of  more  extensive  claims  on  the  estates 
and  dignities.  In  the  absence  of  written  proof, 
hypothesis  is  all  we  can  safely  go  upon  in  such 
ancient  transactions.  ANGLO-SCOTTJS. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  51,  457.) 

Your  correspondent  from  Baltimore  (H.  Y.  S., 
3rd  S.  ix.  51)  may  be  convinced  that  the  old- 
fashioned  mode  of  correction  for  naughty  girls  by 

the  birch  rod  has  still  its  zealous  advocates  in  Eng- 
land if  he  will  refer  to  a  case  brought  forward  in  the 
House  of  Commons,  June  1,  1863.  It  related  to 
the  discipline  of  the  female  school  at  Chelsea  for 
the  daughters  .of  soldiers  killed  in  the  Crimean 
war,  which  was  founded  out  of  a  portion  of  the 
Royal  Patriotic  Fund. 

It  appeared  that  the  authorities  of  the  school, 
the  secretary,  chaplain,  and  lady  superintendent, 
who  was  the  daughter  of  a  naval  officer,  and  a 
woman  of  high  respectability,  approved  of  this 
mode  of  punishment.  The  girls  were  whipped 
by  the  lady  superintendent's  own  hand,  who 
always  inflicted  the  punishment  herself.  Nor  did 
the  older  ones  escape  their  liability  to  this  correc- 
tion. On  the  contrary,  she  contended  that  a  girl 
of  fifteen  or  sixteen  both  required  strict  discipline 
to  keep  her  in  order  when  she  was  ill-disposed, 
and  also  that  the  rod  had  greater  terrors  for  her 
than  for  a  younger  child.  There  was  a  committee 
of  lady  visitors,  some  of  whom  disapproved  of  the 
practice.  A  keen  controversy  was  carried  on. 
The  secretary  and  lady  superintendent  contended 
that  in  a  school  of  near  three  hundred  girls,  many 
of  them  sprung  from  the  lower  ranks,  corporal 
correction  was  absolutely  necessary.  The  ladies 
who  dissented  resigned  their  duties  as  visitors, 
and  the  whole  matter,  creating  some  stir,  was  at 
last  the  subject  of  inquiry  and  discussion  in  the 
House  of  Commons. 

It  ended  in  a  sort  of  compromise :  the  birch  was 
discontinued,  but  the  palms  of  the  girls'  hands 
were  surrendered  to  the  mercy  of  the  schoolmis- 
tresses, who  were  authorised  to  inflict  strokes  with 
a  cane  upon  them  for  any  offences  they  might  be 
guilty  of. 

The  punishment  of  whipping  girls  is  now  not 
practised  in  France,  but  it  was  very  general  in  the 
last  century. 

Madame  de  Genlis,  the  celebrated  authoress, 
narrates  in  her  Memoirs  that  her  mother  was  very 
severe,  and  frequently  applied  the  rod  with  great 
vigour  and  effect. 

It  strikes  an  English  ear  as  rather  a  piece  of 
affected  sentimentality  when  she  tells  us  that 
when  this  rigid  parent  fell  into  bad  health,  the 
commencement  of  a  disorder  of  which  she  died, 
the  first  feelings  of  alarm  and  uneasiness  the  affec- 
tionate daughter  felt  on  her  mother's  account 
were  caused  by  her  finding  that  the  strokes  of  the 
rod  were  no  longer  inflicted  with  their  former 
force,  but  were  given  with  a  feeble  arm  and  failing 
strength.  T.  F. 

The  following  extract  from  the  letter  of  the 
American  correspondent's  letter  which  appeared  in 
the  Evening  Standard  of  July  12  shows  that  if  there 
be  truth  in  the  story  that  young  ladies  of  mature 
age  are  still  subject  to  the  discipline  of  the  rod  by 
some  schoolmistresses  in  this  country,  as  asserted 

3'd  s.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



in  the  Queen's  Newspaper,  the  scandal  is  greater 
in  America,  where  the  punishment  was  inflicted  by 
men :  — 

"  Another  whipping  case — happily  without  fatal  re- 
sults— has  occurred  under  the  shadow  of  enlightened  Bos- 
ton. Miss  Josephine  Foster,  a  young  lady  seventeen  years 
of  age,  was  a  pupil  in  a  public  school  in  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts.  Having  been  detected  in  the  heinous 
offence  of  whispering  in  school,  her  teacher  decreed  that 
the  offender  should  receive  a  whipping.  Some  resistance 
being  made,  the  principal  of  the  school  and  two  assistants 
were  called  in.  These  three  men  seized  the  girl,  two  of 
them  held  her  limbs,  while  the  principal  administered 
fifteen  or  twenty  blows  with  a  stout  leather  strap.  The 
punishment — which  was  of  the  most  indecent  character — 
was  administered  in  presence  of  the  entire  school.  The 
case  will  be  brought  before  the  grand  jury,  and  an  attempt 
will  be  made  to  indict  the  perpetrators  of  this  foul  out- 
rage. The  public  school  committee  of  Cambridge  have 
decided  that  they  cannot  interfere  in  the  matter,  as  pun- 
ishments of  the  sort  described  are  "  part  of  the  regular 
discipline  of  the  public  schools."  This  affair  occurred,  it  may 
be  well  to  remember,  in  Massachusetts,  the  native  land  of 
Harriet  Beecher  Stowe  and  Charles  Sumner,  and  not  in 
any  portion  of  that  region  which  once  (if  Ave  are  to  be- 
lieve New  England)  had  no  more  frequent  sound  than 
that  of  the  fatuous  flogging  of  innocent  but  indurated 


(3rd  S.  x.  39.) 

I  am  not  the  less  obliged  to  ME.  Foss  for  his 
reference,  because  I  happen  to  have  been  long 
familiar  with  the  contents  of  the  three  able 
articles  on  the  "  Ancient  and  Beautiful  Badge  of 
the  Ostrich  Feathers/'  in  vols.  xxix.,  xxxi.,  and 
xxxii.  of  the  Archceologia.  My  object  now  is  to 
seek  for  such  fresh  and  additional  information  and 
illustration  as  may  enable  me  to  carry  out  more 
fully  the  investigations  of  the  learned  and  accom- 
plished writers  of  those  communications  to  the 
Archceologia ;  and  I  am.  the  more  encouraged  to 
prosecul  ->  such  an  inquiry,  from  the  circumstance, 
that  I  ha  e  already  been  successful  beyond  my 
expectations.  The  chief  points  to  be  determined 
have  reference  to  the  appropriation  of  this  badge 
to  the  Princes  of  Wales,  as  they  are  specially 
distinguished  from  other  Princes  of  the  Royal 
Houses  of  England :  and  also  it  appears  desirable 
to  bring  together  as  many  original  examples  as 
possible  of  the  badge  itself,  in  order  to  show  the 
varied  arrangement  of  the  feathers,  their  artistic 
treatment,  and  the  manner  in  which  they  were 
associated  with  the  princely  coronet,  scroll,  motto, 
and  sometimes  other  accessories. 

From  its  first  appearance  till  the  accession  of 
the  House  of  Tudor  to  the  English  crown,  the 
ostrich  feather  badge  was  held  to  be  both  a  regal 
and  a  princely  ensign ;  as  such  it  was  borne  by 
all  the  descendants  of  Edward  1H. ;  or,  at  any 
rate,  there  appear  to  have  been  no  restrictions  in 

its  use  amongst  them,  while,  on  a  few  special 
occasions,  it  was  granted  as  a  signal  mark  of  royal 
favour  to  certain  distinguished  individuals  not^n 
direct  descent  princes  of  the  blood  royal. 

So  deadly  were  the  wars  of  the  roses  that,  of 
the  House  of  Plantagenet,  no  princes  were  left 
who  might  bear  their  "ancient  and  beautiful 
badge."  Including  Jasper  Tudor,  the  royal  house 
of  Henry  VII.  numbers  five  princes  only :  three  of 
them  became  kings,  two  were  in  succession  Princes 
of  Wales,  and  one  was  Prince  Ptoyal.  The  two 
sons  of  James  I.  were  Princes  of  Wales,  the 
younger  brother  succeeding  on  the  death  of  the 
elder;  and  Sandford  tells  us  (ed.  1707,  p.  560) 
that,  amongst  other  heraldic  insignia  displayed 
on  the  occasion  of  the  funeral  of  the  elder  of  these 
two  royal  brothers,  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales,  in 
1612,  were  "the  three  feathers,  the  hereditary 
badge  of  the  Princes  of  Wales."  Sir  N.  H.  Ni- 
colas, however,  states  (Archceologia,  xxxi.  370) 
that,  after  the  period  of  Henry  VIII.,  "  the  badge 
seems  to  have  been  considered  to  belong  exclu- 
sively to  the  sovereign's  eldest  son."  It  was 
borne  by  Edward  VI.,  before  his  accession,  as 
Prince  Royal,  or,  perhaps  more  probably,  as 
Prince  of  Wales  elect ;  but  Mary  and  Elizabeth 
Tudor,  while  queens  regnant,  also  bore  this  badge, 
though  not  in  direct  association  with  their  regal 
rank  and  dignity :  thus,  the  feathers  appear  on  a 
seal  of  Mary  for  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  and  of 
Elizabeth  for  judicial  use  in  three  counties  of 
Wales  (Archceologia,  xxxi.  371,  495).  Next  in 
succession  follows  Henry  Stuart,  Prince  of  Wales. 

I  now  beg  leave  to  submit  three  queries  on  this 
subject :  1.  Can  it  be  shown  that  Henry  VIII.  did, 
or  certainly  did  not,  bear  the  feather  badge  during 
the  lifetime  of  his  elder  brother,  Prince  Arthur  ? 
2.  The  same  query,  precisely,  applied  to  Charles  I. 
and  his  elder  brother  Prince  Henry?  3.  Is  it 
probable  that  the  feathers  became  the  badge  of 
the  Princes  of  Wales  by  an  involuntary  or  acci- 
dental prescriptive  title,  arising  from  the  remark- 
able circumstance  that,  during  nearly  the  one 
hundred  and  forty  years  immediately  preceding 
the  accession  of  Charles  I.,  every  English  prince 
had  been  Prince  of  Wales  or  Prince  of  Wales 
elect,  and  so  the  badge  of  a  prince,  and  of  the 
Prince  of  Wales,  became  one  and  the  same  thing  ? 

I  observe  that  two  ostrich  feathers  are  on  the 
field  of  the  seal  of  Alexander  Lindsay,  second 
Earl  of  Crawford,  A.D.  1424.  This  fine  seal  is 
admirably  engraved  in  the  frontispiece  to  the  Sup- 
plementary Catalogue  of  Ancient  Scottish  Seals — a 
noble  volume  of  the  greatest  value  and  interest, 
which  has  just  been  produced  by  Mr.  Henry 
Laing  of  Edinburgh. 




[3**  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66. 

3rd  S.  x.  35.) 

In  common  with  MR.  WEBGWOOD,  G.  H.  M.  lias 
fallen  into  what  I  conceive  to  be  the  mistake  of 
assuming  coincidence,  or  rather  identity,  between 
h&iere,  the  comparative  of  the  Danish  hoi,  high, 
and  Jwire  as  the  distinctive  epithet  of  the  right- 
hand,  or  equivalent  to  our  English  right :  a  mis- 
take which  led  the  writer  of  a  serial  boy's  tale 
published  two  or  three  years  since,  and  the  scene 
of  which  was  laid  in  Iceland,  to  write  higher  hand 
instead  of  right  hand,  once  or  oftener. 

ll&i  (high)  is  from  0.  N.  hdr,  correlative  with 
which  are  Sw.  hoy,  M.  G.  hauk,  A.-S.  heah,  heag, 
&c.  H&ire,  on  the  other  hand,  is  from  0.  N. 
heegr  or  hagr,  which  Haldersen  explains  by  the 
Lat._  dexter,  facilis,  artificioms;  Molbeck  by  the 
Danish  nem,  liaanddig ;  and  Kok  by  dulig,  be- 
quem.  Perhaps  our  happiest  English  equivalent 
might  be  handy,  in  the  same  sense  in  which  it  is 
applied^  to  an  apt,  ready,  facile  person.  Thus 
the  hoire  haand  is  simply  the  hand  that  is  of 
readiest  and  most  dexterous  use — handiest,  so  to 
say,  for  the  various  offices  the  hands  are  put  to. 
The  Swedish  form  of  the  word  is  hoger;  and 
hogcr — the  sound  of  which  Mr.  Kok  represents 
by  the  Danish  form  hyhcr  —  the  South  Jutland. 
Apart  from  this,  there  seems  to  be  nothing  to 
object  to  in  MR.  WEDGWOOD'S  derivation  of  lar- 
board, from  O.  E.  leer,  left,  with  which  he  collates 
Dutch  laager,  beside  quoting  "  Clay,  with  his  hat 
turned  up  o'  the  leer  side  too "  (Ben  Jonson  in 
Nares).  With  A.-S.  steor-bord,  bac-bord,  0.  N. 
bakbord,  Dan.  styrbord,  bak-bord,  &c.,  I  think  it  is 
unnecessary  to  go  to  Eomance  sources  for  the 
origin  of  the  words  starboard  and  larboard.  O.N. 
ttyri,  A.-S.  sieore,  styre  (a  helm  or  rudder),  is  of 
course  the  origin  of  starboard,  and  the  steersman's 
invariable  post  in  old  times  seems  to  have  been 
on  the  right  side  of  the  vessel,  looking  forwards. 
Englehardt  (Nydam  Morefund,  p.  8)  "quotes  the 
-Uayeux  Tapestry,  a  bas-relief  over  the  entrance  to 
the  leaning  tower  of  Pisa,  and  the  Sandwich  seal, 
in  illustration  of  this  statement.  But,  further 
among  the  admirable  illustrations  of  the  various 
matters  found  at  Nydam,  he  gives  an  engravin^ 

the  rudder,  or  rather  steering-oar,  found  in 
connection  with  the  interesting  ancient  vessel  also 
delineated;  and  it  is  worthy  of  remark,  that  its 

ad  is  constructed  for  the  grasp  of  both  hands— 
one  handle  being  vertical,  the  other  horizontal. 
Ihe  steersman  then,  placed  on  the  styrbord,  would 

ictically  have  his  back  to  the  other  side  of  the 
boat.  May  not  this  position  furnish  the  explana- 
tion of  the  term  bakbord?  But  further,  it  is 
evident  that,  with  tholes  only  secured  in  their 
places  by  rope-ties,  and  therefore,  so  to  speak, 
easily  reversible;  with  stem  and  stern  indistin- 
guishable *n  form  or  proportions ;  with  apparent 

means  for  securing  the  steermg-oar  to  the  vessel 
at  either  end  ;  with  the  attestation  of  history  that 
the  ships  or  boats  of  the  north  did  progress  with 
either  end  first  at  will — either  side  of  the  vessel 
might  become  starboard,  and  would,  according  to 
circumstances  j  and  the  other  consequently  bak- 
bord. When,  however,  ships  began  to  be  con- 
structed on  the  principle  of  a  definite  distinction 
between  stem  and  stern,  as  in  Cnut's  time  they 
had,  then  the  right-hand  side  continued  to  be  the 
starboard ;  but  innovations  in  the  mode  of  steer- 
ing would  make  bak-bord  less  descriptive,  as 
applied  to  the  left  side :  and  thus,  O.  E.  leer,  sup- 
planting the  bcec  in  b&cbord,  would  give  rise  to 
larboard  as  a  word  truer  or  more  descriptive  than 
its  predecessor  had  now  become. 

Dcinby,  in  Cleveland. 

(3rd  S.  x.  29.) 

I  cannot  but  think  that  this  word,  when  used 
to  denote  an  impounder  of  cattle,  is  merely  a  cor- 
ruption of  Hayward  or  Haward,  the  name  of  an 
old,  and  by  no  means  unimportant,  officer  in  a 
parish.  For  before  the  Acts  of  Inclosure,  now 
become  almost  universal,  there  were  in  every,  or 
nearly  everj7,  township  (as  it  was  called)  or  manor, 
one  or  more  arable  common  fields,  the  properties 
in  which  lay  usually  in  small  and  narrow  slips, 
divided  from  each  other  by  lynchets  or  banks ;  and, 
as  soon  as  the  crops  were  cleared,  the  occupants, 
whether  freeholders,  copyholders,  or  tenants  at 
will,  turned  in  their  cattle,  according  to  a  certain 
just  rate  and  proportion,  to  traverse  upon  what 
feed  had  been  left,  which  often  was  rather  con- 
siderable,'and  otherwise  would  have  been  lost  and 
perished,  and  of  no  iise  to  any  one.  To  see  that 
this  was  properly  done,  an  officer,  called  the  hay- 
ward,  was  appointed  in  the  Lords'  Court,  whose 
duties  were  to  reckon  the  cattle,  and  see  that  no 
one  turned  in  an  undue  proportion,  to  ascertain 
that  no  stranger  interfered,  that  there  were  none 
but  those  belonging  to  the  freeholders  and  tenants 
of  the  manor,  and  if  any  such  were  found  straying 
on  the  common  fields  or  elsewhere  within  the 
limits  of  the  manor,  to  impound  them  ;  and  lastly 
(from  which  some  derive  the  name),  to  see  that 
the  fences  were  all  well  kept  up,  and  that  no 
cattle  broke  out  from  the  common  fields  into  the 
inclosed  grounds,  which  from  their  numbers  they 
were  constantly  liable  to  do. 

Cowel  explains  the  word  to  denote  "  one  that 
keepeth  the  common  herd  of  the  town,"  and  de- 
rives it  from  the  French  hayc,  a  hedge,  and  garde, 
one  who  keeps  watch  over  anything,  giving  as  his 
reason  for  this  etymology  that  one  part  of  the 
office  was  to  see  that  the  cattle  neither  broke  nor 

s.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



cropped  the  hedges  of  inclosed  grounds.  It  may 
also  have  its  origin  from  the  Saxon  ceyward,  a 
keeper,  warder,  or  guard,  but  the  office  probably 
is  not  of  so  ancient  date.  With  regard  to  the 
word  Hogwarden,  certainly  in  forests  or  thickly 
Trooded  countries  there  may  have  been  a  similar 
officer  to  look  after  the  hogs  and  pannage ;  but  it 
may  reasonably  be  doubted  whether  he  would  be 
described  (especially  in  early  times)  by  so  bar- 
barous a  compound  as  this. 

The  oath  of  the  Heyward  [«MJ]  is  given  in  Kit- 
chin,  fo.  46. , 

In  writing  upon  this  subject,  it  may  not  be  in- 
appropriate to  add  the  remark,  that  the  disposi- 
tion of  common  fields  above  alluded  to  will  ex- 
plain the  reason  why  the  ancient  church  glebes 
He  commonly  widely  dispersed  in  small  pieces 
over  a  parish  :  the  fact  being,  that  they  were  of- 
ferings of  different  individuals,  made  upon  the 
occasion  of  the  consecration  of  the  church,  with- 
out reference  to  each  other,  and  for  the  salvation 
of  the  souls  of  the  giver  and  of  his  kindred.  W. 

In  Oxfordshire  the  impounder  of  cattle  is  called 
the  hay  ward  (i.  e.  the  warden  or  protector  of  the 
hay),  not  the  howard;  and  in  places  where  the 
Courts  Leet  are  kept  up  and  held  annually,  an 
impounder  or  hayward  is  chosen  by  the  Leet  Jury 
and  sworn  into  office  by  the  steward.  Before  the 
inclosure  of  the  common  fields  of  the  adjoining 
parish  (Heyford  Warren)  in  1841,  such  a  func- 
tionary devoted  his  whole  time  to  warding  the 
hay  and  corn  crops  in  summer  and  the  hayricks 
and  turnip  crops  in  winter  from  injury  by  stray 

In  my  own  village  and  parish  the  rural  postman 
now  fills  the  office  of  hayward,  which  is,  I  believe, 
in  technical  language,  "  known  to  the  common  law 
of  England."  I  copy  the  following  anecdote  from 
Kennett's  Parochial  Antiquities,  vol.  ii.  p.  300, 
edit.  1818 :  — 

'•'  Old  Simon  Bransden,  of  Winter-borne  Basset,  in  Wilts, 
had  been  Parish-clerk  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary,  and 
was  afterwards  hc.ywerd  of  the  town :  he  was  wont  in 
summer  time  to  leave  his  oxen  in  the  field  and  goe  to 
church  and  pray  to  St.  Katherine,  the  tutelar  saint  of  the 
church ;  and  when  he  returned,  if  any  of  his  herd  were 
stung  with  the  gad-fly  and  ran  away,  he  would  run  after 
them  and  cry  out,  'Pray  good  St.  Katherine  of  Winter- 
born,  stay  my  oxen !  pray  good  St.  Katherine,  stay  my 

AY 011    ?    *  " 

Steeple  Aston,  Oxfordshire. 


SHORTHOSE  FAMILY  (3rd  S.  ix.  453.)  —  Bar- 
tholomew Shorthose  was  presented  to  the  viofir-  j 
age  of  West,  or  Bishop's  Lavington,  Wilts,  1661.  I 
He^died  in  1664,  and  his  burial  is  recorded  in  the  j 
parish  register.     John  Shorthose,  to  whom  your 
correspondent's  inquiry   alluded,  seems  to  have 

been  presented  to  Stan  ton  St.  Bernard  by  Thomas 
Earl  of  Pembroke,  1687 ;  made  prebendary  of 
Stanton  St.  Bernard  by  the  same  patron,  1712. 
He  died  1721.  There  appears  no  record  of  his 
institution  to  Uphaven,  but  John  Coleman  was 
inducted  1721.  On  the  death  of  John  Shorthose, 
the  vicarage  of  Stanton  St.  Bernard  was  given 
to  James  Watt,  1721,  and  the  prebend  of  Stanton 
St.  Bernard,  in  1722,  bestowed  on  Richard  Roots. 
Both  preferments  vacant  by  the  death  of  John 
Shorthose.  E.  W. 

CITATIONS  FOE  VERIFICATION  (3rd  S.  ix.  195 ; 
x.  37.) — Although  the  words  "Jupiter  infused 
more  badness  into  men  than  the  fire  of  Prometheus 
could  burn  out"  are  not  to  be  found  in/Eschylus, 
wre  have  the  substance  in  the  Prometheus  Sound. 
Jupiter  (—  the  atmosphere) 

"  Designed,  after  having  annihilated  the  whole  race  of 
man,  to  plant  a  new  kind  in  their  place"  (231 — 3.)  Men 
"  had  eyes  and  saw  not ;  ears,  and  heard  not,  but,  like  to 
the  shape  of  dreams,  left  for  long  their  whole  course  of 
life  to  chance  and  confusion,  and  neither  knew  how  to 
construct  houses  of  brick  with  their  fronts  to  the  sun,  nor 
yet  the  art  of  working  in  wood ;  but  dwelt  beneath  the 
earth,  like  the  tiny  ant,  in  the  sunless  depths  of  caves  ; 
and  knew  no  certain  sign  of  winter,  or  of  flowering  spring, 
or  fruitful  summer."  (447 — 456.) 

Such  was  the  work  of  Jupiter.  Prometheus,  a 
personification  of  Forethought,  who  had  been  the 
adviser  of  Jupiter,  and  then  rejected,  had  supplied 
men  with  the  knowledge  and  arts  necessary  to 
those  who  must  provide  for  the  future  by  the 
work  of  to-day  (506).  The  use  of  fire  was  one 
of  the  chief  of  his  gifts  (252).  In  lo  we  have 
a  specimen  of  the  evil  inflicted  on  a  mortal  by 
Jupiter,  who  had  not  the  courage  or  power  to 

Protect  her  against  the  jealousy  of  Juno.  Even 
upiter,  who  was  ignorant  of  the  future,  had  to 
seek  of  Prometheus  information  as  to  his  own 
impending  fate  (952).  But  a  stop  was  put  to 
all  the  good  Prometheus  designed,  by  the  fixing 
him  to  the  rocks  of  Scythian  deserts  (1 — 6). 
The  depriving  men  of  the  aid  of  Forethought 
(Prometheus)  was  another  injury  inflicted  on 
man  by  Jupiter.  Some  allowance  must  be  made 
to  Toplady's  correspondent  for  rhetorical  adapta- 
tion. T.  J.  BUCKTON. 
Streatham  Place,  S. 

QUOTATIONS  (3rd  S.  ix.  413 ;  x.  46.)— 
"  I  wish  I  were  where  Helen  lies." 
I  remember  this  song  when  I  was  a  girl,  forty- 
five  years  ago.     The  music  was  plaintive,  and  in 
the  meagre  style  of  that  day.     I  have  heard  Mrs. 
Opie  sing  it,  but  with  less  effect  than  "  Lord  Ul- 
lin's  Daughter,"  and  "  My  Boy  Tammy." 

F.  C.  B. 

The  lines  alluded  to  by  your  correspondent  are 
by  Cowper,  and  appear  as  under  in  u  Retirement  " 
(sub  Jin.},  the  motto  to  which  poem,  it  may  be 



«-a  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66. 

added  (as  bearing  upon  a  late  query),  is  the  Vir- 
gilian  "  studiis  florens  ignobilis  oti " :  — 

"  'Tis  easy  to  resign  a  toilsome  place, 
But  not  to  manage  leisure  with  a  grace  ; 
Absence  of  occupation  is  not  rest. 
A  mind  quite  vacant  is  a  mind  distressed." 

J.  B.  SHAW. 
Old  Trafford,  Manchester. 

BELL  FOUNDER'S  NAME  (3rd  S.  x.  27.)  — The 
shield  about  which  A5  inquires  originally  belonged 
to  Richard  Brasyer,  of  Norwich.  It  is  found  on 
many  bells  in  Norfolk.  Its  descent  from  one 
founder  to  another  may  be  seen  in  Mr.  A.  Tyssen's 
interesting  Account  of  the  Church  Sells  of  Sussex. 

A5  is  requested  to  refer  to  a  notice  in  "  N.  &  Q." 
(3rd  S.  ix.  368),  and  to  put  himself  in  direct  com- 
munication with  H.  T.  ELLACOMBE. 

Kectory,  Clyst-St. -George,  Devon. 

SINOPLE  (3rd  S.  ix.  380;  x.  39.)  — The  "town 
in  the  Levant "  from  which  this  colour  is  said  by 
Coats  to  take  its  name,  is  Sinope,  in  the  Black 
Sea,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  following  extract 
from  Spener :  — 

"  Color  viridis  seu  prasinus,  gramineus,  chelidonius 
(Gelenio),  nobis  grim,  Gallis  vocatur  de  sinople.  Hanc 
vocem  deducunt  ab  urbe  Pontica  Sinope,  verum  terra  quae 
inde  adfertur  rubra  est,  unde  vocabulum  per  errorem 
deinceps  ad  viridem  colorem  tractum  autumant ;  excusant 
tamen  cum  aliis  Ant.  Dodinus.  Altes.  et  M.  Gilb.  de  Va- 
rennes  R.  d'Armes,  part.  i.  p.  35,  quod  terra  etiamsi  rubra 
viridi  colore  tingatur,  et  nomen  retineat.  Menestr.  in 
verit.  art  du  Bias.  c.  7,  p.  80,  deduxerat  a  Graeco  irpaffivos, 
per  inversionem  Sinopra,  vel  ex  Trpdcrwa  oir\a.  Confer 
eundem  in  I  Art  du  Blas.justif.  c.  2,  p.  40.  Verum  ipse- 
met  dein  p.  45,  47,  alii  manuscripto  veteri  cedit,  ubi  ab 
•urbe  Sinope  dicitur  adferri  et  viride  et  rubrum." — Operis 
Heraldici  pars  generalis  (cap.iv.  "  De  Tincturis  "),  Frank- 
furt am  Main,  1717. 

The  quotations  from  Menestrier  referred  to 
above  are  as  follows :  — 

"  Je  dis  done  que  Sinople  vient  de  irpdffiva  oirAa,  armes 
vertes,  et  qu'en  retranchant  la  premiere  syllabe  il  reste 
ffiv  '6ir\a.  Ce  retranchement  est  appuye  par  la  pratique 
de  toutes  les  langues ;  et  pour  commencer  par  1'Hebra'ique 
Idumcea  est  accourcy  dans  Isaye,  ch.  xxi.  en  duma.  leru 
salem  en  salem  en  plusieurs  endroits,  et  Hierosolyma  en 
solyma.  Bethlcemites  en  lemites,  aux  Paralippomenes 
lechonia  en  chonia  dans  leremie,  ch.  xxii.  Chez  les  Grec 
r£cens  d'  Iva.  on  a  fait  va,  8d<TKa\os  de  8t8a(r«a\o?,  Solo 
nique  de  Thessalonique.  Les  Italiens  disent  maso  pou 
Tomaso,  et  nous  colas  pour  Nicolas.  Pour  authoriser  1 
mot  Trpdaivov,  j'ay  allegue  Sicile  le  Heraut,  qui  en  son 
Blason  desCouleurs  dit  Prasine  est  uneterre  verde,  et  croi 
la  meilleure  qui  soit  en  Lybie." — L'Art  du  Blason  justifit 
p.  41,  Lyon,  1661. 

But,  at  p.  44,  he  quotes  from  a  manuscript  o 
about  the  year  1400,  which  bore  the  title  Libettu 
de  Distemper andis  Coloribus,  which  was  then  i 
the  possession  of  the  heirs  of  a  painter  name 
Valerian,  at  Gruyeres.  He  says,  — 

"  Je  pense  qu'il  a  la  veritable  origine  du  Sinople,  e 

uelque  ingenieuse  qu'ay  t  semble'  k  quelques-uns  celle  que 
ay  donee,  j'aymerois  inieux  m'attacher  a  celle-cy,  qui 

st  moins  recherchee *  Viride  quod  de  Grsecia 

enit  bonum  est;  item  aliud  viride  terrestre  dictum  eo 
uod  terra  sit,  et  de  monte  Gelboe  affertur :  hie  mons  ex 
na  parte  croceus  est,  et  ex  alia  parte  viridis,  et  sic  in  eo 
roceum  et  viride  reperitur.  Sicut  et  in  urbe  Sinopoli 
ubicundum  invenitur  et  viride  dictum  sinoplum  .... 
>inoplum  verumgue  venit  de  urbe  Sinopoli  et  est  bonum : 
liud  viride  aliud  rubicundum;  viride  sinoplum  seu  sino- 
ium  dicitur  Paphlagonicus  Tonos,  et  rubicundum  vocatur 
,fcmathites  Paplilagonica ;  invenitur  etiam  et  in  regno 
Francice  vocatum  Broliamini.'  " 


St.  Mary's  Parsonage,  Montrose,  N.B. 

MALE  AND  FEMALE  BIRTHS  (3rd  S.  x.  26.)— I 
lave  grave  doubts  as  to  the  correctness,  as  a  ge- 
neral rule,  of  the  theory  to  which  SIR  J.  EMERSON 
DENNENT  alludes,  viz., — that  an  excess  of  one  sex 
over  the  other  in  population  is  accompanied  by  a 
relative  deficiency  of  that  sex  in  births.  I  have 
not  at  hand  statistics  relating  to  the  earlier  ySars 
of  the  Australian  colonies,  but  the  theory  is  not 
3orne  out  by  the  recent  statistics  of  the  province 
of  Victoria,  as  collected  by  its  able  Registrar- 
General,  Mr.  W.  H.  Archer.  The  population  of 
Victoria  in  1857  was  298,000  males,  and  166,000 
?emales,  or  nearly  2  to  1;  while  the  births  in  the  years  of  which  1857  is  the  centre,  were  43,710 
males,  and  only  42,056  females.  Again,  in  1862 
the  population  was  326,000  males,  and  230,000 
females,  or  about  4  to  3 ;  but  the  births  in  the 
five  years  1860-64  were  61,896  boys  and  only 
58,505  girls. 

England,  however,  is  a  case  in  favour  of  the 
theory,  for  our  female  population  here  predomi- 
nates"; and  the  births  in  1864,  according  to  the 
Report  of  the  Registrar-General  (just  published), 
showed  an  excess  of  boys,  being  377,719  males, 
and  362,556*females. 

The  very  curious  facts  stated  by  SIR  EMERSON 
TENNENT  with  regard  to  the  Military  School  in 
Dublin,  being  based  only  on  the  statistics  of  the 
families,  members  of  which  applied  for  admission 
there,  and  not  on  the  whole  body  of  the  army,  will 
not  support  a  generalisation;  for  there  are  pro- 
bably reasons  why  families  with  an  excess  of  boys 
should  form  the  major  part  of  those  who  apply  for 
admission  to  such  a  school,  such  as  the  girls  being 
more  able  to  be  made  of  use  at  home,  &c. 


The  fact,  that  on  fertile  land  sheep  produce  more 
ewe  lambs,  and  on  barren  land  more  males,  may 
lead  to  a  solution  of  the  cause  why  soldiers  have 
more  male  than  female  children :  namely,  a  less 
generous  diet  than  the  average  population  which 
supplies  male  and  female  children  in  equal  num- 
bers. The  last  Census  Report  (Table  287,  Ap- 
pendix, p.  203)  shows  that  the  existing  population 
of  — 

3'd  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66.] 



New  South  Wales,  born  in  that 

colony,  were    . 
Queensland  (p.  205)  do.      . 
Victoria  (p.  206)  do. 
South  Australia  (p.  209)  do. 
Western  Australia  (p.  210)  do. 

Total       . 

Or,  an  excess  of  males  over  fe- 
males of  native  birth  of 

Males.          Females. 








179,499      178,636 

Which  does  not  confirm,  but  tends  to  overthrow 
the  impression,  that  the  proportion  of  female 
births  in  Australia  greatly  exceeded  that  of  males. 
In  the  absence  of  French  statistics,  we  may 
infer  that  reduced  dietary  of  the  French,  subse- 
quent to  1815,  may  have  increased  the  surplus  of 
male  over  female  births — assuming  such  surplus 
to  be  the  fact,  as  is  not  improbable,  for  so  it  is  in 
England,  and  also  on  the  hypothesis  that  diet 
regulates  the  proportion  of  the  sexes.  In  Englanc 
the  census  shows  that,  although  more  males  than 
females  are  born,  yet,  in  their  fifty-first  year,  the 
subsisting  females  begin  and  continue  to  exceec 
the  males  in  number.  (Table  71,  p.  115.) 

Streatham  Place,  S. 

CARBON  PRINTS  (3rd  S.  x.  28.)  —  In  reply  to 
your  correspondent,  F.  M.  S.,  I  may  state  that  a 
full  description  of  the  photographic  carbon  pro- 
cess invented  by  Mr.  John  Pouncy,  of  Dorchester, 
whereby  permanent  prints  of  pictures  and  engrav- 
ings, or  from  nature,  may  be  obtained  with  greal 
precision  and  wonderful  effect,  will  be  found  in  a 
little  work  entitle^  Photography  in  Printing  Ink, 
by  Thomas  Sutton,  B.A.,  and  published  by  Samp- 
son Low,  Son,  &  Co.,  of  Ludgate  Hill.  The 
results  produced  by  this  process  are  equal  to  silver 
prints,  and  may  be  transferred  to  a  lithographic 
stone  for  reproduction.  If  F.  M.  S.  communicated 
with  Mr.  Pouncy  he  could  no  doubt  obtain  a 
specimen,  which  would  certainly  alter  his  opinion 
as  to  their  character.  R. 

Your  correspondent  will  find  a  full  description 
of  Swan's  carbon  process  for  producing  photographic 
pictures  at  p.  47  of  the  Year  Book  of  Photography 
for  1865,  published  by  the  proprietors  of  the  Phq- 
togmphic  News,  Paternoster  Row.  It  has  also 
been  described  in  the  Photographic  Society's  Journal, 
in  the  Journal  of  Photography,  and  most  other 
photographic  publications.  The  results  are  very 
perfect,  and  it  is  quite  true  that  it  produces  the 
effects  of  light  and  shade  other  than  by  lines  and 
hatchings.  ^  In  fact,  every  varied  effect  of  light 
and  shade,  in  a  photograph  taken  in  the  ordinary 
way,  is  reproduced  by  this  process  in  a  state  ef 
perfection  really  marvellous.  The  process  is  worked 
commercially  in  Newcastle  by  Mr.  Swan. 

There  is  also  another  carbon  process  worked 
on  a  totally  different  principle,  invented  by  Mr. 
Woodbury,  which  is  also  being  carried  out  com- 

mercially, and  successfully.  The  description  of  it 
will  be  found  in  the  Year  Hook  of  Photography 
for  1866,  p.  64,  and  also  in  the  various  photogra- 
phic journals  for  the  years  1865  and  1866. 


SIR  JOHN  MANDEVILLE  (3rd  S.  x.  45.)— If  your 
correspondent  will  consult  the  Preface  to  — 

"  The  Voiage  and  Travaile  of  Sir  John  Maundeville, 
Kt.,  which  treateth  of  the  Way  to  Hierusalem ;  and  of 
Marvayles  of  Inde,  with  other  Hands  and  Countryes. 
Now  Published  entire  from  an  Original  MS.  in  the  Cotton 
Library,  and  printed  for  J.  Woodman,  and  D.  Lyon,  and 

he  may  satisfy  himself  of  the  date  of  the  death, 
place  of  burial,  and  epitaph,  of  the  above  eminent 
man.*  B. 

Is  it  generally  known  that  there  is  a  memorial 
tablet  to  this  celebrated  traveller  in  the  Abbey 
Church  of  St.  Albans,  Herts  ?  ST.  SWITHIN. 

PRINCESS  PONIATOWSKI,  ETC.  (3rd  S.  x.  61.) — 
In  my  boyish  days  I  used  to  hear  a  good  deal 
about  Mrs.  Serres,  alias  Princess  Olive  of  Cumber- 
land. My  godfather  then  held  a  living  in  War- 
wickshire, not  far  from  Barton-on-the-Heath,  the 
residence  of  Dr.  Wilmot.  He  used  to  speak  of  the 
lady  as  a  person  of  light  character,  and  as  capable 
of  any  fraud  or  imposture.  Her  supposed  liaison 
with  a  certain  captain  occasioned  much  amuse- 
ment, and  some  scandal,  in  the  neighbourhood. 
The  two,  with  the  husband,  were  .understood  to 
make  up  what  the  Italians  call  an  equilateral  tri- 
angle. The  husband  submitted  to  his  injuries 
with  aiore  or  less  patience  according  to  the  humour 
of  the  moment. 

That  Dr.  Wilmot  could  be  the  author  of  Junius 
I  have  always  looked  upon  as  an  impossibility. 
That  writer,  as  has  been  observed  by  others,  must 
have  lived  in  or  near  London,  the  centre  of  po- 
litical intelligence,  not  in  a  remote  and  obscure 
village  in  the  country.  Dr.  Wilmot  was  in  the 
habit  of  transcribing  favourite  passages  from 
Junius  into  his  Diary,  frbm  which  the  Princess 
endeavoured  to  deduce  that  he  was  the  author. 
I  do  not  remember  hearing  anything  about  Princess 

It  is  but  charitable  to  suggest  that  Mrs.  Serres 
was  not  exactly  right  in  her  mind,  and  had  told 
the  story  of  her  birth  so  often  that  she  at  length 
believed  it  herself.  W.  D. 

[*  The  Editor's  Preface  to  this  edition  of  Mandeville's 
Travels,  8vo,  1725,  contains  the  Epitaph  from  the  Itine- 
rarium  of  Abr.  Ortelius,  which  gives  the  date  of  Mande- 
ille's  death  as  occurring  "  Anno  Domini  1371,  mensis 
^pvembris  die  17."     Weever,  who  saw  this  epitaph  at 
iege,  ridicules  the  inhabitants  of  St.  Alban's  for  an  epi- 
taph upon  a  pillar  of  their  Abbey,  near  to  which  they 
uppose  his  body  to  have  been  buried. — Funeral  Monu- 
ments, p.  568.— ED.  J 



[3**  S.  X.  JULY  28,  '66. 

DANTE  (3rd  S.  x.  7.)  —  The  strange  confusion  of 
Christian  sentiment  and  heathen  speech  is  not 
confined  to  the  poets.  In  the  version  of  the 
Psalter,  which  forms  a  part  of  the  Latin  Prayer- 
Book  of  the  Church  of  England  that  was  in  com- 
mon use  in  the  last  century,  we  find  Java  doing 
duty  for  Dominus,  e.  g.  :  — 

"  Celebrate  Jovam,  qui  bonus,  qui 
JEternse  est  clementite."  —  C.  vi.  v.  1. 

"  Ait  Jova  Domino  meo  : 
Sede  ad  meam  dexteram."  —  C.  x.  v.  1. 

I  quote  the  Svo  editions  of  1713  and  1727  pub- 
lished by  R.  and  J.  Bonwicke,  &c. 


BEME  LYGHT  (3rd  S.  ix.  62,  421.)  —  Pugin,  in 
his  Chancel  Screens  and  Rood  Lofts  (p.  19),  re- 
marks that  in  the  rood  loft  of  Bourges  there  were 
twenty-four  brass  basins,  with  prickets  for  tapers, 
which  the  bishops  used  to  supply  at  their  own 

The  following  extracts  from  the  churchwar- 
dens' accounts  relating  to  the  "beme  lyghtes" 
may  be  interesting.  They  are  printed  in  Nichols's 
Illustrations  :  — 

S.  Lawrence,  Heading. 
"  1499.  It.  Rec.   at    Alhalow-tvde    for    the    rode  light, 

x»  iiii'i. 

„      It.  Payed  for  xliii.—  li.  of  ire  \vark,  on  the  south 
end  of  the  rode  loft  to  stay  the  lyght,  the 
li,  iid  sma,  vii8  iid. 
„      It.  Payed  for  scouring  of  the  laten  bolls  in  the  said 

loft,  iiiR 

„      It.  Payed  for  six  laten  bolls  on  the  north  side  of 
the  rode  loft,  viii". 

S.  Mary  Hill,  London. 

"Item,  for  makyng  clene  of  standards,  candlesticks, 
braunches,  with  the  bolls  of  laten  upon  the  beame  of 
the  rode  loft,  anenst  the  fest  of  Est.,  A.D.  I486. 

S.  Helen's,  Abingdon. 

"  1555.  For  making  of  the  roode  lyghtes,  £0  10s  Gd. 
„      For  the  roode  lyghtes  at  Christmase,  £1  3»  2^d. 


„  Payde  for  waxe  for  the  roode-lofte  light  agenst 
Chrystemas  last  past,  prvce  the  pound,  10d 
£0  4»  2»." 



(3rd  S.  x.  45.)  —  I  have  heard  the  report  men- 
tioned by  P.  B.  H.,  but  have  not  seen  it  in  print 
till  now.  It  has  some  foundation,  but  a  very 
slight  one.  The  late  John  Adolphus  was  one  of 
my  most  valued  friends.  Full  ten  years  before 
his  death  we  used  to  talk  in  the  Inner  Temple 
Hall  of  a  new  edition  of  the  Garland,  of  which  I 
was  to  do  the  subordinate  part;  and  he  often  said, 
"  Come  and  dine  quietly,  and  we'll  go  to  work  in 
the  evening."  I  went,  but  his  conversation  was 
so  agreeable  that,  after  expressing  my  readiness 
to  work,  I  never  was  urgent  j  so  it  was  put  off 

till  our  next  meeting,  and  finally  till  he  should 
have  finished  his  History  of  the  Reign  of  George 
the  Third.  For  this  he  had  received  subscriptions, 
and  felt  bound  in  honour  to  finish  it;  but  died 
with  one  volume  unwritten.  His  memory  was 
richly  stored,  and  he  would  have  supplied  many 
parallel  passages  in  French,  and  some  in  Italian. 
All  the  materials  he  had  committed  to  writing 
were  in  his  interleaved  copy.  I  transcribed  them, 
but  they  are  not  numerous. 

I  have  heard  of  other  works  which  he  was  pre- 
paring for  the  press  when  he  died,  but  I  believe 
none  was  more  advanced  than  The  Garland. 

Oxford  Circuit. 

SABBATH  QUERIES  (3rd  S.  x.  46.)— The  word 
sabbath  ought  not,  strictly  speaking,  to  be  applied 
to  the  Lord's  Day,  or  Sunday.  It  signifies  Satur- 
day ;  and  Sunday,  being  a  Christian  festival,  ought 
never  to  be  confounded  with  the  Jewish  day  of 
rest,  by  being  called  Sabbath.  The  correspondent 
S.  N.  M.,  however,  is  mistaken  in  the  assertion 
that  the  obligation  of  the  Sunday  begins  in  all 
Catholic  countries  at  sunset  on  'Saturday,  and 
ceases  in  like  manner  at  sunset  on  Sunday.  This 
is  not  true  :  the  Sunday,  with  its  obligation,  com- 
mences every  where  in  the  Catholic  Church  at 
midnight  of  Saturday,  and  continues  till  midnight 
of  Sunday.  F.  C.  H. 


The  New  Testament  for  English  Readers,   containing  the 
Authorised  Version  with  a  Revised  English  Text  ;  ^Mar- 
ginal References  ;  and  a  Critical,  and  Explanatory  Com- 
mentary. By  Henry  Alford,  D.D.,  Dean  of  Canterbury. 
Vol.  II.  Part  II.  *The  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  the  Ca- 
tholic Epistles,  and  the  Revelation.     (Rivingtons.) 
The  Dean  of  Canterbury  here  brings  to  a  close  his 
learned  and  useful  labours  of  twenty-four  years,  spent  in  . 
the  endeavour  to  illustrate  and  render  more  intelligible 
to  English  readers  the  text  of  the  New  Testament.     How 
great  that  labour  must  have  been  will  be  readily  con- 
ceived when  we  say  that  the  Introduction  to  the  present 
part,  which  treats  of  the  authorship,  the  time  and  place 
of*  writing,  the  objects,  contents,  and  style,  for  whom 
written,  and  the  genuineness  and  place  in  the  Canon  of  the 
Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  the  Epistles  of  James,  of  Peter,  of 
John,  and  of  Jude,  and  of  the  Revelation,  occupies  some 
230  pages ;  while  the  Authorized  Version,  and  the  Re- 
vised Version  of  the  same  books,  with  the  Critical  and 
Explanatory  Commentary,  occupy  no  less  than  500  pages. 
Who  can  doubt  that  a 'work  of  this  character  will  be 
found  by  many  earnest  and  devout  students  of  Holy  Writ 
a  most  valuable  and  instructive  commentary  ? 
The  History  of  Signboards,  from  the  Earliest  Times  to  the 
Present  Day.    By  Jacob  Lai-wood  and  John  Camdeu 
Hotten.     With  One  Hundred  Illustrations  in  Fac-simils 
by  J.  Larwood.     (Hotten.) 

We  may  congratulate  Mr.  Larwood  and  Mr.  Hotten  on 
having  iii  the  work  before  us  "  tapped,"  to  use  the  ex- 

3rd  S.  X.  JULY  28,  'G6.] 



press! ve  phrase  of  Horace  Walpole,  a  new  subject ;  and 
we  think  we  may  add,  well  nigh  exhausted  it :  for 
though  sharper  and  abler  critics  than  ourselves  will 
doubtless  point  out  errors  of  omission  and  commission 
in  the  five  or  six  hundred  pages  of  the  present  volume, 
as  we  perhaps  coiild  do  were  we  so  disposed — and  in 
many  of  the  anecdotes  by  which  the  authors'  gossip 
about  the  signs,  their  origin  and  meaning,  is  diversified — 
we  doubt  whether  they  will  add  very  materially  to  the 
mass  of  curious  out-of-the-way  knowledge  which  is  here 
gathered  together.  Our  readers  will  remember  that 
Bonnell  Thornton's  Exhibition  of  Signboards  formed  the 
subject  of  several  communications  in  this  journal.  Those 
who  do  so,  and  are  interested  in  that  curious  story,  will 
find  it  treated  very  fully  in  the  last  chapter  of  the  present 
work.  A  very  extensive  Index  of  the  signs  treated  upon 
gives  completeness  to  the  volume. 


Erasmi  Colloquia  Selecta,  arranged  for  Translation  and 
Retranslation^  adapted  for  the  Use  of  Boys  who  have 
begun  the  Latin  Syntax.  By  Edward  Lowe,  D.D. 
(Parker  &  Co.) 

A  praiseworthy  endeavour  to  place  the  study  of  Latin 
in  a  more  attractive  light  before  the  boys  of  a  Middle 
School,  and  to  bring  them  somewhat  more  rapidly, 
though  not  less  accuratelv,  to  such  a  knowledge  of  the 
language  as  may  qualify 'them  for  reading  the  Classic 
Authors  themselves. 

Wine  as  it  should  be,  Pure,  Wholesome,  and  Refreshing. 
An  Address  to  Wine  Consumers.  By  James  L.  Den- 

Mr.  Denman  deserves  well  of  those  who  know  the 
difficulty  in  overcoming  prejudice,  by  the  zeal,  judgment, 
and  energy  he  has  shown  in  bringing  under  the  notice  of 
wine  consumers  the  pure,  genuine,  wholesome,  yet  low- 
priced  wines  of  Greece  and  Hungary.  This  pamphlet 
well  deserves  attention  ;  and  so  do  the  wines,  which  it  is 
the  object  of  it  to  commend  to  the  notice  of  the  unpreju- 
diced public. 

THE  PASTON  PAPERS. — The  sale  of  the  extraordinary 
collection  of  MSS.  and  Autographs  formed  about  a  century 
since,  by  Sir  John  Fenn,  the  editor  of  "  the  Paston  Letters,"" 
•was  concluded,  by  Messrs.  Puttick  &  Simpson  last  week. 
The  following  were  amongst  the  most  remarkable  lots, 
with  the  prices  they  produced.  From  amongst  the  Auto- 
graph Letters — Browne  (Sir  Thomas),  author  of  '  Religio 
Medici,'  five  letters  relating  to  the  Tumuli  in  the  Fens, 
&c.,  Norwich,  1658,  31.  10s.  (Preston),  —  Cornwallis  (Sir 
Charles),  forty-seven  autograph  letters  to  Sir  John 
Hobart,  Sir  Bassingbourne  Gaudy,  Lady  Lestraunge,  and 
Lady  Scudamore,  from  1595  to  1627,  il7.  5s.  (Boone),— 
A  series  of  eighteen  proclamations  and  letters,  each  signed 
by  Queen  Elizabeth,  produced  637.  18s.,  some  being 
bought  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries— Gardiner  (Ste- 
phen), Bishop  of  Winchester,  letter,  as  Chancellor,  to  the 
Sheriff  of  London,  directing  the  release  of  one  John  Pyka- 
rell,  who  was  imprisoned  for  debt,  June  30, 1554,  37. 10s. 
(Webster),— Henry  VIII.  Letter  to  the  Earl  of  Shrews- 
bury, Steward  of  the  Household,  dated  from  Calais,  71. 
(Boone),— Mary,  Queen  of  England,  a  letter  to  the  Earl 
of  Shrewsbury,  President  to  the  Council  in  the  North, 
Manor  of  St.  James,  26  Jan.  1553,  relating  to  the  Rebel- 
lion of  Peter  Carew  and  others  in  Devon  and  Cornwall 
and  of  Thomas  Wyat  in  Kent,  47.  4s.  (Waller),— Order 
prescribed  by  the  King  and  Queen's  Majesties  unto  the 
Justices  of  Peace  for  the  good  government  of  their  Ma- 
jesties' loving  subjects,  26  March,  1555,  with  signatures 
'Philip'  and  'Marye  the  Queen,'  107.  (Waller),— Sterne 

(Laurence),  author  of  'Tristram  Shandy,'  &c.  letter, 
dated  Eonie,  19  April,  1767,  5/.  10s.  (J.  Gibbs),— Wash- 
ington (George),  President  of  the  United  States,  letter  to 
Ptev.  Mr.  Boucher,  Mount  Vernon,  5  May,  1772,  57.  5s. 
(Appleton), — Two  Warrants,  addressed  to  Mr.  John  Pym, 
for  inclosing  the  disafforested  grounds  of  Blackmore  and 
Pewsam  in  the  County  of  Wilts,  with  autographs  of  Arch- 
bishop Abbot,  Lord  Chancellor  Bacon,  as  Baron  Verulam, 
Bishop  Andrews,  and  others,  Whitehall,  Nov.  20,  1618, 
IQL  10s.  (Waller).  From  amongst  the  miscellaneous 
MSS.,  Deeds,  and  Rolls — The  Arms  and  Names  of  the 
Officers  under  William,  Duke  of  Normandy,  afterwards 
King  of  England,  when  he  besieged  the  Isle  of  Ely  in 
1056,  a  very  curious  and  early  roll  of  vellum,  with  44 
coats  of  arms,  emblazoned ;  the  copy  from  which  Blome- 
field  printed  in  his  « Collectanea  Cantabrigiensia,'  SI.  5s. 
(Boone), — An  interesting  and  curious  Roll,  being  a  tran- 
script made  in  the  sixteenth  century,  containing  the 
'  Complaynte  made  to  Kynge  Henry  the  VI.  by  the  Duke 
of  Gloucester  (Humphrey  Plantagenet)  upon  the  Cardy- 
nall  of  Wynchester  (Beaufort),'  with  the  parts  marked 
which  are  not  published  in  the  London  Chronicle;  an  ac- 
count of  the  murder  of  the  King  of  Scots,  &c.,  357. 
(Boone), — Heraldic  Roll  containing  the  Arms  of  the 
Lords  and  Earls  Marshalls  of  England,  from  Gilbert  de 
Clare,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  42  coats  emblazoned  in  gold  and 
colours,  107.  (Boone), — Grant  from  John,  Earl  of  More- 
ton,  son  of  Henry  II.,  King  of  England,  and  afterwards 
King  himself  by  the  title  of  King  John,  to  Bertram  de 
Verdun,  of  land  in  Charena,  dated  at  Rouen,  about  1189, 
12;.  (Boone), — Account  of  Giles  Wenlok,  Comptroller  of 
the  Household  of  Margaret  Lady  Marshal,  Countess  of 
Norfolk,  at  Framlingham,  1385-6,  107.  5s.  (Boone), — 
Rental  of  the  Estates  of  Thomas  Mowbray,  Earl  Marshal, 
Duke  of  Norfolk,  &c.,  with  the  Expenses,  Inventorv  of 
the  Gold  and  Silver  Vessels,  &c.,  1401-3,  107.  *10s. 
(Boone), — Norfolk  (John  Mowbray,  Duke  of),  Household 
and  other  Accounts,  1422-3,  107.  iOs.  (Boone),— Exem- 
plification of  the  Act  of  Attainder  of  John  de  la  Pole,  Earl 
of  Lincoln  for  endeavouring  to  make  Lambert  Simnell, 
the  Counterfeit  Plantagenet,  King,  9  Feb.  1498,  57.  7s.  Qd. 
(Boone), — The  Declaration  of  the  Account  of  John  Pika- 
rell,  Cofferer  of  the  Household  of  Edward,  late  Duke  of 
Somerset,  the  Protector,  from  1548  to  1521, 127.  (Boone),— 
Charter  of  King  Stephen,  granting  to  the  Church  of  St. 
Peter  of  Eye  and  the  Monks  there,  all  the  valuable  pos- 
sessions which  they  held  in  the  time  of  Robert  Malet,  and 
before  the  King  (Stephen)  came  to  the  throne,  free  from 
all  exaction,  dated  at  Eye,  1137,  307.  (Boone.) 

Committee  of  Council  on  Education  have  decided  that  the 
Exhibition  of  National  Portraits,  at  South  Kensington, 
will  be  closed  on  Saturday,  the  18th  August,  and  that 
from  Monday,  the  6th  August,  to  the  close,  the  price  of 
admission  will  be  threepence  each  person,  and  the  children 
of  schools  for  the  poor  accompanied  by  their  teachers  will 
be  admitted  on  payment  of  one  shilling  for  every  thirty 
students  and  one  teacher. 

THE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE,  having  visited  the 
principal  cities  in  the  provinces,  opened  a  Congress  in 
London  on  Tuesday  the  17th,  at  the  Guildhall,  where  the 
Lord  Mayor  received  the  Marquess  Camden,  Lord  Talbot 
de  Malahide,  the  President,  the  Bishop  of  Oxford,  the 
Dean  of  Westminster,  Mr.  Tite,  and  other  distinguished 
members.  The  Presidents  of  Sections  have  been — Pri- 
maeval Antiquities,  Sir  John  Lubbock,  Bart. ;  Antiquities, 
Mr.  Samuel  Birch ;  Architecture,  Mr.  A.  J.  B.  Beresford- 
Hope ;  and  History,  the  Dean  of  Westminster.  The  busi- 
ness of  the  meeting,  which  included  visits  to  Westminster 
Abbey,  the  Tower,  Lambeth  Palace,  and  many  of  the 
most  interesting  of  the  city  Churches ;  Windsor  Castle 



.  X.  JuLr  28,  '66. 

and  Eton;  Waltham  Abbey  and  Eltham  ;  soirees  at  the 
Deanery,  Westminster,  the  Kensington  Museum,  and  the 
British  Architects  in  Conduit  Street,  and  a  variety  of 
very  learned,  instructive,  and  in  some  instances  amusing 
papers,  as  by  Sir  J.  Lubbock,  On  the  present  State  of 
Archaeological  Science  ;  by  the  Dean,  on  the  Origin  of 
Westminster,  and  on  the  Abbey ;  by  Dr.  Guest,  on  the 
Origin  of  London  ;  by  Mr.  Hepworth  Dixon,  on  the 
Tower ;  by  Mr.  George  Scharf,  on  the  Historical  Paint- 
ings at  Windsor  and  Hampton  Court ;  by  Mr.  Foss,  on 
the  Legal  History  of  Westminster  Hall ;  by  Mr.  Burtt,  on 
the  Public  Records ;  while  Mr.  Tite  told  the  story  of  the 
Church  of  St.  Bartholomew  the  Great;  Professor  Willis, 
that  of  Eton ;  Mr.  Parker,  that  of  Windsor ;  Professor 
Westmacott  lectured  on  the  Statues  in  Westminster  Ab- 
bey, and  Mr.  Gilbert  Scott  on  its  Architectural  features ; 
and  Mr.  Cyril  C.  Graham  and  Mr.  Grove  on  the  Topo- 
graphy of  Palestine  and  the  Palestine  Fund  —  was 
brought  to  a  close  on  Wednesday ;  but  was  supplemented 
by  a  very  pleasant  visit  to  the  Christy  Collection,  on  the 
special  invitation  of  Mr.  Franks.  In  spite  of  some  de- 
fects inseparable  from  the  locality  chosen,  the  extent  of 
work  to  be  done,  and  the  numbers  which  a  metropolitan 
gathering  was  sure  to  collect,  the  present  Congress  is 
considered  by  its  promoters  a  decided  success. 

to  be  sold  by  Messrs.  Puttick  &  Simpson  on  Wednes- 
day, August  1.  Those  who  knew  our  learned  and  excel- 
lent friend  will  be  sure  that  such  a  library  as  he  used 
must  deserve  the  attention  of  all  lovers  of  learning. 



Particulars  of  price,  &c.,  of  the  following  book  to  be  sent  direct  to  the 
gentlemen  by  whom  it  is  required,  whose  names  and  address  are 
given  for  that  purpose  :  — 

Scrope,  M.P.    Murray. 

Wanted  by  Messrs.  Ilenningham  $•  Hollis,  5,  Mount  Street, 
Grosvenor  Square,  W. 


We  must  request  several  of  our  Correspondents  to  wait  for  replies 
wider  this  heading  till  our  next  Number. 


A  Reading  Case  for  holding  the  weekly  Nos.  of  "N.  &  Q."  is 
ready,  and  maybe  had  of  all  Booksellers  and  Newsmen,  price  ls. 
or,  free  by  post,  direct  from  the  publisher,  for  1*.  8d. 


UERIES"  is  published  at  noon  on  Friday,  and  is  also 
LY  PARTS.    The  Subscription  for  STAMPED  Cones  /or 

issued  in  MONTH  . 

six  Months  forwarded  direct  from  the 

yearly  INDEX)  is  Us.  4cZ.,  which  m 

r  (including  the  Half- 

yearly  INDEX)  is  Us.  4cZ.,  which  may  be  paid  by  Post  Office  Order 
payable  at  the  Strand  Post  Office,  in  favour  of  WILLIAM  G.  SMITH  32 
WELLINGTON  STREET,  STRAND,  W.C.,  where  also  all  CoMMONicATioNs 

,  D,       . 

FOR  THE  EDITOR  should  be  addressed. 

"NOTES  &  QUERIES"  is  registered  for  transmission  abroad. 

Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  10s.  6rf. 

»THE  KORAN.     Translated  from  the  Arabic,  with 

JL    Introduction,  Notes,  and  Index.    The  Suras  arranged  in  Chrono 
6^^  J"  M-RODWELL'  MA?Sor  of  Ethel 

"Mr.  Rodwell  has  done  more  than  has  ever  yet  been  done  to  enable 
trI^nfnten^n?V8hreader  t(>  understand  the  way  in  which  the  Koran 
£ST  P  °  efX18ten,ciTu.  '  ^  •  Tt  is  vei7  convenient  to  have  the  date  of  its 
several  parts,  and  this  Mr.  Rodwell  has  performed  for  English  readers." 

r^°mm.e,nd.Mr.  Kodwell's  edition  of  the  Kwan'a's'thf  best^yet 
es^  illustrated  wit"  erudite 

WILLIAMS  &  NORGATE.  u,  Henrietta  Street,  Covent  Garden;  and 
20,  South  Frederick  Street,  Edinburgh. 


ad  ntiquities,  Coins,  Fine  Arts 


Now  Ready,  price  Is.,  the  AUGUST  Number  of 


1.  The  Art  of  w«.  <*»»»»'- 

2.  A   Stormy  Life ;  or  Queen  Margaret's   Journal.     By  Lady  G. 


Chap.  IV.  The  Dawn. 
„       V.  The  Early  Morn. 
„     VI.  King  Ren.?. 

3.  Audi  alteram  Partem.    By  the  Author  of  "  De  Profundis." 

4.  Pedro  di  Luna.    III.,  IV. 

5.  The  Hostess  of  Silvio  Pellico. 

6.  Our  Library  Table. 

Letters  of  Madame  de  Maintenon— Watson's  Persia  during  the 
Present  Century—The  Erckmann-Chatrian  Novels— Gill's 
Papal  Drama— Miss  B.  R.  Parkes's  Vignettes. 

7.  The  Windeck  Family  (Conclusion). 

Chap.     XXXI.  Night. 

„         XXXII.  In  the  Catacombs. 

„       XXX  III.  The  Baptism. 

„        XXXIV.  The  las  c  Count  Windeck. 
London  :   SIMPKIN,  MARSHALL,  &   CO. 

Now  ready,  in  2  vols.  post  8vo,  with  many  beautiful  Illustrations,  24s. 


RICHARD  BENTLEY,  Publisher  in  Ordinary  to  Her  Majesty. 

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LL.D.,  F.R.S.E.,  F.R.G.S. 

A  new  Edition,  thoroughly  revised,  comprising  the  latest  Admiralty 
Surveys  of  the  West  Coast  and  Islands,  the  Railways  completed  and  in 
progress,  and  an  Index  of  easy  reference  to  9700  Places  on  the  Map. 
Price,  in  a  Pocket-Case,  7s.  6d. ;  or  in  Sheets,  6s. 

"  A  Map  which  has  certainly  nothing  like  a  rival  in  any  map  of  the 
country  previously  published.  For  completeness,  accuracy,  and  finish, 
it  is  perfect.  Not  a  turnpike  or  carriage  road,  or  important  footpath 
throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  land,  but  has  its  representa- 
tive here  in  double  and  single  black  lines." — Scotsman. 

The  following  MAPS  from  KEITH  JOHNSTON'S  ROYAL 
ATLAS  are  published  separately,  uniformly  with  the  above,  in  Pocket- 
Case,  with  Indexes  to  each  Map,  price  4s.  6d.  for  Maps  of  One  Sheet, 
and  8s.  for  Maps  of  Two  Sheets:  — 

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Italy  (Two  Sheets). 




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Sweden  and  Norway. 

South  America  (Two  Sheets). 
United  States  of  North  America 

(Two  Sheets). 
Canada  (Two  Sheets). 

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India  (Two  Sheets). 
China  and  Japan. 
Basin  of  Mediterranean  Sea. 

WILLIAM  BLACKWOOD  &  SONS,  Edinburgh  and  London. 
Sold  by  all  Booksellers. 

Now  ready,  Part  L,  folio,  pp.  362,  with  150  Engravings,  price  21.  10s. 

of  SCANDINAVIA  and  ENGLAND,  now  First  Collected  and 
Deciphered.  By  PROFESSOR  GEORGE  STEPHENS,  of  Copenhagen, 
F.S.A.,&c.    The  Author  promises  the  Second,  and  concluding  Part, 
next  Spring. 

London  :  J.  RUSSELL  SMITH,  36,  Soho  Square. 

This  Day,  post  8vo,  cloth,  Is.  6d. 


t)     CHANNEL  ?    By  the  REV.  SCOTT  F.  SURTEES. 
London  :  J.  RUSSELL  SMITH,  36,  Soho  Square. 


±\_  See  EDWIN  PEARSON'S  interesting  CATALOGUE  of  Rare, 
Curious,  and  Useful  BOOKS,  sent  by  post  on  receipt  of  one  stamp— 
(Bewick  Repository),  64,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  Charing  Cross,  London, 

TTEATH,    BOOKSELLER,    497,    Oxford   Street, 

U  London.-A  List  of  STANDARD  SECOND-HAND  BOOKS  in 
perfect  condition,  being  recent  additions  to  his  very  Extensive  btook, 
may  be  had.  One  stamp  required  for  postage.  — W.  HEATH,  497, 
Oxford  Street,  London. 

as  supplied  to  his  Grace  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  have 
great  power  without  harshness  of  tone,  and  are  very  durable.    Prices 
moderate— Warerooma,  74,  Dean  Street,  Soho  Square. 

3'*  S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 




CONTENTS.— NO  240. 

NOTES-  — The  Hon.  Lady  Houstoune,  81  —  Passage  in 
"  King  John,"  83  —  Notes  from  the  Patent  Rolls,  84.  —  The 
Wake-Goose,  85  —  Medical  Baronets,  Ib.  —  A  Hint  on 
Epidemics  —  A  Magnanimous  Dane  —  George  Wither's 
Lines  on  "The  State"  — French  Folk-lore:  Popular  Pro- 
phecies in  Numbers  — One  Stanza  More— Bp.  Marsh's 
Birth-place  —  The  "Rounding"  System  —  Hylton  of  Hyl- 
ton,  86. 

QUERIES:  — Brant's  "Navis  Stultifera "  — Clerical  Cos- 
tume—A  Crest  Query  — Draper  Family  —  Farthings  of 
Queen  Elizabeth  —  The  First  Book  translated  from  Ger- 
man into  English  — Passage  in  Goldsmith— Hebrew  Sy- 
nonyms —  Old  Kent  Newspapers  —  Social  Illustrations  of 
Sweden  and  Norway  —  Burial  of  Living  Persons  —  Printer- 
Authors  and  Unwritten  Books  —  Saverne  and  Savernake 
—  Scotch  Lairds,  1687  —  Topographical  Engravings  — 
Which  is  the  World's  Birthday?  88. 

QUERIES  WITH  ANSWERS:—  Saul,  St.  Paul  —  Arms  of 
Bayly  —  Chiswick  Press  —  Peppercorn  Rent  —  Unpub- 
lished Manuscript  —  Newberry  Will  —  Prince  Rupert,  90. 

RE  PLIES :  —  Weapon  Salve,  92  —  Aerolites,  94  —  Sepulchral 
Devices,  95  —  Prelate  mentioned  by  Gibbon,  9(5  —  The 
Ostrich  Feather:  the  Delabere  Crest  — The  Poem,  "  My 
Mother  "  —  "  As  lazy  as  Laurence  "  —  Royal  Assent  re- 
fused —  Crawalls  —  The  Porcelain  Tower  at  Nankin  — 
Club  and  Club  —  The  Harringtons  —  Blue-Stockings  — 
Sir  John  Mandeville  —  Quotations  wanted  —  Photogra- 
phic Miracle  —  Christian  Ale  —  Thomas  White  —  Sir  John 
Vanbrugh's  Plays:  "  a  crooked  Stick  "  — Dighton's  Cari- 
catures, 97. 

Notes  on  Books,  &c. 


In  the  Catalogue  of  Authors  given  in  Jones's 
~Biographia  Dramatica  occurs  the  name  of  Lady 
Houston,  as  having  written  "  The  Coquette,  Com. 
N.  P.,"  and  she  is  said  to  have  died  July  30, 
1780.  Referring  to  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for 
September,  1780,  there  is  this  entry :  —  "  July  30. 
Hon.  Lady  Susan  Houston,  relict  of  Sir  Thomas." 
The  Scots  Magazine  of  same  date  gives  the  gen- 
tleman's name :  "  At  Bath,  Lady  Susannah  Hous- 
ton, relict  of  Sir  Thomas  Houston." 

As  the  Baronets  of  Houstoune  of  Houstoune 
are  understood  to  have  become  extinct  upon  the 
death  of  Sir  John  Houstoune  of  that  ilk,  at  Lon- 
don (July  27,  1751),  it  would  be  useful  to  ascer- 
tain who  this  alleged  Sir  Thomas  Houston  was, 
and  .from  what  race  the  Lady  Susannah,  or  the 
"  Hon.  Lady  Susan,"  his  wife,  came. 

That  there  is  here  a  mistake  is  apparent,  be- 
cause upon  turning  in  the  same  work  to  the  article 
The  Coquette,  we  find  that  its  second  title  was 
"the  Gallant  in  the  Closet,"  and  that  it  pro- 
ceeds from  the  pen  of  "  Lady  Houston,  sister  to 
Lord  Cathcart."  We  are  satisfied  that  this  is  true. 
This  lady  survived  her  husband,  Sir  John,  eighteen 
years,  and  died  November  3,  1769,  in  the  fiftieth 
year  of  her  age.  She  was  the  Hon.  Eleanora  Cath- 
cart, third  child  of  Charles,  eighth  Lord  Cathcart; 

born  at  Edinburgh  March  3,  1720,  and  married 
to  Sir  John  Houstoune  of  Houstoune,  February  12, 

The  union  was  an  unhappy  one.  Sir  John  was 
in  bad  health,  of  an  irritable  temperament,  and 
had  a  high  opinion  of  himself,  both  as  regarded 
intellect  and  personal  appearance ;  whilst  his  lady, 
a  female  of  high  spirit,  took  a  not  unusual,  but  un- 
commonly injudicious,  method  of  dealing  with  him. 
Overlooking  entirely  the  necessity  of  conciliating 
instead  of  irritating  her  husband,  she  too  fre- 
quently had  recourse  to  that  dangerous  weapon, 
her  tongue,  which  made  matters  worse.  Sir  John 
was  certainly  provoking,  and  it  would  have  re- 
quired a  vast  degree  of  coolness,  and  more 
common  sense  than  usually  falls  to  the  lot  of  a 
young  wife  to  put  up  with  his  taunts.  Her  lady- 
ship was  fond  of  her  lord,  but  shipwrecked  her 
happiness  in  originally  attempting  to  wear  those 
habiliments  which  more  appropriately  appertain 
to  a  husband. 

There  was  nothing  wanting  at  the  outset  to  create 
a  belief  that  the  connection  would  be  a  happy  one. 
The  baronet,  although  dispossessed  by  the  impru- 
dence of  his  predecessors  of  the  landed  estates  of 
his  ancient  family,  was,  through  his  mother,  well 
provided  for,  and  he  would  in  process  of  time  have 
succeeded  to  a  considerable  heritable  property 
under  an  entail.  He  was  a  handsome  man ;  had 
mixed  in  good  society,  was  well  read,  and  had  it 
not  been  for  an  indisposition  which  his  medical 
advisers  were  unable  to  overcome,  but  with  the 
existence  of  which  his  wife  was  made  acquainted 
before  her  marriage,  he  might  have  been  regarded 
as  a  fitting  candidate  for  matrimony.  The  young 
lady  was  of  noble  birth— anxiously  brought  up  by 
her  grandmother — of  unimpeachable  virtue — and 
accomplished  in  those  domestic  duties  which,  about 
the  middle  of  last  century,  were  deemed  essential 
in  the  education  of  females  of  the  better  classes. 
She  had,  moreover,  a  fortune  of  about  3,500/.  ster- 
ling— a  larger  "  tocher  "  than  usually  fell  to  the 
lot  of  daughters  of  Scotish  peers.  Nevertheless 
everything  went  wrong.  Almost  from  the  be- 
ginning there  was  nothing  but  dissension.  As  the 
health  of  Sir  John  required  change  of  air,  he 
and  his  lady  went  abroad,  taking  with  them  her 
younger  sister  Mainie  Anne,  who  at  a  subsequent 
period  (December  16th,  1754)  married  William, 
sixth  Lord  Napier.  The  bad  feeling  commenced 
in  Scotland,  continued  in  England,  and  came  to  a 
climax  in  France. 

In  justice  to  the  husband,  we  shall  give  extracts 
from  Lady  Houstoune 's  own  explanations,  in  a 
letter  addressed  by  her  to  the  Lady  Shaw,  her 
grandmother,  dated  Calais,  October  3,  1744,  only 
seven  months,  or  thereabouts,  from  the  date  of 
her  nuptials ;  observing,  at  the  same  time,  that 
these  self-accusations  are  supported  in  a  great 
measure  by  other  evidence,  and  especially  by  the 



.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

testimony  of  the  Hon.  Mainie  Anne,  who,  so  far 
as  has  been  seen,  endeavoured  to  preserve  peace 
in  the  family :  — 

"You  know,"  writes  Lady  Houstoune,  "when  I  went 
with  my  dear  Sir  John,  it  was  to  be  a  nurse  to  him.  You 
know  the  marriage,  the  time  of  it,  and  the  coming  abroad, 
was  all  my  own  choice."  "  These  things  my  heart,  my 
doty,  ought  to  have  bound  me  to  good  behaviour :  yet, 
with 'shame  and  anguish  do  I  tell  it,  I  have  been  his  con- 
tinual plague."  "  The  first  piece  of  folly  I  showed  was 
very  early :  because  Sir  John  made  a  hackney-coachman 
do  his  duty,  I  took  it  into  my  head  that  one  day  he  might 
domineer,' if  I  did  not  bully  him.  This  whim  had  no 
being  but  in  my  brains  ;  for,  as  I  hoped  to  be  saved,  he 
showed  me  the"  greatest  gentleness  and  regard.  How- 
ever, I  looked  sullen  and  would  not  eat ;  put  on  all  kind 
of  airs,  which  he  took  the  greatest  pains  to  bring  me  out 
of,  but  in  vain."  "  I  scolded  him  eternally,  picked  quar- 
rels without  ceasing,  and  took  the  fret  without  alledging 
any  reason."  "  One  day  I  had  even  the  impudence  to 
tell  him,  that  I  supposed  he  had  never  conversed  but  with 
abandoned  women  ;  for  it  was  plain  he  did  not  know  how 
to  treat  a  woman  of  honour." 

She  admitted  she  gave  him  abusive  language 
"before  company,  and  told  horrid  lies  to  his 
face."  She  used  to  faint,  go  into  fits,  and  adopt 
the  usual  devices  of  a  designing  female.  It  does 
not  seem  easy  to  get  the  better  of  this  positive 
proof,  under  her  ladyship's  own  hand,  of  an 
uncertain  and  provoking  temper,  which  with  a 
man  of  Sir  John's  temperament,  aggravated  a 
disease  which  his  medical  advisers  could  make 
nothing  of,  must  have  been  peculiarly  offensive. 
Previously  to  his  continental  visit,  upon  the  lady 
becoming  penitent,  he  forgave  her ;  but  no  sooner 
were  they  reconcile^,  than  they  quarrelled.  At 
last  the  husband  began  to  retaliate,  and  ulti- 
mately the  lady  fled  from  him ;  judicial  pro- 
ceedings were  the  result  in  Scotland,  where  the 
final  decision  was  against  the  husband,  who  had 
to  pay  an  aliment  of  200/.  sterling  for  persecuting 
his  wife.  The  propriety  of  this  decision  is  ob- 
vious, although  from  the  evidence  adduced  it  is 
questionable  whether  it  was  strictly  in  accord- 
ance with  law. 

Finding  the  lady  was  so  admirably  skilled  in 
the  art  of  ingeniously  tormenting,  Sir  John  be- 
came her  pupil,  and  very  soon  eclipsed  his  teacher. 
He  took  a  vast  fancy  for  dogs ;  carried  a  monkey 
with  him,  which  he  usually  placed  beside  the 
driver  when  he  travelled;  had  a  jackass  which 
sometimes  visited  the  happy  pair  in  the  dining- 
room;  and,  to  the  infinite  horror  of  all  in  his 
establishment,  made  a  pet  of  a  serpent  from  which 
the  poisonous  fangs  had  been  extracted,  and  which 
glided  in  and  out  of  the  room  with  infinite  ease 
and  elegance. 

So  much  for  these  agreeable  additions  to  his 
society.  Now  for  Sir  John's  conversational  powers. 
He  used  to  tell  his  wife  that,  though  a  husband 
might  not  by  law  beat  his  wife  with  a  stick  of  a 
certain  size,  he  might  safely  do  so  with  a  switch 

or  with  his  hand,  and  that  he  had  the  power  of 
locking  her  up  whenever  he  chose. 

He  often  mentioned,  in  the  event  of  his  lady's 
demise,  his  intention  of  going  to  London  and 
picking  out  a  citizen's  daughter  with  a  good  deal 
of  money,  whom  he  would  bring  to  Paris  and 
breed  in  his  own  way. 

On  one  occasion  Sir  John  came  into  his  wife's 
apartment  where  she  was  supping,  and  observing 
her  eating  eggs  and  bread  and  butter,  he  ex- 
claimed, "  By  heavens,  Madame,  you  remind  me 
of  the  '  Whore's  Progress/  and  if  you  had  a  little 
salt  on  a  paper  you  would  compleat  it."  This 
reference  to  Hogarth's  celebrated  series  of  en- 
gravings must  have  been  very  gratifying  to  Lady 

He  used,  contrary  to  the  practice  of  that  pe- 
riod, when  ladies  of  rank  were  not  thought  pro- 
perly educated  unless  they  were  able  to  manage 
domestic  affairs,  to  regulate  all  culinary  purchases 
when  residing  at  Toulouse.  He  usually  weighed 
the  meat  to  see  if  he  was  not  cheated  ;  and  having 
fixed  that  twopence  was  the  proper  charge  for  a 
good  "  hen,"  would  never  allow  more  in  the  family 

He  was  accustomed  to  abuse  the  lady's  relatives, 
particularly  "  the  late  Lord  President,  my  lady's 
great-grandfather,"  whom  he  called  "  an  unjust 
judge."  This  was  Sir  Hew  Dalrymple,  President 
of  the  Court  of  Session,  a  son  of  the  great  Lord 
Stair,  who  certainly  was  not  considered  as  a  dis- 
senter, from  the  Scotch  legal  maxim,  "  Show  me 
the  man  and  I'll  show  you  the  law,"  but  he  was 
by  no  means  worse  than  his  fellow  judges.  He  was 
the  brother  of  Janet  Dalrymple,  or  Dunbar,  who, 
as  Lucy  Ashton,  is  the  heroine  of  that  beautiful 
tale  The  Bride  of  Lammermoor. 

Sir  John's  remarks  upon  the  faces  of  the  Cath- 
cart  family  were  amusing  enough.  One  day  at 
breakfast  — 

"  He  entered  into  a  dissertation  upon  the  faces  of  all 
the  late  Lord  Cathcart's  family,  whom  he  said  very  much 
resembled  Blackamores,  but  none  so  much  as  my  lady, 
who  had  a  great  deal  of  the  minds  as  well  as  the  features 
of  these  persons,  who  generally  were  ill-natured  and  ma- 

Similar  instances  might  be  adduced  of  Sir  John's 
skill  in  the  art  of  tormenting,  but  these  are  suf- 
ficient to  show  that  the  sooner  a  separation  was 
brought  about  the  better  it  was  for  all  parties. 

Sir  John  died  on  July  27,  1751,  his  mother 
having  predeceased  him  (Jan.  31,  1750).  He  left 
a  general  disposition  to  his  kinsman,  George  Hous- 
tone  of  Johnston,  who  became  by  his  descent  from 
the  brother  of  the  fourth  baronet  the  heir  male 
of  the  family.  By  this  deed  he  excluded  his 
nephew,  the  eldest  son  of  his  sister,  who  was  then 
dead,  and  his  youngest  sister  Anne,  the  wife  of 
Colonel  William  Cuningham,  of  Enterkine,  who 
had  succeeded  to  her  mother's  separate  estate. 

S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



Lady  Iloustone  survived  her  husband  for  many 
years,  and  died  at  the  age  of  fifty.  As  by  her 
marriage  contract  she  had  been  well  provided 
for,  she  was  able  to  live  comfortably.  During 
her  hours  of  leisure  she  turned  her  attention  to 
the  drama,  and  wrote  at  least  two  comedies,  which 
were  never  printed. 

1st.  The  Coquette ;  or,  the  Gallant  in  the 
Closet.  This,  it  is  said,  was  put  into  the  hands 
of  Jemmy  Boswell,  while  at  college,  who  had  it 
represented,  and  who  wrote  a  prologue,  spoken  by 
Mr.  Parsons.  According  to  the  Biographia  Dra- 
matica,  "  it  was  chiefly  a  translation  of  one  of  the 
bad  plays  of  Thomas  Corneille."  It  was  con- 
demned on  the  third  night,  and  was  never  printed. 

2nd.  Of  the  next  play  by  her  ladyship,  only 
two  acts  have  been  preserved  in  MS.,  and  the  title 
is  as  follows :  — In  Foro ;  a  Comedy. 

"  All  our  work  is  done  in  Foro." — Sen  Jonson.* 

Scene,  London. — The  first  act  commences  in 
the  drawing-room  of  my  Lady  Lucy  Prunelle,  a 
young  widow,  and  daughter  of  the  Earl  and 
Countess  Bellair.  She  has  a  sister,  Lady  Mary. 
The  leading  male  character  is  Gaywit,  a  military 
gentleman.  He  has  taken  possession  of  Lady 
Mary's  apartment,  and  thus  soliloquises :  — 

"  What  a  whimsical  fellow  I  am !  Here,  to  this  temple 
set  apart  for  adoration,  do  I  come  with  a  malicious  inten- 
ion  to  plague  the  divinity  of  the  place.  Nay,  and  I  must 
make  out  my  aim,  too.  for  the  town  knows  I  have  it. 
My  dear  Lady  Lucy,  why  are  you  so  obstinate  ?  Why 
don't  you  know  your  own  interest  better  than  to  displease 
me,  who  am  an  umpire  in  the  Beau  Monde.  I  give  it 
law— ay,  pardi,  as  absolutely  as  our  monarch  may  to 
Europe —  and  as  the  King  of  Prussia  would,  were  it  in 
his  power.  I  am  a  sort  of  King  of  Prussia.  I 'faith  I  kick 
and  cuff  with  the  ladies,  and  like  that  monarch  I  gene- 
rally come  off  well,  though  my  campaigns  are  hard.  Ay, 
Empress,  Queen,  and  Lady  Lucy  had  better  have  paid 
us  our  price,  than  have  stood  to  the  consequences.  The 
parallel  is  apt,  I  vow.  Ah,  Lady  Lucy !  Why  dispute 
terms  with  a  man  so  puissant  as  I  am.  Mine  are  not 
exorbitant.  I  don't  ask  any  woman  to  be  in  love  with 
me,  but  I  insist  that  every  woman  who  has  another  flame 
shall  allow  me  [to  be]  second  in  merit.  The  universally 
acknowledged  second  is,  partiality  apart,  the  first.  I  have 
acquired  to  myself  the  privilege  belonging  to  this  title ; 
and  she  who  rebels  against  it,  is  doomed  to  find  me  first 
in  mischief.  I  lead  the  men,  and  do  of  consequence  de- 
cide the  women." 

Here  the  lady-killer  is  interrupted  by  Toylet, 
the  lady's  maid,  who  announces  that  her  mistress 
is  too  busy  to  see  him. 

Lady  Lucy  has  an  attachment  to  a  Mr.  Modish, 
a  married  man  with  a  jealous  wife,  and  her  sister 
Lady  Mary  entertains  apprehensions  that, .  if  this 
fact  came  to  the  ears  of  their  father  and  mother, 
the  consequences  might  be  anything  but  pleasant. 
With  a  knowledge  of  the  world,  and  an  excess  of 
liberality  somewhat  surprising  in  a  young  lady  of 
quality,  she,  after  hinting  at  the  impropriety  of 

*  On  the  top  it  is  stated  to  be  "  by  Lady  Houston." 

the  thing,  suggests  a  remedy  which,  while  it 
covers  all  impropriety,  afforded  great  facility  for 
the  indulgence  of  a  platonic  attachment.  This 
was  a  marriage  with  a  commoner  of  the  name  of 
Richly,  a  man  of  wealth.  In  this  way  scandal, 
she  infers,  would  be  averted,  for — "  Richly,  if  I 
mistake  not,  will  always  be  sworn  brother  to  the 
man  you  like  best,  and  an  husband  answers  for 
his  wife  to  the  world." 

Lord  Bellair,  the  father,  who  has  found  out 
Lady  Lucy's  secret,  suggests,  also,  in  the  second 
act,  to  his  lady,  the  marriage  with  Richly,  but  feels 
doubts  on  the  subject,  as 

"  She  is  sentimental — the  most  unlucky  temper  a  poor 
woman  can  have — specious  in  appearance,  but  of  direct 
bad  tendency  to  the  possessor.  A  sentimental  lady  plays 
with  the  bait  till  she  .is  caught — however  good  her  aims 
may  be,  they  always  yield  to  this  piece  of  constitution." 

What  may  have  been  the  end  of  these  attempts 
to  induce  Lady  Lucy  a  second  time  to  commit 
matrimony,  "  a  thing  in  itself  a  weakness,"  accord- 
ing to  Lord  Bellair,  we  unfortunately  cannot  tell, 
as  two  acts  of  the  comedy  have  only  come  into 
our  hands,  the  MS.  having  been  found  in  the 
library  of  a  Fifeshire  clergyman  of  great  re- 
spectability, who,  half  a  century  since,  published 
a  new  edition  of  Sir  Robert  Sibbald's  History  of 
Fife  and  Kinross. 

Lady  Mary's  remark^  upon  wit  are  fair  enough  : 

"  Wit  is  but  one  talent,  and  deuce  take  me  if  it  has  not 
so  many  faults  that  it's  as  well  to  be  without  it.  People  of 
more  softness  have  something  amiable.  A  wit  can  no 
more  be  without  a  butt  than  a  knight  errant  without  a 
squire ;  and,  to  say  the  truth,  the  one  sometimes  goes 
upon  as  extravagant  errands  as  the  other.  Beside,  my 
dear,  wit  is  now-a-days  out  of  fashion  —  people  are  well 
bred,  and  talk  upon  a  level.  One  does  not  at  present  find 
wit  but  in  some  old  corned}'." 

Perhaps  The  Coquette  may  still  exist  in  the 
library  of  some  collector  of  the  drama.  It  is  not 
improbable  that  it  may  have  been  in  the  hands  of 
the  editor  of  Shakspeare,  or  that  it  may  be  in  the 
library  at  Auchinleck.  J.  M. 

PASSAGE  IN  "  KING  JOHN,"  ACT  III.  So.  3. 

"  K.  Join.  If  the  midnight-bell 

Did,  with  his  iron  tongue  and  brazen  mouth, 
Sound  on  into  the  drowsy  race  of  night." 

[  So  in  the  old  editions.  ] 

There  has  been  a  deal  written  about  this 
word  on.  Warburton  has  boldly  sent  it  into  a 
foot-note,  placing  one  in  its  stead  in  the  text, 
saying,  "We  should  read  one."  Others,  object- 
ing, I  suppose,  to  what  they  considered  an  ana- 
chronism— viz.  the  midnight  bell  sounding  one 
o'clock  in  the  morning,  preserve  the  original,  but 
say  that  the  word  on  means  continuously,  and  has 
reference  to  the  bells  of  religious  houses,  such  as 
monasteries  calling  the  monks  to  their  morning 



[3"»  S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

lauds,  forgetting  that  repetition  is  destructive  of 

Mr.  Staunton,  who  has  a  long  note  on  this  pas- 
sages, goes  much  further  in  the  way  of  change. 
He  adopts  Warburton's  amendment  at  once,  but 
says  "  the  pose  "  of  the  sentence  is  in  the  word 
race,  which,  being  in  his  opinion  a  corruption,  he 
changes  into  ear. 

"If  the  midnight  bell 

Did,  with  his  iron  tongue  and  brazen  mouth, 
Sound  one  into  the  drowsy  ear  of  night." 

Now,  for  my  part,  I  see  no  difficulty  or  obscurity 
in  the  passage  at  all.  The  word  on  means  onward, 
forward  ;  and  when  we  consider  that  the  word 
race,  to  which  it  is  addressed,  is  expressive  of  pro- 
gress, it  is  extremely  applicable  — 
"If  the  midnight  bell 

Did,  with  its  iron  tongue  and  brazen  mouth, 
Sound  on  " — 

that  is,  onward,  forward,  to  the  drowsy  race  of 
night,  as  if  it  bade  it  quicken  its  pace  j  startling  it, 
as  it  were,  into  activity.  The  word  sound  is  here 
synonymous  with  say,  a  sense  in  which  Shake- 
speare again  uses  it  in  this  play.  In  Act  IV. 
Sc.  2,  we  find  Pembroke  saying :  — 

"  Then  I,  as  one  that  am  the  tongue  of  these, 
To  sound  the  purposes  of  all  their  hearts, 
Both  for  myself  and  them,  but  chief  of  all 
Your  safety,  for  the  which  myself  and  they 
Bend  their  best  studies,  heartily  request 
The  enfranchisement  of  Arthur." 

The  word  race,  I  think,  needs  no  defence,  since 
Shakespeare  so  often  speaks  of  the  pace  of  time. 
Thus,  in  this  very  speech,  we  find  the  king  say- 

"  But  creep  time  ne'er  so  slow, 
Yet  it  shall  come,  for  me  to  do  thee  good." 

Into  was  frequently  used  for  unto.  Thus  in 
AWs  Well  that  Ends  Well,  in  Act  I.  Sc.  3,  we 
find  the  countess  saying  — 

"  I'll  stay  at  home, 
And  pray  God's  blessing  into  thy  attempt." 

For  these  reasons  I  think  the  original  reading  must 
be  restored.  J.  NICHOLS,  M.  R.  C.  P. 

13,  Savile  Eow. 


Alpesia,  damsel  of  the  Lady  Queen.     (16  John  ) 

Annora,  sister  of  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Hereford 
wife  of  Hugo  de  Mortuo  Mari.  (Ib.} 

Our  daughter  Margaret  [apparently  in  the  cus- 
tody of  Brian  de  Insula,  and  perhaps  wife  of 
Thomas,  son  of  Walter  de  Karreo.  This  was 
doubtless  an  illegitimate  daughter.]  (Ib.  17 

The  King  to  his  Treasurer  and  Chamberlain 
greeting.     Deliver  to  Jordan,   sometime  cook  of 
our  beloved  sister  Ysabella  Empress  of  Germanv 
fifty  shillings,  to  be  received  by  him  annually 

from  our  Exchequer,  of  our  gift,  for  his  sustenance, 
during  our  pleasure  :  to  wit,  25  shillings  at  the 
Feast  of  St.  Michael,  and  25  shillings  at  Easter. 
Witness  the  King,  at  Westminster,  the  xvj  day 
of  November.  (Ib.  2  Henry  III.)  ' 

The  King  concedes  to  Master  Peter  de  Alpibus, 
physician  to  the  Queen  -[his  mother,  Isabelle  of 
Angouleme],  a  prebend  in  the  Chapel  of  St.  Cle- 
ment of  Pontefract,  which  was  Walter's,  some- 
time preceptor  of  J.  late  Earl  of  Lincoln.  [Qu. 
who  was  this  ?  I  find  no  Earl  in  Burke's  Extinct 
Peerage  up  to  this  date,  of  any  name  beginning 
with  this  initial.]  Witness  the  King,  Windsor, 
14  Jan.  (Ib.} 

Reginald,  King  of  Man,  has  come  to  our  faith 
and  service  [having  probably  been  one  of  the  dis- 
affected Barons].  The  New  Temple,  London, 
Sept.  23.  (Ib.  3  H.  III.) 

We  have  received  homage  from  our  dear 
nephew,  David,  son  of  L.  [Llywelyn],  Prince  of 
North  Wales,  and  of  our  beloved  sister  Joan,  his 
wife  [natural  daughter  of  King  John].  West- 
minster, 3  Oct.  (Ib.  13  H.  III.) 

The  sister  of  the  said  David  comes  to  the  King,, 
to  reside  with  him.  5  Sept.  (Ib.} 

Gwadosa,  daughter  of  Lewel'  the  Prince,  who 
was  the  wife  of  Reginald  de  Braos.  (Ib.} 

Our  beloved  uncle  Philip,  Earl  of  Burgundy, 
executor  of  Thomas  de  Mabaud,  sometime  Earl  of 
Flanders.  1  May.  (Ib.  53  H.  III.)  [Who  was 
Thomas  de  Mabaud  ?] 

To  Matthew  de  Loueyn^  507.,  in  marriage  with 
Elisenta  our  cousin.  [Qu.,  a  cousin  of  his  Queen,. 
Eleonore  of  Provence  ?]  (Ib.} 

Letters  patent  of  Queen  Eleonore  respecting- 
the  will  of  Pietro  of  Savoy,  her  uncle,  dated 
Windsor,  26  May,  on  the,  back  of  this  Roll.  Wit- 
nesses, Sire  Henry  d'Alemayn,  Sire  Willem  de 
Valence,  and  many  others.  ( Ib.  53  H.  III.) 

Robert  de  Huntoncfeld,  cook  of  our  very  dear 
daughter  Margaret,  Queen  of  Scotland.  (Ib.  54 
H.  III.) 

Humphrey  de  Bohun  has  married  Joan,  daughter 
of  Robert  de  Quency  .  .  .  with  the  assent  of 
Humphrey  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford,  father  of 
the  aforesaid  Humphrey.  Westm.  9  Nov.  (Ib. 
in  dor  so.} 

Alphonso  Count  of  Poitou,  deceased,  and  Jo- 
hanna sometime  his  wife,  Countess  of  Poitou; 
deceased.  Westm.  21  Oct.  (Ib.  55  H.  III.) 

Before  Prince  Edwa,rd's  departure  to  the  Holy 
Land,  he  left  the  guardianship  of  his  two  sons  to 
Richard  King  of  the  Romans  (Westm.  7  Mar. 
55  H.  III.),  and  drew  up  letters  patent,  given  at 
London,  Feb.  13  ("  the  year  of  the  reign  of  the 
Lord  King  our  father  50"),  by  which  he  left  his 
mother,  Queen  Eleonore,  guardian  of  all  his  pos- 
sessions and  powers  in  England.  The  last  were 
confirmed  by  the  King  at  Westminster,  July  28. 
(Ib.  56  H.  til.) 

S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



The  manner  in  which  His  Majesty  paid  his 
debts,  as  recorded  in  this  and  other  Kolls  (when  he 
was  pleased  to  do  so  at  all),  is  rather  remarkable, 
for  it  was  generally  by  an  order  for  so  many  marks 
from  "  our  Jews."  Thus  Abraham  of  Berk- 
hamsted,  Jew,  was  granted,  with  all  his  goods 
and  possessions,  to  Richard  King  of  the  Romans, 
and  upon  his  death  to  Edmund  Earl  of  Cornwall, 
his  son.  (Ib.  56  H.  III.) 

Our  dear  nephew  John  de  Valence.     (Ib.) 

Boniface,  of  good  memory,  sometime  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury.  Northampton,  10  Nov. 
(Ib.  2  Edw.  I.) 

Our  dear  cousin,  Maurice  de  Croun.  (Ib.  3 
Edw.  I.)  [Was  this  the  husband  of  his  aunt, 
Isabelle  de  Valence,  sometimes  called  Maurice 
and  sometimes  Amaury  de  Croun  ?  Or  was  it  a  son 
of  this  Maurice  and  Isabelle  de  Valence  ?] 

Our  dear  cousin  Agnes  de  Valence* .  .  .  Maurice 
son  of  Gerald,  sometime  her  husband.  Westm. 
10  Apr.  (Ib.)  HERMENTRTJDE. 


In  the  Illustrated  London  News  of  the  21st  July, 
there  is  a  paper  entitled  "  Echoes  of  the  Week, 
at  the  close  of  which  the  writer  says  :  — 

"  As  the  staffs  of  various  journals  are  now  taking  their 
annual  holidays  and  feasts,  will  any  one  tell  me  what  is 
the  derivation  of  the  printer's  feast,  the  wayz-goose  ? 
Is  it,  by-the-way,  wayz-goose,  waif-goose,  way-goose,  or 
wage-goose  ?  I  incline  to  the  last  as  the  most  probable 
derivation.  The  autumnal  feast,  about  the  time  when 
statute  fairs  were  held,  might  have  well  been  called  a 
1  wage-goose.'  Davies,  cited  by  Johnson,  says  of  the  in- 
vasion of  Ireland,  '  This  Lord  came  not  over  with  any 
great  number  of  waged  soldiers,' — why  not,  therefore,  a 
wage-feast?  Neither  Johnson,  Ash,  Walker,  Richard- 
son, Webster,  nor  Worcester,  contains  the  term.  Yet 
they  should  not  have  done  so,  since  Bailey,  from  whom 
each  has  taken  something,  gives  us  wayz,  Saxon,  a 
bundle  of  straw ;  and  wayz-^oose,  a  stubble-goose,  an 
entertainment  given  to  journeymen  at  the  beginning  of 
the  winter.  Moxon  spells  it '  way-goose.' "  * 

The  following  poem,  printed  in  Lloyd's  Evening 
Post,  1759,  gives  another  name,  and,  of  course, 
another  derivation,  to  the  term.  "  The  partisan 
sanguine  in  the*  cause  of  ancient  leaven,"  is  no 
doubt  an  allusion  to  the  Jacobites,  who  had  not 
even  at  that  time  forgotten  their  king. 

"  THE   WAKE-GOOSE,   1759. 

The  season  comes  to  light  the  tapers  up, 
To  gild  the  night,  and  drink  the  festive  cup  ; 
Now  darkness  treads  upon  the  heels  of  day, 
And  earlier  now  dispatches  him  away. 

The  season  comes,  in  black  to  dress  the  year, 
But  with  it  brings  the  Wake- Goose,  and  good  cheer: 
Tho'  winter  goes  in  mourning  for  the  summer, 
Yet  the  glass  sparkles,  and  still  smiles  the  rummer. 

The  place  appointed,  most  the  country  choose, 
In  mirth  and  wine  to  sacrifice  their  goose : 

*  See  "N.  &  Q.,»  2"<>  S.  iv.  91,  192. 

This  bird  once  sav'd  the  Capitol  of  Rome, 
Of  which  now  fall  a  thousand  hecatomb, 
Fatted  to  usher  in  the  solemn  feast, 
Of  Michaelmas,  with  humour,  wit,  and  jest. 

When  Will  the  Conq'ror,  as  our  annals  tell, 
At  nine  at  night,  proclaim'd  the  corfu-bell, 
Then  England  groan'd  beneath  a  tyrant's  swaA*, 
Nor  light  nor  fire  supply'd  the  want  of  day ; 
Hence  when  our  liberties  were  soon  restor'd, 
Nor  Britons  truckled  to  a  Nonnan  lord, 
The  corfu-bell  repeal'd  in  happier  days, 
At  nine  again  we  lighted  up  the  blaze  ; 
With  fire  and  candle,  freedom  we  enjoy'd, 
And  merry  wakes  the  festive  hours  employ'd. 
In  mem'ry  of  our  liberties  renew'd, 
We  sacrific'd  the  goose,  and  mirth  pursu'd  ; 
As  that  delicious  bird  about  this  time, 
Call'd  for  the  knife,  and  was  in  season  prime ; 
This  monumental  usage  thus  prevail'd, 
From  freedom's  days,  and  corfu-bell  repeal'd. 

The  masters  hence  their  journeymen  invite, 
To  dine  abroad,  or  spend  the  merry  night ; 
And  we,  their  sons,  have  kept  the  custom  up, 
And  dedicate  to  mirth  the  jovial  cup  : 
Without  restraint  we  eat,  and  drink,  and  smoke, 
And  with  the  glass  enjoy  the  harmless  joke  ; 
We  sing  a  song,  or  tell  a  hum'rous  tale, 
And,  like  the  sons  of  kings  our  souls  regale. 
While  in  rotation  thus  we  turn  the  glass, 
We  toast  great  George,  or  give  a  pretty  lass  ; 
And  sometimes  fight  our  battles  o'er  again, 

Or  sing  our  naval  conquests  on  the  main; 
The  glass  with  Amherst,  and  Boscawen  crown, 
Moore,  Rodney,  Hawke,  Brodrick,  Howe,  Barrington, 
With  other  patriot  names,  which  Britain  boasts, 
T'  enlarge  her  conquests,  or  defend  her  coasts. 

In  ev'ry  face  benevolence  thus  smiles, 
Nor  malice  taints,  nor  treachery  beguiles  ; 
With  double  rapture,  we  libations  pour, 
Presented  with  fresh  conquests  ev'ry  hour ; 
Our  ears  saluted  still  with  gladsome  news, 
Who  would  to  Pitt  the  grateful  glass  refuse  ? 
What  envious  tongue  can  in  his  praise  be  mute, 
Who  plans  so  well,  what  others  execute  ? 
While  bright  illuminations  deck  each  street, 
While  De  la  Clue  deserts  his  burning  fleet ; 
While  Ohio's  great  river  cedes  her  forts 
To  Britain's  monarch,  and  his  friendship  courts  ; 
While  Quebec  yields  her-  riches,  with  her  town, 
And  Crown-Point's  strength  resigns  to  Britain's  Crown, 
What  partisan,  tho'  sanguine  in  the  cause 
Of  ancient  leaven,  will  deny  applause  ? 

Renew,  ye  waiters,  then/the  casks  of  wine, 
Let  all  in  grateful  acclamations  join, 
That  Britain's  honour,  now,  is  Europe's  theme, 
The  nation's  glory,  and  the  world's  esteem." 



I  take  the  liberty  of  inclosing  you  a  cutting 
from  a  medical  journal,  with  a  hope  that  you 
may  be  able  to  find  room  for  it  in  "  N.  &  Q."  as 
a  place  more  likely  that  it  should  be  found 
"  when  wanted  "  than  where  it  appeared  first.  It 
may  also  be  the  means  of  some  of  your  numerous 
correspondents  making  the  list  more  perfect  than 
at  present.  As  to  baronetcies,  particularly  ex- 
tinct ones,  and  more  especially  those  merged  on 



S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

peerages,  it  is  difficult  to  find  a  gopd  history 
When  looking  into  the  subject  of  medical  men 
who  had  been  made  baronets,  I  naturally  looked 
to  the  chronological  list  of  baronets  in  Burke's 
-Peerage  and  Baronetage.  In  this  list  I  failed  to 
-find  the  names  of  Hawkins  (1778),  Munk(1839) 
or  Crampton  (1839).  I  then  gave  over  my  search 
I  think  it  is  a  pity  that  Sir  Edmund  Burke  did  not 
.give  the  public  a  new  edition  of  his  Extinct 
^Baronetage  with  his  Extinct  Peerage.  Certainly 
a  list  of 'the  baronetcies  held  by  peers  should  ap- 

Sir  Richard  Greaves,  M.D 1G45 

Sir  Hans  Sloane,  M.D 

Sir  Thomas  Molvneux         .....        1730 

Sir  Edward  Hulse,  M.D 1739 

Sir  Edward  Wilmot,  M.D 1759 

Sir  William  Duncan 1764 

.•Sir  John  Pringle,  M.D 1766 

rSir  Edward  Barry,  M.D 1775 

-Sir  George  Baker,  M.D 1776 

'Sir  Clifton  Wintringham 1776 

'Sir  Caesar  Hawkins     ......        1778 

: Sir  Richard  Jebb  ....        1778 

Sir  Lucas  Pepys,  M.D. 
'Sir  Walter  Farquhar,  M.D. 
Sir  John  Hayes,  M.D. 
Sir  Francis  Milman,  M.D.  . 
Sir  Henry  Halford,  M.D.    . 
•  Sir  Gilbert  Blane,  M.D.       . 
•Sir  William  Knighton,  M.D. 
"Sir  Everard  Home 
:Sir  James  Wylie,  M.D.        . 
'Sir  Jonathan  Wathen  Waller 
:Sir  David  Dundas 
Sir  Matthew  Tierney,  M.D. 
Sir  Astley  Cooper 
Sir  Patrick  Macgregor 
Sir  James  MacGrigor,  M.D. 
Sir  Charles  Clarke,  M.D.    . 
Sir  William  Russell,  M.D    . 
Sir  Stephen  Hammick         .        < 
Sir  Benjamin  Brodie   . 
Sir  James  Clark,  M.D. 
Sir  Henry  Marsh,  M.D. 
Sir  Philip  Crampton    . 
Sir  James  Kay  Shuttleworth,  M.D. 
Sir  Henry  Holland,  M.D.    . 

Sir  Charles  Locock,  M.D 1859 

Sir  William  Fergusson 1866 

Sir  James  Simpson,  M.D 1866 

Sir  Dominic  Corrigan          .        .        .        .-'.'.        1866 

Sir  Alexander  Bannermann,  M.D. ;  Sir  George 
Hampson,  M.D.;  Sir  Henry  Northcote,  M.D. ; 
Sir  James  Stonhouse,  M.D.  (who  eventually  took 
orders),  and  Sir  William  Dundas,  M.R.C.S.,  were 
not  made  baronets,  but  succeeded  to  family  baronet- 
cies. Sir  George  Staunton,  who  graduated  M.D., 
was  not  created  a  baronet  for  professional  eminence 
any  more  than  Sir  Robert  Wigram,  who  in  early 
life  was  a  surgeon.  Neither  was  Sir  Hutton 

Sir  Thomas  Baynes,  M.D.,  who  died  in  1681, 
and  Sir  John  Otto  Helwig,  said  to  have  been 
created  by  Charles  II.,  it  is  said,  should  also  be 
included  in  the  list  of  medical  baronets.  M.  D. 


A  HINT  ON  EPIDEMICS.— I  need  not  touch  on  the 
apprehensions  which  now  prevail  on  this  subject, 
but  submit  the  document  which  follows  for  con- 
sideration in  the  proper  quarter.  Science  may 
have  advanced  in  the  course  of  two  centuries,  but 
it  would  be  no  mark  of  prudence  to  slight  the 
conservative  principles  of  our  forefathers. 



BY  the  lords  of  his  Majesties  most  honourable  privy- 
council,  appointed  a  committee  for  prevention  of  the 
spreading  of  the  infection  of  the  plague,  &c. 


Lord  Chamberlain,  Mr.  Treasurer, 

Earl  of  Bath,  Mr.  Vice-Chamberlain, 

Mr.  Secretary  Morice. 

"  His  Majesty  out  of  his  indulgent  and  most  gracious 
care  for  preservation  of  his  people,  having  been  pleased 
to  constitute  and  appoint  us,  and  others  of  the  lords  of 
his  privy-council,  a  committee,  to  consider  of  such  ways 
and  means,  as  shall  be  conceived  most  proper  and  expe- 
dient to  prevent  the  spreading  and  increase  of  the  infec- 
tion of  the  plague,  (in  pursuance  of  former  precedents  in 
the  reign  of  his  most  Ro}-al  Father  of  ever  blessed  me- 
mory) hath  given  us  in  command,  and  accordingly,  we 
do  hereby,  pray  and  require  you  the  president  and  society 
of  the  Colledge  of  Physicians  of  the  city  of  London,  to 
inspect  the  former  rules  given  by  the  physicians  of  former 
times,  and  imprinted  for  the  publick  benefit ;  And  that 
you  take  care  to  review  the  said  former  book  touching- 
medicines  against  the  infection,  and  to  adde  unto,  and 
alter  the  same,  as  you  shall  find  the  present  times  and 
occasions  to  require.  And  to  cause  such  your  directions 
to  be  as  speedily  prepared  and  printed  as  possible  mav 
be.  Edw.  Walked  " 

The  above  mandate  is  given  verbatim  from 
a  copy  in  my  possession ;  printed  as  a  broadside 
without  the  name  of  the  printer,  but  authenticated 
by  C.  E.  and  the  royal  arms.  BOLTON  COKNEY. 

A  MAGNANIMOUS  DANE. — If  the  following  is  a 
fact,  it  certainly  deserves  being  recorded  in  the 
columns  of  your  valuable  j  ournal.  Some  of  your 
readers  may  perhaps  be  able  to  give  the  name  of 
the  family,  and  the  date  of  death  of  the  old 
maiden  lady :  — 

'During  the  wars  that  raged  from  1622  to  1660,  be- 
;ween  Frederick  III.  of  Denmark  and  Charles  Gustavus 
of  Sweden,  after  a  battle  in  which  the  victory  had  re- 
mained with  the  Danes,  a  stout  burgher  of  Flensborg  was 
about  to  refresh  himself,  ere  retiring  to  have  his  wounds 
dressed,  with  a  draught  of  beer  from  a  wooden  bottle, 
wben  an  imploring  cry  from  a  wounded  Swede,  lying  on 
the  field,  made  him  turn  with  the  very  words  of  Sidney — 
Thy  need  is  greater  than  mine.'  He  knelt  down  by  the 
'alien  enemy  to  pour  the  liquor  in  his  mouth.  His  re- 
quital was  a  pistol-shot  in  the  shoulder  from  the  treacher- 
ous Swede.  '  Rascal ! '  he  cried,  '  I  would  have  befriended 
fou,  and  you  would  murder  me  in  return.  Now  I 
ivill  punish  you.  I  would  have  given  you  the  whole 
bottle,  but  now  you  shall  have  only  half.'  And  drinking 
ff  half  himself,  he  gave  the  rest  to" the  Swede.  The  king, 
tearing  the  story,  sent  for  the  burgher,  and  asked  him 
low  he  came  to  spare  the  life  of  such  a  rascal.  '  Sire.' 
aid  the  honest  burgher, '  I  could  never  kill  a  wounded 
jnemy.'  <  Thou  meritest  to  be  made  a  noble,'  the  king 

X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



said ;  and  created  him  one  immediately,  giving  him  as 
armorial  bearings  a  wooden  bottle  pierced  with  an  arrow. 
The  family  only  lately  became  extinct  in  the  person  of 
an  old  maiden  lady." 


Mr.  Bright,  in  one  of  his  recent  speeches  on  the 
Reform  question,  wound  up  his  peroration  with  a 
quotation  from   "an  old  Puritan  poet,"  which, 
standing  alone,  is  even  startlingly  fine  :  — 

"  That  there's  on  earth  a  yet  auguster  thing, 
Veiled  though  it  be,  than  parliament  and  king." 

It  is  worth  noting  that  these  lines  are  to  be 
found  in  George  Wither's  poem  on  "  The  State," 
which  was  a  great  favourite  of  Coleridge's,  and 
is  quoted  in  his  Table  Talk,  p.  123  (Murray,  1852). 



NUMBERS. — The  French  people  of  all  classes  are 
very  much  given  to  the  art  of  tracing  prophetical 
references  in  the  numbers  composing  dates,  &c. 
This  art,  of  which  the  proper  dictionary  name  is 
arithomancy,  is  as  old  as  the  Chaldean  astrologers. 
It  was  practised  zealously  by  the  Pythagoreans 
and  Neo-Platonists,  and  has  been  popular  among 
imaginative  nations  in  all  ages.  It  must  be  added, 
in  fairness,  that  of  all  the  modes  of  divination  it  is 
by  very  much  the  easiest.  Just  now,  as  I  find 
from  the  French  journals,  the  numeral  prophecy 
in  vogue  in  Paris  is  the  termination  of  the  empire 
in  1869. 

This  small  problem  in  arithmetical  divination 
is  worked  out  thus :  Napoleon  III.  was  born  in 
1808,  and  assumed  the  empire  in  1852.  Add 
1+8+0+8  to  1852,  and  1869  results.  Similarly; 
the  Empress  Eugenie  was  born  in  1826,  and  mar- 
ried to  the  emperor  in  1853.  Add  together  the 
ciphers  in  each  date  respectively,  and  these  will 
also  give  1869,  when  added  to  1852.  Here  is  a 
threefold  prophecy !  But  it  is  noteworthy  that  the 
corresponding  dates  and  events  in  the  life  of  the 
present  emperor's  predecessor,  Louis  Philippe, 
when  dealt  with  in  the  same  way,  give  the  corre- 
sponding prophetical  result. 

There  is  another  numeral  coincidence  which 
might  be  cited  in  this  connection.  It  is  this : 
the  date  of  the  great  revolution  is  1789.  Add 
to  1789  the  sum  of  its  ciphers,  and  1814  re- 
sults,— the  date  of  the  fall  of  the  empire,  which 
arose  out  of  the  revolution.  Now,  the  date  of 
the  last  revolution  is  1848,  and  if  this  date  be 
similarly  dealt  with,  it  gives  as  the  prophetical 
results  1869.  Q.  E.  D.  These  are  but  a  specimen 
of  the  popular  prophecies  drawn  from  numbers 
which  are  current  amongst  the  French  people.  I 
could  cite  at  least  a  score  of  others  equally  curi- 
ous as  numeral  coincidences,  even  if  they  lack 
validity  ns  auguries  of  the  future.  D.  BLAIR. 


ONE  STANZA  MORE. — In  a  copy  of  Longfellow's 
Voices  of  the  Night,  which  I  lately  met  with,  and 
opened  at  "  A  Psalm  of  Life,"  after  the  last  two 
stanzas  but  one  I  found  an  extraneous  quatrain, 
inserted  by  some  reader  in  pencil  in  the  margin. 
The  former  I  quote  from  memory,  the  latter  I 
transcribed  verbatim  in  my  note-book,  and  it  will, 
perhaps,  not  be  unwelcome  to  some  of  youv 
readers : — 

"  Lives  of  great  men  still  remind  us 
We  can  make  our  lives  sublime, 
And,  departing,  leave  behind  us 
Footprints  on  the  sands  of  time  j 

"  Footprints  which  perhaps  another, 

Sailing  o'er  life's  solemn  main, 
Some  forlorn  and  shipwreck'd  brother, 
Seeing,  may  take  heart  again." 


"  Footprints  which  Time's  weltering  ocean 

Covers  at  each  onward  tide, 
And  o'ersmooths,  with  ceaseless  motion, 
All  that  human  tread  implied." 



BP.  MARSH'S  BIRTHPLACE. — All  the  notices  I 
have  been  able  to  consult  say  that  Herbert  Marsli 
was  born  in  London.  This  appears  to  be  an 
error,  as  I  have  just  received  the  following :  — 

"  The  Faversham  register  of  baptisms,  under  date  Jan. 
3^,  1758,  has,  'Herbert,  son  of  Richard  Marsh,  A.M., 
Vicar,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  was  born  Dec.  10.' " 

This  shows  not  only  that  the  distinguished 
prelate  was  not  born  in  London,  but  that  he  was 
not  born  in  1758,  as  the  Dictionaries  say. 

B.  H.  C. 

THE  " ROUNDING"  SYSTEM. — The  following 
extract  from  a  local  publication  of  mine,  Annah 
of  Steeple  Barton  and  Westcott  Barton }  may  pos- 
sibly interest  readers  in  other  counties  as  well  as 
those  in  Oxfordshire :  — 

"  Forty  years  ago  ....  the  '  Rounding '  system  -was 
in  full  career :  a  system  of  employing  farm  labour  un- 
known to  the  generation  that  has  grown  up  since  1835  ; 
denounced  as  degrading  and  destructive  of  confidence 
between  employers  and  employed  in  almost  every  charge 
delivered  by  the  late  W.  H.  Ashhurst,  Esq.,  who  was 
both  M.P.  for  the  county  and  Chairman  of  the  Quarter 
Sessions,  and  not  entirely  ceasing  until  the  needful  but 
harsh  remodelling  of  the  Poor  Law  in  the  reign  of  the 
fourth  William. 

"  The  '  Rounding '  system  probably  began  before  the 
inclosure  and  subdivision  of  the  common  fields,  because 
the  labourers  used  the  phrase, '  going  round  by  the  yard 
land,'  and  it  was  this  :  as  soon  as  the  harvest  was  ended, 
and  the  crops  secured,  the  demand  for  farm  labour  slack- 
ened, whereupon  the  tenant  farmer  discharged  all  his 
men,  except  a  few  he  could  not  possibly  do  without — 
such  as  his  shepherd,  carter,  herdman,"and  tasker  or 
flailman,  working  by  measure.  The  discharged  labourers, 
upon  application  to  the  overseers  of  the  poor,  received 
each  a  ticket,  billeting  them  upon  one  or  other  of  the 
farmers  for  a  number  of  days  fixed  according  to  a  pre- 
arranged tariff  of  time,  determined  by  the  size  of  the 
several  holdings,  originally  no  doubt  by  the  number  of 



S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

yard  lands  comprised  in  each  farm— two  days  to  one,  five 
to  another,  and  so  on.  At  the  expiration  of  the  stipu- 
lated number  of  days,  the  farmer  gave  the  labourer  a 
ticket  or  certificate  entitling  him  to  receive  pay  at  the 
hands  of  one  of  the  overseers  out  of  the  funds  raised  by 
the  poor  rates,  which  were  thus  enhanced  out  of  all  fair 
proportion;  and  as  the  acting  overseer  was  usually  a 
shopkeeper,  the  evils  of  the  truck  system  were  added  to 
the  other  bad  features  of  'Rounding';  yet,  strange  to 
say,  a  majority  of  farmers  liked  it,  arguing  that  the  rents 
would  be  kept  down  by  the  landowners  exactly  in  pro- 
portion as  the  rates  were  kept  up.  A  still  worse  system 
prevailed  at  King's  Button,  Deddington,  and  some  other 
places,  at  the  same  period  of  the  reign  of  George  IV., 
namely,  congregating  the  unemployed  in  the  centre  of  a 
village  or  parish  during  the  winter  days  for  a  stipulated 
number  of  hours,  and  then  paying  them  from  the  poor 
rates  for  thus  standing  unemployed. 

"  Neither  the  '  Rounding '  system,  nor  the  '  All  the 
day  idle '  system,  ever  flourished  in  those  parishes  where 
absenteeism  was  unknown ;  and  landowners  admitted 
that  ownership  of  the  soil  means  something  more  than 
investment  of  capital  and  collection  of  rents." 


Steeple  Aston,  Oxford. 

HYLTON  OF  HYLTON. —  The  recent  elevation  of 
Sir  William  G.  Hylton  Joliffe  to  the  peerage  as 
Baron  Hylton,  "  of  Hylton,  in  the  county  Palatine 
of  Durham,"  ought  not  to  be  passed  over  without 
notice  by  genealogists.  It  has  been  a  generally 
accredited  belief,  that  the  direct  line  of  the  old 
Barons  of  Hylton  Castle  has  long  been  utterly 
extinct.  It  has  also  been  generally  supposed  that 
a  family  of  Hilton  settled  in  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne  in  the  last  century  —  two  individuals  of 
whom  (both  single  women)  survived  into  the 
present  century  —  were  the  nearest,  and  indeed 
only,  survivors  of  the  collaterals  of  that  old  race. 
In  Mr.  Hewitt's  popular  work,  Visits  to  Remark- 
able Places,  there  is  an  interesting  chapter  on 
Hylton  Castle;  in  which  the  popular  belief  as 
above  stated  is  assumed  as  a  fact,  and  moralised 
on  with  reference  to  the  humble  position  to  which 
the  sole  survivors  of  an  ancient  noble  race  had 
been  reduced.  The  author  seems  to  have  derived 
from  his  informants  a  slightly  exaggerated  ac- 
count of  the  indigence  to  which  these  two  single 
women  were  reduced ;  but  it  is  certain  they  were 
in  narrow  circumstances,  and  the  writer  of  these 
lines  can  vouch  for  Mr.  Howitt's  account  having 
been  the  accepted  one  in  the  locality,  and  also  for 
the  care  and  industry  with  which  that  author 
collected  information  on  the  spot  when  engaged 
in  writing  his  work.  The  survivor  of  those  aged 
spinsters  died  above  twenty  years  ago;  and,  on 
her  death,  assuming  the  above  facts  to  be  correct, 
not  a  single  individual  of  the  old  race  of  "  Hylton 
of  Hylton  "  remained  in  the  world.  An  interest- 
ing question,  therefore,  arises:  What  circum- 
stances induced  the  highly  respected  baronet  to 
assume  the  title  of  "  Hylton  of  Hylton  ?  "  Per- 
haps some  of  your  correspondents  may  be  able  to 
throw  light  on  the  subject.  M.  H.  R. 

tlje  woodcuts  which  adorn  Sebastian  Brant's  Navis 
StuUifera?  In  the  edition  which  I  possess  (Basle, 
1498)  no  mention  is  made  of  the  artist,  though 
several  complimentary  odes  and  epigrams,  ad- 
dressed to  each  other  by  Brant  and  James  Locher 
(his  translator  into  Latin)  are  inserted,  and  even 
the  printer  comes  in  for  his  modicum  of  praise.* 

F.  D.  M. 

CLERICAL  COSTUME.— I  see  at  gatherings  of  the 
clergy  that  literates  have  lately  taken  to  wear 
hoods  in  respect  of  the  shape,  though  I  believe  a 
fine  prince's-stuff  is  substituted  for  silk,  thus  yield- 
ing a  practical  obedience  to  the  58th  Canon.  But 
as  the  same  Canon  forbids  non-graduates  wearing 
hoods,  and  permits  them  to  wear  tippets  only,  I 
should  feel  obliged  by  any  correspondent  who  has 
studied  the  point  defining  exactly  what  is  the 
precise  form  of  the  distinction  which  this  Canon 
establishes  between  a  hood  and  a  tippet,  when  it 
appropriates  the  latter  only  to  nongraduate  clerks. 
The  makers  of  clerical  vestments  advertise  literate 
hoods,  but  that  circumstance  does  not  designate 
their  proper  shape,  nor  justify  a  disregard  of  the 
difference  no  doubt  existing  between  a  hood  of  any 
kind  and  the  permitted  tippet  of  the  Canon. 

B.  D. 

A  CREST  QUERY.  —  My  crest  is  a  demi  lion 
rampant.  I  have  just  ordered  a  new  set  of  single- 
horse  carriage  harness,  to  have  my  crest  in  metal 
on  the  blinkers,  saddle,  &c. 

The  harness-maker  tells  me  I  must  have  two 
dies  cast,  and  two  different  impressions  of  the 
crest  made,  in  order  that  the  crests  on  each  side 
of  the  horse  may  look  towards  the  horse's  head. 

It  seems  to  me  that,  whereas  my  crest  naturally 
looks  to  the  dexter,  this  arrangement  will  insure 
that  on  one  side  of  the  horse  my  crest  will  look 
to  the  sinister. 

I  am  sensible  that,  on  the  other  hand,  there  is 
some  awkwardness  in  having  my  crest  looking  to 
my  horse's  head  on  one  side,  and  to  his  tail  on 
the  other.  I  know  not  which  cause  to  adopt. 
Pray  relieve  my  perplexity.  B.  A.  M. 

P.  S.  If  I  was  to  put  the  shield  as  well  as 
the  crest,  I  have  no  doubt  the  coachmaker  would 
be  wrong.  What  is  the  practice  in  the  case 
where  the  crest  only  is  painted  on  a  carriage 
door  ?  Is  there  any  difference  between  the  case 
of  a  crest  painted  and  one  cast  in  metal  ? 

[  *  Dr.  Dibdin  has  remarked,  that "  when  the  authorities 
of  Mr.  Douce  and  Mr.  Ottley  are  deduced,  as  corrobora- 
tive of  the  silence,  or  ignorance,  which  is  likely  to  pre- 
vail concerning  the  artists  [of  the  Navis  Stultifera~],  all 
further  enquiry  may  be  considered  fruitless." — Bibliotheca 
Spenceriana,  iii.  207.] 

S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



DRAPER  FAMILY.— Can  any  of  the  contributors 
to  "  N.  £  Q."  inform  me  where  the  tomb  is  of 
General  Edward  Draper,  who  was  killed  in  the 
battle  of  Dettingen  (1743)  ?  I  fancy  that  it  is  in 
a  town  a  short  distance  from  the  battle-field. 

I  would  further  solicit  information  generally 
respecting  this  rich  family  of  Draper. 

There  is  a  magnificent  marble  monument  to 
William  Draper  (1650)  and  his  wife  in  Crayford 
church.  The  Drapers  possessed  not  only  large 
estates  in  Kent,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Erith, 
Dartford,  Crayford,  and  Bromley;  but  also  in 
Nether- Worton  in  Oxfordshire,  and  Froyle  in 

It  has  been  stated  that  a  Diana  Draper,  a  great 
fox-huntress  in  Yorkshire,  was  the  original  of  the 
"  Die  Vernon  "  of  Sir  Walter  Scott:  This  Diana 
Draper  was  probably  connected  with  the  Kent 
"Drapers"  —  but  how? 

Sterne's  "Eliza"  was  also  a  Draper. 



in  his  Coinage  of  the  British  Empire,  speaking  of 
the  Irish  copper  coinage  of  this  reign,  says: 
"  Farthings  are  also  mentioned  in  the  record,  but 
none  have  ever  been  discovered."  I  have  in  my 
collection  a  farthing  of  Queen  Elizabeth — Obv. : 
Square  shield  within  circle  of  dots,  upper  left 
and  lower  right-hand  quarters,  the  three  fleur-de- 
lis,  and  the  other  quarters  the  three  lions ;  E — R 
on  either  side  of  the  shield.  Legend,  "  Elizabeth. 
D.  g.  An.  Fr.  .  .  .  Hiber.  Reg."  Reverse :  Irish 
crowned  harp,  16 — 02  on  either  side  of  harp.  Leg., 

"  Posvi  Dev  Adjvto  " the  rest  illegible. 

What  is  the  rarity  of  this  piece,  and  has  it  been 
described ;  and  if  so,  where  ?  An  answer  will 
oblige  a  transatlantic  lover  of  numismatics. 

D.  L.  W. 

New  York. 

INTO  ENGLISH.  —  What  was  it  ?  I  have  a  copy 
of  Bengel's  Notes  on  the  Apocalypse,  "  translated 
from  the  High  Dutch  by  John  Robertson,  M.D. 
London :  Ryall  and  Withy,  Hogarth's  Head  and 
Dial,  opposite  to  Salisbury  Court,  Fleet  Street, 
1757."  The  High  Dutch  I  take  to  be  German. 
But  .the  phrase  clearly  intimates  that  translations 
from  the  German  had  not  then  become  so  com- 
mon as  they  did  subsequently,  when  Kotzebue's 
plays  and  Goethe's  Werther  were  all  the  rage  in 
England.  D.  BLAIR. 


PASSAGE  IN  GOLDSMITH.  —In  a  French  work,  I 
found  recently  the  following  quotation :  — 

"  De  meme  que  dix  millions  de  cercles  ne  feront  jamais 
un  earn?,  les  voix  unies  de  myriades  d'hommes  ne  don- 
neront  jamais  la  moiudre  re'alite'  &  ce  qui  est  faux." — 

Can  any  of  your  readers  give  me  the  original, 
and  state  where  it  is  to  be  found  ?  L.  H.  M. 

HEBREW  SYNONYMS. — What  works  are  there 
upon  this  subject,  and  is  there  a  good  one  ? 

F.  C. 

OLD  KENT  NEWSPAPERS. — I  should  feel  greatly 
obliged  if  any  readers  of  "N.  &  Q."  can  supply 
me  with  some  information  respecting  the  following 
old  Kent  newspapers,  viz. : — 

The  Kentish  Gazette,  established  in  1717.  This 
paper  is  still  published,  and  has  reached  its  179th 
volume.  What  month  and  day  in  1717  did  this 
paper  commence  ?  and  did  it  commence  under  the 
title  of  The  Kentish  Gazette  ? 

In  the  Museum  at  Maidstone,  Kent,  is  pre- 
served one  number  of  the  Maidstone  Mercury  of 
1725.  When  was  this  paper  first  published,  and 
when  did  it  cease,  as  I  do  not  find  any  published 
now  bearing  the  above  title  ? 

In  the  Catalogue  of  the  library  of  the  late  Mr. 
William  Upcott,  sold  by  auction  by  Messrs. 
Sotheby  and  Co.,  in  June  1846,  occurred :  Lot  842, 
The  Kentish  Post  for  1728  and  1729;  Lot  843, 
The  Kentish  Post  for  1756  (mutilated).  When 
was  this  paper  first  published,  and  when  did  it 
cease,. and  where  can  I  now  inspect  these  papers? 

The  Kentish  Chronicle  bore  the  No.  1847  on 
October  9,  1797,  and  was  published  on  Tuesdays 
and  Fridays.  I  should  be  glad  to  know  when 
this  paper  commenced,  and  if  complete  sets  of  the 
above  old  newspapers  have  been  preserved,  and 
where  they  can  be  inspected  ?  And  also,  if  any 
others  have  occurred  for  sale  by  auction  ?  It  is 
to  be  regretted  that  the  British  Museum  is  so 
very  deficient  in  these  early  county  newspapers. 

W.  D. 

Kennington,  Surrey. 

WAY.— Can  you  refer  me  to  any  books  or  papers 
giving  illustrations,  or  description  of  modern  life 
and  dress,  &c.,  in  Sweden  and  Norway  ? 


BURIAL  OF  LIVING  PERSONS.— In  Alban  Butler's 
Life  of  St.  Camillus  (July  14)  occurs  the  follow- 
ing passage :  — 

"  Among  many  abuses  and  dangerous  evils,  which  the 
zeal  of  S.  Camillus  prevented,  his  attention  to  every  cir- 
cumstance relating  to  the  care  of  dying  persons  soon 
made  him  discover  that,  in  hospitals,  many  people  are 
buried  alive,  of  which  Cicatello  relates  several  examples ; 
particularly  of  one  buried  in  a  vault,  who  was  found 
walking  about  in  it  when  the  next  corpse  was  to  be  there 
interred,"  &c. 

In  connection  with  the  above  statement  my 
query  is :  Are  there  many  well-authenticated  in- 
stances of  persons  having  been  buried  alive  ?*  And 


*  See  «  N.  &  Q."  1*  S.  vi.  245,  560;   x.  233;  2»*  S.  i. 



<i  S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

if  so,  how  was  it  ascertained  that  they  really  were 
not  dead,  though  they  had  been  buried  as  such  ? 
The  case  referred  to  by  Cicatello,  the  biographer 
of  St.  Camillus,  seems  almost  incredible.  No 
doubt  in  hospitals,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  it 
has-  often  happened  that  persons  were  supposed  to 
be  dead  when,  in  reality,  they  were  not ;  and 
preparations  were  made  for  their  interment,  when 
the  parties  suddenly  revived.  No  certain  marks 
can  be  given  that  a  person  is  dead,  until  evident 
symptoms  of  putrefaction  have  commenced. 


MR.  LEE,  in  his  very  interesting  paper  on  the 
"Periodical  Publications  of  1712-32,"  notes  S. 
Keimer,  the  eccentric  printer,  as  one  who  "  com- 
posed pamphlets  and  journals  direct  from  the 
head  into  type  without  manuscript."  I  remember 
reading  an  Unwritten  Book  (so  entitled),  contain- 
ing some  very  pleasant  and  genial  critical  gossip 
on  English  poets  and  poetry,  composed  by  a 
printer  named  Lordan,  of  Romsey,  in  Hampshire. 
It  would  be  worth  while  collecting  a  list  of  these 
very  ingenious  printer-authors.  Is  there  already 
any  such  list  in  existence  in  any  work  on  the 
typographic  art  ?  D.  BLAIR. 


SAVERNE  AND  SAVERNAKE. — The  first  occurs  as 
the  name  of  a  village  in  the  woody  defiles  of  the 
hills  that  separate  Alsace  from  the  rest  of  France  j 
the  second  is  a  well-known  name  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Marlborough.  Both  places  are  in  the 
midst  of  woods  or  woody  districts,  and  it  seems 
not  unreasonable  to  suppose  that  the  above  names 
have  reference  to  the  situation.  Can  any  of  your 
readers  prove  this  from  etymology  ? 


SCOTCH  LAIRDS,  1687.  —  The  following  person- 
ages are  mentioned  in  a  Scotch  deed  of  the  above 
date.  I  shall  be  greatly  obliged  if  any  one  will 
tell  me  the  names  of  the  parties  mentioned : — 

The  Laird  of  Preston-Grange ;  the  Laird  of 
Kinnaldie ;  Lady  Crimstain ;  the  Laird  of  Gre- 
doun ;  and  the  Laird  of  Balroune. 

F.  M.  S. 

find  a  Catalogue  of  all  the  topographical  engrav- 
ings, views,  maps,  &c.,  that  have  been  published 
from  the  earliest  period  to  the  present  time,  to 
illustrate  all  the  English  counties — such  as  views 
of  seats,  towns,  villages,  old  buildings,  antiqui- 
ties, &c.,  &c.  :  their  sizes,  dates  of  publication, 
drawers'  and  engravers'  names ;  and  also  a  list  of 
all  the  views  and  engravings  that  have  been  pub- 
lished to  illustrate  cricket,  horse-racing,  pugilism, 
pedestrianism  and  other  sports  ?  W.  D. 

Kennington,  Surrey. 

WHICH  is  THE  WORLD'S  BIRTHDAY?  —  On  the 
tombstone  of  Thomas  Dawson,  who  died  October 
23,  1674,  at  Sandwich,  are  found  these  lines :  — 
"  Upon  October's  three-aud-twentieth  day 
The  world  began,  as  learned  annals  say." 

I  should  be  glad  to  know  what  authority  there 
is  for  the  statement  ?  W.  H.  S. 

SATJL,  ST.  PAUL. — When,  and  for  reason,  did 
St.  Paul  change  his  name  ?  Or  had  he  two  names 
from  his  birth,  the  one  (Saul),  in  virtue  of  his 
Hebrew  descent,  and  the  other  (Paul),  in  virtue 
of  his  Roman  citizenship,  so  that  he  used  t\^e  one 
amongst  the  Jews,  but  adopted  the  other  after  his 
conversion,  when  he  was  called  upon  to  labour 
chiefly  among  the  Gentiles  ? 

In  a  work  which  I  met  with  a  short  time  ago,  s 
entitled  The  Annals  of  the  Church  from  the  Death 
of  Christ  (vol.  i.  p.  30,  London,  1738),  a  reason  is 
given  for  the  change  of  name,  which  I  have  never 
seen  mentioned  before.  These  are  the  words  of 
the  writer :  — 

"This  illustrious  Convert,  the  Pro-Consul  Sergius 
Paulus,  was  so  sensible  of  the  benefit  received  from  Saul, 
that  in  return  he  adopted  him  into  his  family,  and  gave 
him  his  own  surname  of  Paulus." 



[In  the  article  '-'Saul,"  in  Smith's  Dictionary  of  tlte 
Bible,  by  the  Rev.  John  Llewelyn  Davies,  it  is  stated 
"  that  nothing  certain  is  known  about  the  change  of  the 
apostle's  name  from  Saul  to  Paul  (Acts,  xiii.  9).  Two 
chief  conjectures  prevail  concerning  the  change.  (1.) 
That  of  Jerome  and  Augustine,  that  the  name  was  de- 
rived from  Sergius  Paulus,  the  first  of  his  Gentile  con- 
verts. (2.)  That  which  appears  due  to  Lightfoot,  that 
Paulus  was  the  apostle's  Roman  name  as  a  citizen  of 
Tarsus,  naturally  adopted  into  common  use  by  his  bio- 
graphers when  his  labours  among  the  heathen  com- 
menced. The  former  of  these  is  adopted  by  Olshausen 
and  Meyer.  It  is  also  the  view  of  Ewald  (Gesch.  vi. 
419,  20),  who  seems  to  consider  it  self-evident,  and  looks 
on  the  absence  of  any  explanation  of  the  change  as  a 
proof  that  it  was  so  understood  by  all  the  readers  of  the 
Acts.  However  this  may  be,  after  Saul  has  taken  his 
place  definitively  as  the  Apostle  to  the  Gentile  world,  his 
Jewish  name  is  entirely  dropped.  Two  divisions  of  his 
life  are  well  marked  by  the  use  of  the  two  names.  There 
are  many  other  theories,  one  of  which  may  be  mentioned, 
that  of  Nicephorus  (Hist.  Eccles.  ii.  37),  who  treats  Paulus 
as  a  contraction  of  Pusillus,  and  supposes  it  to  have  been 
a  nickname  given  to  the  apostle  on  account  of  his  insig- 
nificant stature!"  Consult  also  Kitto?s  Cyclopaedia  of 
Biblical  Literature,  art.  "  Paul."] 

ARMS  OF  BAYLY. — I  am  very  desirous  of  ascer- 
taining the   exact  arms  borne  by  the  family  of 

3"»  S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



Lewis  Bayly,  Bishop  of  Bangor.     The  only  in 
stance  I  can  find  is  a  manuscript  drawing  of  1654 
as  borne  by  his  son  Dr.  John  Bayly  —  quarterly 
1st  and  4th,  A.  a  chevron  between  three  martlet 
G.,  2nd  and  3rd  A.  a  lion  rampant  S.  memberec 
(?)  A.,  a  martlet  for  difference.     I  am  not  sure 
whether  the  lion  is  intended  to  be  membered,  or 
armed  or  bound,  and  shall  be  glad  to  know  ex 
actly  what  the  quartered  arms  are,  as  well  as 
whose  they  are.  W.  S.  APPLETON. 

[In  the  Rev.  Ry land  Bedford's  very  useful  volume 
The  Blazon  of  Episcopacy,  the  arms  ascribed  to  Bishop 
Lewis  Bayly  of  Bangor  are,  Azure,  nine  estoiles,  Or 
This  on  the  authority  of  Burke's  Landed  Gentry,  vol.  i 
p.  72.] 

CHISWICK  PRESS.  —  Can  you  tell  me  where  the 
Chiswick  Press  was  situated,  and  at  what  date 
it  ceased  ?  I  have  before  me  — 

"  The  Dramatic  Works  of  William  Shakspeare,  with 
Xotes,  original  and  selected,  by  Samuel  Weller  Singer, 
F.S.A. ;  and  A  Life  of  the  Poet,  by  Charles  Symmons, 
D.D.  In  10  vols.  From  «  The  Chiswick  Press,'  1826." 


[According  to  Faulkner's  History  of  Cliiswick,  p.  459, 
"  Mr.  Charles  Whittingham,  in  conjunction  with  Mr. 
Bishop,  in  the  year  1810  took  the  premises  known  as  the 
High  House,  on  Chiswick  Mall,  but  now  [1845]  used  as 
a  workhouse  for  the  Fulham  poor.  This  house  he  occu- 
pied as  a  dwelling-house  and  printing-office,  and  the 
adjoining  house  was  used  as  a  factory  for  the  reducing  of 
old  rope  to  a  state  fit  to  be  made  into  paper,  in  conjunc- 
tion with  Mr.  Bishop.  He  lately  removed,  in  the  year 
1818,  to  College  House.  Mr.  Charles  Whittingham  died 
on  January  15,  1840,  aged  seventy-three."  In  1851  the 
Chiswick  Press  was  combined  with  that  in  Tooks  Court, 
Chancery  Lane,  and  is  now  carried  on  by  Messrs.  Whit- 
tingham and  Wilkins,  the  printers  of  the  famed  Aldine 
edition  of  the  British  Poets.'} 

PEPPERCORN  RENT. — What  is  the  origin  of  a 
nominal  rent  being  called  a  peppercorn  rent  ? 


[A  peppercorn  rent,  as  one  of  the  nominal  items  pay- 
able by  a  vassal  to  his  superior,  seems  to  have  originated 
in  the  feudal  ages.  The  word  peppercorn  simply  denotes 
anything  of  inconsiderable  value,  which  freeholders  pay 
their  landlord  to  acknowledge  that  they  held  all  from 

"  Folks  from  mud-wall'd  tenement 
Bring  landlords  peppercorn  for  rent." 

This  kind  of  service  is  called  in  Scotland  Blanch- 
holding,  in  which  the  vassal  pays  a  small  duty  to  the 
superior,  in  full  of  all  services,  as  an  acknowledgment  of 
his  right,  either  in  money,  or  in  some  other  article,  as  a 
penny,  money,  a  pair  of  gilt  spurs,  a  pound  of  wax,  or  of 
pepper,  &c.,  nomine  albe  firmce.  Erskine's  Institute  of  the 
Law  .of  Scotland,  ed.  1773,  i.  209.  J 

UNPUBLISHED  MANUSCRIPT. — The  following  is 
the  title-page  of  a  singularly  quaint  and  learned 
old  MS.  in  my  library  :  — 

"  A  Mirrour  for  young  Christian  Ladyes.  Or  a  Glass 
for  all  Parturient  Women.  Beeing  a  generall  Character 
of  Woman,  from  her  Creation  to  her  Resurrection. 
Wherein  is  set  forth  in  Essayes,  Hymnes,  Prayers,  and 
Ejaculations  :  the  Woman's — 1.  Creation.  2. 'Fall.  3. 
Redemption.  4.  Conception.*  5.  Quickning.  6.  Travell. 
7.  Delivery.  8.  Thanksgiving.  9.  Death.  10.  Resur- 
rection. 11.  Private  Recesses.  12.  Recreation.  To  the 
Honourable  the  Lady  Mary  Hare,  Wife  to  the  truly 
Honourble  Gentleman,  Sr  Ralph  Hare,  Baronet." 

The  Epistle  Dedicatory  to  Lady  Hare  is  signed 
"Edmond  Parlet,"  and  dated  "September  19th, 
1653."  The  entire  MS.  consists  of  title-page, 
Epistle  Dedicatory,  2  pp.,  and  the  treatise  itself 
75  pp.  closely-written  (folio).  On  the  vellum 
cover  a  former  possessor  has  recorded  that  the 
author,  Parlet,  was  "  Vicar  of  Stow-Bardolph," 
and  gives  these  references:  "See  Bld,  vol.  vii. 
pp.  447,  450,  453,  454,  342."  As  I  have  been 
urged  to  give  a  limited  and  privately -printed  edi- 
tion of  this  rife,  rare,  and  racy  MS.,  I  shall  be 
much  obliged  by  any  reader  of  "  N.  &  Q."  favour- 
ing me  with — 1.  Information  concerning  Parlet. 

2.  Explanation  of  the  above  reference  to  "Bld." 

3.  Anything  about  Sir  Ralph   and  Lady  Hare. 
The  handwriting  of  the  MS.  is  particularly  neat 
and  careful.  ALEXANDER  B.  GROSART. 

308,  Upper  Parliament  Street,  Liverpool. 
[In  the  Bodleian  Library  (Rawlinson  MSS.  Misc.  164) » 
is  a  manuscript  entitled   "  The  General   Character    of 
Woman,"  written  by  Edmond  Parlett,  of  Caius  College, 
Cambridge,  1659,  which  contains  the  following  poetical 
character  of  the  unfortunate  Queen  Anne  Boleyn  :  — 

"  From  gentle  birth  I  rose  to  royal  state, 
Most  happy  in  it,  and  unfortunate  : 
My  happiness  t'embrace  the  Gospel's  light, 
Defend  professors  true  from  papal  spite : 
Under  my  wings  truth  such  firm  root  did  take, 
Nor  men  nor  devils  after  could  it  shake. 
Mine  alms  like  holy  Paulas  were  so  large, 
The  poor  relieved  at  another's  charge 
My  loss  I  counted.    Thus  I  spent  my  time ; 
Till  by  a  false  and  most  unlikely  crime, 
My  popish  prelates  forged,  my  blood  to  spill, 
I  lost  mine  head  and  life  on  Tower  Hill. 
But,  maugre  malice,  still  my  memory 
Remaineth  precious  to  posterity  ; 
Able  to  stifle  the  most  envious  breath, 
Leaving  to  England  blest  ELIZABETH." 
The  reference  Bld  is  to  Blomefield's  History  of  Norfolk, 
vo  edition.     The  same  work  contains  some  particulars  of 
ir  Ralph  and  Lady  Hare.] 

NEWBERRY  WILL. — I  should  be  glad  to  have 
n  explanation  of  the  joke  intended  by  the  fol- 
Qwing  epitaph,  copied  from  Harleian  MS.  5832 : — 



[3**  S.  X.  AUG.  4, 

"  Hie  jacet  Newberry  Witt, 
Vitam  finivit  cum  Scotia  Pill. 
Quis  administravit  ?    Bellamy  Sue. 
Quantum,  Quantitate  ?   Nescio.     Scisne  tu  7 
What  is  tfcofca  GL  W. 

[This  epitaph,  in  Edmonton  churchyard,  is  on  William 
Newberry,  an  hostler,  ob.  1695,  who  lost  his  life  from  the 
improper  administration  of  medicine  by  an  ignorant  fel- 
low-servant.   The  following  is  a  more  correct  reading  :  — 
«  Hie  jacet  Newberry  Will, 
Vitam  finivit  cum  Cochise  Pill  ; 
Quis  administravit  ?    Bellamy  Sue  ; 
Quantum  quantitas  ?    Nescio  —  • 

Scisne  tu  ? 
Ne  sutor  ultra  crepidam."] 

Pun*  CE  RUPERT.  —  What  were  the  arms,  crest, 
and  motto,  borne  by  Prince  Rupert  ? 


[Prince  Rupert's  arms,  crest,  and  supporters  may  be 
seen  in  Guillim's  Heraldry,  5th  edit.  fol.  1678,  "  Achieve- 
ments of  Dukes,"  p.  32.  See  also  "  N.  &  Q.,"  2**  S.  viii. 
418.  The  motto,  "  Honi  soit  qui  mal  y  pense."] 

(2nd  S.  vii.  231,  &c.) 

In  several  papers  which  appeared  in  "N.  &  Q.," 
a  "Doctor"  was  pointed  at  as  having  written  a 
treatise  upon  the  Weapon  Salve,  which  drew 
forth  a  letter  from  Mr.  John  Hales  in  ridicule 
thereof.  That  the  "sympathetic powder"  knight, 
Sir  Kenelm  Digby,  was  not  the  "  weapon  salve  " 
doctor  was  considered  li  next  to  certain  " — indeed 
was  made  clear — for  it  was  not  only  very  unlikely 
that  Hales  would  have  dubbed  Digby  a  doctor, 
but  Hales  had  evidently  never  read  Digby's  book. 
I  have  lately  discovered  that  the  mysterious 
doctor,  against  whom -Hales  wrote,  was  Dr.  Fludd, 
or,  as  he  called  himself,  De  Fluctibus,  a  celebrated 
<l  Rosicruscian  virtuoso,"  an  account  of  whom  may 
be  seen  in  Wood's  Athence  Oxonienses  (1st  ed. 
vol.  i.  col.  509-10,  or  519-20).  The  weapon- 
salve  cure,  promulgated  previously  in  some  of 
his  works,  which  were  written  in  Latin  and 
printed  abroad,  having  met  with  ridicule  from  a 
"  Parson  Foster,"  Fludd  answered  him  in  an  Eng- 
lish book,  a  copy  of  which  is  in  my  possession. 
As  no  reference  has  been  made  to  this  book  in 
your  columns  during  the  discussion  carried  on 
there,  and  as  it  is  not  mentioned  by  "Lowndes," 
I  conclude  that  it  is  rare,  and  that  a  few  particu- 
lars of  it  may  be  acceptable.  It  is  a  small  quarto 
of  212  pages  besides  preface  and  title.  As  your 
correspondent,  TEE-BEE,  writes  of  Hales's  myste- 
rious opponent—"  The  Doctor,  in  support  of  his 
thesis,  promises  reason,  uses  scripture,  and  pre- 
tends experience."  His  manner  is  furious,  this 
the  very  title-page  will  show : — 

"  Doctor  Fludd's  Answer  unto  M.  Foster, 


The  Squeesing  of  Parson  Foster's  Sponge 
ordained  by  him  for  the  wiping  away  of  the 

W  eapon  Salve : 

Wherein  the  Sponge-bearer's  immodest  carriage  and 
behaviour  towards  his  bretheren  is  detected ;  the  bitter 

of  his  Slanderous  reports,  are  by  the  sharpe  vineger  of 


corrected  and  quite  extinguished :  and  lastly,  the  vertuous 

validity  of  his  Sponge,  in  wiping  away  of  the 

Weapon  Salve,  is  crushed  out  and 

cleane  abolished, 
Sills  acutissima  aceto  correcta  acerrimo  redditur  dulcior. 

Psalm  xcii.  7. 

Opera  Dei,  vir  brutus  et  stultus  non  intelligit. 
The  assertion  of  Parson  Foster  and  his  Faction  or  Cabale 

is  this: 

The  wonderful  manner  of  healing  by  the  weapon  salve  is 
diabolicall,  or  effected  one'/y  by  the  invention  and  power  of 

the  Deuitt ; 

But,  the  royal  Psalmist,  guided  by  the  Spirit  of  God, 
saith — Psalm  Ixxi.  18 — Blessed  be  t he  Lord  God  of  Israel 
who  only  worketh  ivondei-s.  Therefore,  the  Prophet  pointeth 

thus  at  these  and  such  like  enemies  of  the  Truth. 

Esa.  v.  20 —  'Woe  unto  them  that  speake  good  of  euill,  and 

euill  of  good,  &c. 

London : 
Printed  for  Nathanael  Butter,  1631." 

"  The  Contents  of  this  Treatise. 

This  small  Treatise  is  divided  into  3  members,  whereof 
the  — 

1.  Taketh  away  and  utterly  disannulleth  those  scandal- 

ous reports  which  Master  Foster  hath  in  his  writing 
most  falsly  and  irreligiously  divulged  and  layd  unto 
my  charge,  and  withall  expresseth  unto  the  world 
how  unseemly  a  thing  it  is  for  a  man  of  his  calling, 
to  accuse  and  censure  his  brother  unjustly. 

2.  Is  divided  into  3  parts  or  chapters,  of  the  which  the — 

One  doth  answer  particularly  unto  every  objection 
that  Master  Foster  doth  make  in  a  generality  for 
the  abolishing  of  the  Weapon  Salve's  usage. 

Other  doth  maintaine  Theologically  the  Cure  of 
the  Weapon  Salve  to  be  good  and  lawful,  and 
proveth  it  by  the  authority  of  holy  writ,  to  be  the 
gift  of  God  :  and  not  of  the  diuell. 

Lastly,  demonstrateth  the  mysterie  of  the  Weapon 
Salve's  "cure,  by  a  Theophilosophicall  discourse,  and 
sheweth  how  it  is  grafted  or  planted  by  God  in  the 
Treasury  of  Nature. 

Last,  doth  answer  unto  each  particular  obiection,  which 
our  Spongie  Adversary  maketh  against  a  certaine 
Treatise,  expressed  by  me  in  my  Mysticall  Anatomy 
for  the  proving  and  maintaining  of  the  Cure  by  the 
Weapon  Salve  to  be  naturall,  and  no  way  Cacoma- 

In  the  preface,  Fludd  writes  that  he  "  did  not 
think  to  have  stirred  up  the  puddle  of  this  mine 
adversarie's  turbulent  spirit  for  a  3-fold  reason," 
but  became  urged  beyond  the  bounds  of  patience 
by  Foster  having  "  set  up  in  the  night  time  two 
of  the  frontispieces  or  titles  of  his  book,  as  a  chal- 
lenge, one  on  each  post  of  my  doore."  Foster's 
book  was  intituled  The  Sponge  to  wipe  away  the 
Weapon  Salve.  Fludd's  mode  of  dealing  with  his 
antagonist,  also  the  composition  of  the  weapon 
salve,  will  be  seen  from  the  following  extract :  — 

3'd  s.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



"  I  pray  you  observe  (gentle  and  judicious  reader)  how 
our  sponge-carrier  is  very  halting  and  unperfect  in  the 
interpretation  of  my  text,  straining  it  much  from  its  true 
nature  to  serve  his  own  sense,  rather  than  justly  to  ex- 
presse  mine  intention  (as  indeed  he  ought)  :  I  will,  there- 
fore, in  the  first  place,  expresse  unto  you  in  naked  Eng- 
lish tearmes  the  full  and  exact  purpose  of  my  Latin  text, 
which  I  call  mine  assertion  ;  and  then,  in  the  next  place, 
I  will  expresse  his  exposition  or  collection.  After  that  I 
will  set  downe  the  vertuous  validity  of  his  sponge  in 
drinking  up,  devouring,  or  wiping  away  the  strength  of 
my  assertion  ;  and  then,  in  the  last  place,  I  will  crush 
and  squeese  his  sponge,  and  make  it  by  force  to  vomit  up 
againe  the  truthe,  which  it  had  devoured,  or  rather 
covered  with  his  vaile  of  ignorance.  And  this  shall  be 
my  manner  of  proceeding  in  combate  against  this  Ler- 
nian  Monster,  and  his  Truth-devouring  sponge. 

Heere  it  is  proved  against  our  adversarie's  assertion  — 
First,  that  the  Blood,  Fat,  Flesh,  and  Bones  of  a  dead  man 
doe  participate  with  the  Balsamicke  nature  or  humi- 
dum  radicule  which  is  in  the  living  man. 

Secondly,  that  a  Horse  hath  a  Balsam  sympathising 
with  that  of  a  man. 

My  naked  Text  Englished. 

We  see  that  this  oyntment  is  compounded  of  things  pas- 
sing well  agreeing  with  man's  nature  :  and  consequently, 
that  it  hath  a  great  respect  to  his  health  and  preservation, 
for  as  much  as  unto  the  composition  thereof,  wee  have  in 
the  chiefest  place  or  ranke  Blood,  in  which  the  power  of 
life  is  placed.  Here,  I  say,  is  the  essence  of  man's  Bones 
growing  out  of  them,  in  form  of  Mosse,  termed  Usnea  ; 
here  is  the  flesh  in  the  mummy  which  is  compounded  of 
Flesh  and  Balsame :  here  is  Fat  of  man's  body,  which 
concurreth  with  the  rest  unto  the  perfections  of  this  oynt- 
ment. And  with  all  these  (as  is  said)  the  Blood  is  mingled 
which  was  the  beginning  and  food  of  them  all,  for  as 
much  as  in  it  is  the  spirit  of  life,  and  with  it  the  bright 
soule  doth  abide,  and  operateth  after  a  hidden  manner. 
So  that  the  whole  perfection  of  man's  body  doth  seem  to 
concurre  unto  the  confection  of  this  precious  oyntment. 
And  this  is  the  reason  why  there  is  so  great  a  respect  and 
consent,  betweene  this  oy'ntment  and  the  Blood  of  the 
wounded  person.  For  it  is  most  necessary  that  some  of 
the  wounded  be  drawne  out  from  the "  depth  of  the 
wound,"  &c. 

At  p.  108,  Fludd  writes :  — 

"Now  I  will  relate  unto  you  the  stories  of  certain 
homebred  cures  which  have  been  effected  by  this  Weapon 
Salve,  that  thereby  wise  men  may  deeme  or  gesse  up- 
rightly, whether  the  Deuill  hath  a  finger  in  this  cure, 
yea  or  no.  There  is  a  Knight  dwelling  in  Kent,  a  man 
judicious,  religious,  and  learned,  called  Sr  Nicholas  Gil- 
bourne,  one  (I  say)  with  whom  I  both  am,  and  have  been 
long  familiar.  For  he  married  my  Sister.  This  Knight 
having  good  acquaintance  with  one  Captain  Stiles,  for  as 
much  as  in  times  past  he  was  his  tenant,  was  with  the  said 
Captaine  in  the  company  of  very  good  and  learned  Divines, 
at  the  making  of  the  said  oyntment,  who  saw  all  the  in- 
grediences  apart,  and  often  beheld  an  Apothecary  to  com- 
pound them  together  without  any  kinde  of  superstitious 
action,  where  it  was  generally  adjudged  to  be  a  lawful 
medicine,  and  no  way  superstitious  or  diabolicall.  A 
box  of  this  Oyntment  was  bestowed  on  this  my  brother 
in  lawe  :  what  wholsome  effects  it  hath  wrought,  I  will 
in  a  word  relate  unto  you,  and  that  verbatim  as  I  have  it 
under  his  own  hand. 

"The  first  (saith  hee)  was  at  Chatam  in  Kent,  where 
the  servant  of  one  Poppee,  a  shipwright,  was  cut  with  his 
axe  into  the  instep,  so  deepe  as  it  could  passe  and  not  cut 
it  off :  upon  the  hurt  (which  was  in  the  afternoone)  hee 

was  brought  unto  mee  :  but  I  refused  to  meddle  with  it, 
onely  I  advised  him,  to  wash  his  wound  with  his  own 
urine,  which  he  did.  The  next  morning  I  did  dress  the 
axe,  and  after  dressing  it,  I  did  send  to  know,  how  the 
fellow  did  ?  Answer  was  made  that  hee  had  been  in  great 
paine  all  the  night : — but  now  lately  was  at  ease.  The 
next  morning  comming  into  my  study,  I  strucke  my 
Rapier  downe  upon  the  axe,  the  hilt  whereof  strucke  the 
oyntment  off  from  the  Axe,  which  when  I  found,  I  sent 
to  understand  how  he  did  ?  and  had  answer,  that  he  had 
been  exceeding  well  that  night :  but  this  morning  he  was 
in  great  pain  and  so  continued :  I  therefore  anointed  the 
Axe  againe,  and  then  sent  againe  unto  him,  and  heard 
that  hee  was  then  at  great  ease ;  and  within  seaven  days 
was  perfectly  well. 

"  These  are  his  very  words  which  by  letter  he  sent  unto 
me.  By  which  it  is  manifest,  that  the  cure  is  (contrary 
to  Master  Foster's  assertion)  performed  by  the  Weapon. 
Salve :  and  not  by  other  secret  medicine  applied  by  the 
Devill :  but  rather  this  invention  of  Master  Foster  is 
devillish,  and  the  cure  of  the  oyntment  naturall.  For  else 
why  should  the  ointment  on  the  axe,  being  discovered  or 
struck  off  by  the  sword  hilt,  be  an  occasion  of  the  sud- 
daine  alteration  in  the  wound,  from  better  to  worse  ? 
And  why  should  the  wound  returne  againe  from  his  dolo- 
rous distemper  unto  his  wonted  ease,  after  the  re-anointing 
and  covering  anew  of  the  weapon  ?  " 

The  details  of  one  case  are  sufficient  to  show 
the  post  hoc  ergo  propter  hoc  mode  of  Fludd's 
arguing.  It  may  be  remarked  that  one  of  the 
"  homebred  "  cures  was  at  Windsor  —  so  that 
Fludd  writes,  "  here  you  may  see,  that  this  cure 
was  performed  at  a  distance  of  20  miles  between 
the  wound  and  the  oyntment." 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  Fludd  gives  no 
cures  of  his  own  knowledge, — also  that  Captain 
Stiles  had  been  the  Knight's  tenant.  But  besides 
this  family  party  of  believers,  Fludd  describes 

"A  certaine  noble  personage  of  this  kingdome,  very 
religious,  judicious,  and  learned,  who  at  first  scoffed  at 
this  kind  of  cure  as  impossible.  And  after  that  he  per- 
ceived that  it  was  true  indeed ;  he  was  terrified  by  such 
scare-crows  as  Mr.  Foster  is,  to  put  it  in  practise,  foras- 
much as  he  was  madebeleeve,  that  there  was  a  prestigious 
deceit  or  cacomagicall  vertue  in  operation  in  it." 

He  became  a  convert,  however,  under  Captain 
f,  for  at  p.  124  Fludd  writes :  — 

"  The  above  mentioned  Noble  Personage,  and  Captain 
Stiles,  with  Sir  Bevis  Thelwell  (who  had  his  oyntment 
from  that  Noble  Personage,  and  hath  performed  by  it, 
many  strange  and  desperate  cures)  and  Mr  Wells  of  Bed- 
ford, a  learned  and  honest  gentleman  have  cured  (as  they 
will  make  good)  at  the  least  a  thousand  persons  by  this 
manner  of  cure,  and  now  there  are  many  other,  as  well 
men  as  women,  who  have  got  of  this  weapon  salve,  and 
doe  daily  an  infinity  of  good  in  this  kingdome.  Hinc 
dolor,  hinc  lachrimce :  From  hence  I  say  commeth  the 
griefe  unto  the  Chirurgians,  as  well  of  this  city  of  London, 
as  of  every  country  about.  And  have  they  not  good 
reason  for  it,  when  they  lose  such  a  masse  of  practice  as 
would  well  have  stuffed  their  pouches  ?  " 

Fludd  then  refers  to  the  case  of  Demetrius  and 
St.  Paul,  and  asserts  that  Foster,  who  was  a  — 

"  Barber  Chirurgian's  sonne,  resembles  in  every  point 
the  Ephesian  Demetrius,  forasmuch  as  he  conspire'th  with 
the  Artists  of  his  Father's  trade  to  move  the  whole  City, 
yea  and  countrey,  to  murmur  and  repine  at  the  virtuous 



[8"»  S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

act  of  that  gift  which  God  hath  imparted  unto  the  -weapon- 
salve,  and  exclaime  against  such  as  use  it  unto  God's 
glory,  and  the  good  of  mankinds,  because  it  doth  derogate 
and  taketh  away  the  profit  and  gain  from  the  Trade  of 

As  to  the  mode  of  operation  of  the  weapon 
salve,  Dr.  Fludd  writes  :  — 

"Whereupon  it  is  manifest  that  this  spiritual  line, 
being  invisibly  protracted  or  extended  in  the  Ayre,  be- 
tween the  places  of  the  wounded  person,  and  the  Box  or 
Pot  of  Oyntment,  doth  carry  along  with  it  his  animal 
forme,  the  which  soule  or  spirit  of  life,  is  no  lesse  to  bee 
divided  from  his  whole  or  integrality  contained  in  the 
body  of  the  wounded,  than  the  beame  of  Sunne  is  from 
the  Sunne.  Therefore  as  the  beame  of  the  Sunne,  swim- 
ming in  the  spirit  of  the  world,  is  as  it  were  a  messenger 
betweene  Heaven  and  Earth  ;  even  so  this  animal  beame 
is  the  faithfulle  conductor  of  the  Healing  nature,  from  the 
Box  of  the  Balsam  unto  the  wounded  body,  and  this  me- 
dium or  directing,  and  conveying  Line,  namely,  that 
which  conveyed  the  wholsome  and  salutiferous  spirit,  by 
means  of  the  soule  or  spirit  of  life  is  that  spirit,  which  is 
invisibly  extended,  or  drawne  out  in  the  ayre,  the  which, 
unlesse  it  had  beene  in  a  hidden  manner  figured  and 
fashioned  forth,  the  vertue  of  the  Oyntment  would  evapo- 
rate or  sluce  out  this  way,  or  that  way,  and  so  would 
bring  no  benefit  unto  the  wounded." 

These  extracts  will  show  that  belief  in  the 
weapon  salve  was  a  piece  of  credulity  pervading 
all  classes,  although  it  doubtless  commenced 
amongst  the  higher  and  better-educated  ranks. 
In  this  spirit-rapping,  crystal- viewing,  and  wizard- 
swimming  generation,  it  may,  however,  be  well 
to  say  little  in  ridicule  of  any  credulity  which  may 
have  occurred  amongst  our  forefathers. 

It  may  be   noticed  that  Butler  sneers  at  the 
weapon  salve  (Ifudibras,  ed.  1744,  vol.  ii.  p.  306)  : 
"  And  weapons  drest  with  salves,  restore 
And  heal  the  hurts  they  gave  before." 

In  the  note  upon  this  passage,  Grey  refers  to 
several  writers,  and  among  them  to  this  book  of 

Sir  Walter  Scott  alludes  to  the  weapon  salve 
in  the  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel  — 

"  But  she  has  ta'en  the  broken  lance, 
And  wash'd  it  from  the  clotted  gore, 
And  salved  the  splinter  o'er  and  o'er." 

In  the  notes  upon  this  poem,  reference  is  made 
to  Kenelm  Digby  and  to  Reginald  Scot,  but  not 
to  Fludd.  Dryden,  in  the  Enchanted  Island,  also 
introduces  the  subject.  A.  B.  MIDDLETON. 

The  Close,  Salisbury. 

AEROLITES:  (JOSHUA,  x.  10,  11.) 

(2nd  S.  xii.  193.) 

The  discoveries  of  modern  astronomy  tend  to 
the  conclusion  that  all  the  interplanetary  spaces 
are  traversed  by  innumerable  fragmentary  bodies, 
the  figures  and  dimensions  of  which  are  not  cal- 
culated to  transmit  reflected  light ;  so  that  they 
only  become  visible  when  inflamed  by  the  friction 

of  transit  through  our  atmosphere.  Ethcrolites 
might  be  the  more  correct  generic  term,  as  they 
do  not  become  aerolites  until  within  the  aerial 
limit ;  and  if  at  such  time  the  earth's  attraction 
overcomes  their  projectile  force,  they  are  pre- 
cipitated earthwards  with  a  velocity  far  exceeding 
any  of  which  we  have  sublunary  example.  Al- 
though multitudes  of  these  aerolites  must  reach 
the  earth,  especially  in  August  and  November, 
when  periodical  meteoric  showers 

"  Athwart  the  shadow  of  our  planet  sweep 

In  endless  sequence,  flashing  o'er  the  main 
•     A  gorgeous  dawn  at  midnight " — 

yet,  strange  to  add,  modern  experience  furnishes 
no  instance  of  human  destruction  from  their  fall. 
But  was  this  always  thus ;  and  had  not  these 
flaming  messengers  sometimes  a  providential  mis- 
sion in  former  ages?  The  whole  narrative  in 
Joshua  of  the  overthrow  of  the  Canaanitish  kings 
and  their  armies  seems  to  intimate  an  astronomical 
catastrophe.  The  "  great  stones  "  is  in  the  ori- 
ginal a  simple  uncompounded  noun  0^3;  stones), 
and  u  discomfited  "  would  be  more  literally  ren- 
dered "crushed,"  or  " bruised  to  atoms,"  as  if  by 
the  overwhelming  force  of  heavy  masses,  which, 
amid  the  intermingled  hosts  of  victors  and  van- 
quished, struck  down  only  the  doomed  Amorites. 
That  a  fall  of  aerolites  was  the  agency  of  their 
destruction  may  be  corroborated  by  two  circum- 
stances :  1.  The  chronology  of  the  event  according 
with  either  period  of  the  meteoric  transit  j  and  2. 
Aerolites  being  found  in  situ.  Porter,  in  his  re- 
markable book,  illustrating  the  fulfilment  of  the 
prophetic  denunciations  against  the  Canaanites  — 
u  The  Giant  Cities  of  Bashan  " — accurately  traces 
the  topography  of  the  battle  and  the  flight,  deso- 
late and  rock-strewn,  even  as  in  the  days  of 
Joshua  ;  but  his  examination  does  not  include 
geology,  or  rather  lithology,  now  happily  com- 
bined with  antiquarian  research  by  the  zealous 
members  of  the  Palestine  exploration  project. 
If  the  routed  Amorites  were  destroyed  by  "  stones 
from  heaven,"  doubtless  aerolites  will  be  found 
along  the  track  of  their  flight,  and  which  could 
be  readily  identified  by  the  pitchy  lustre  and 
glassy  hardness  of  their  crust,  acquired  by  partial 
fusion  in  the  rush  through  the  atmosphere,  and 
rendering  them  incapable  of  change  or  decom- 
position from  lapse  of  time,  or  the  chemistry  of 
nature;  while  the  impracticable  nature  of  the 
material  for  human  uses  would  make  the  supposi- 
tion of  their  removal  an  extreme  improbability. 

Pliny  (lib.  iii.  *  c.  5),  in  his  description  of 
Gallia  Narbonensis,  mentions  the  "  Campi  lapidei, 
Herculis  prseliorum  niemoria;"  and  Pomponius 
Mela  accounts  for  the  name,  by  stating  that  a 
great  battle  had  been  fought  there  between  Al- 
bion and  Geryon,  sons  of  Neptune,  and  Hercules, 
who  was  on  the  point  of  being  overcome,  when 

3«"d  S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



Jupiter  came  to  his  aid,  and  destroyed  his  an- 
tagonists with  a  shower  of  stones  from  heaven. 
Now  if  aerolites  are  found  intermingled  with  the 
boulders  of  the  u  Campi  lapidei/'  the  modern  dis- 
trict of  La  Crau  in  the  department  of  Bouches- 
du-Rhone,  it  would  sanction  the  probability  that 
this  Pagan  myth  was  founded  on  a  parallel  in- 
stance of  human  destruction  to  that  recorded  in 
the  book  of  Joshua. 

My  query  does  not  refer  to  versions  and  com- 
mentaries, which  would  only  lead  to  tedious  repe- 
titions and  comparisons  too  long  for  the  pages  of 
"  N.  &  Q.,"  but  is  strictly  confined  to  the  Hebrew 
text,  the  chronology  of  the  event,  and  the  occur- 
rence of  aerolites  in  situ.  J.  L. 


(3rd  S.  ix.  194.) 

However  it  may  be  in  English  churchyards, 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  in  Scotland  very  fre- 
quently the  trade  or  occupation  followed  in  life 
by  the  departed  is  indicated,  in  no  doubtful 
manner,  by  sculptures  of  the  implements  of  their 
craft,  cut  with  more  or  less  care  and  skill  on  their 
gravestones.  I  find  many  proofs  of  this  in  the 
pages  of  note-books  filled  and  laid  aside  —  the 
gatherings  of  pleasant  autumn  wanderings  long 
ago.  I  select  one  or  two  of  the  more  curious. 

1.  On  the   south   wall  of  the  churchyard    of 
Newbattle,  near  Dalkeith,  is  a  stone  with  the  fol- 
lowing inscription :  — 

"  Here  .  Lyes  .  John  .  Duncan  . 

Weiver  .  in  .  Newb»"le .  who  .  depert . 

this  .  life  .  Xov. .  1607  .  aged  .  82  .  and . 

his  .  Spous  .  Cathren  .  Burne.    Here  . 

Lyes  .  Thomas  .  Brunton  .  Wiver1.  in  . 

Newbattle  .  sometime  .  husband  .  to  . 

Jean  .  Duncan.     Who  .  Died  .  May  . 

21*  .  1739  .  aged  .  55  .  and  .  8  .  children  . 

Cathren  .  William  .  John  .  Marg«*  . 

Alexander  .  Robert .  Thomas  .  and  . 

Jean  .  Bruntons." 

On  the  upper  portion  of  the  stone  there  are 
neatly  sculptured  two  shuttles  and  a  double- 
headed  nap-comb,  with  the  handle  broken  across 
in  the  middle.  From  the  position  of  the  initials 
"  T.  B.,"  the  stone  seems  to  have  been  erected 
about  1739. 

2.  In  the  churchyard  of  Tannadice,  Forfarshire, 
there  is  a  very  beautifully  carved  stone  to  the 
memory  of  David  Cuthbert,  farmer,  dated  1767. 
The  most  striking  ornament  on  it  is  a  cheesepress. 
It  is  so  well  cut,  and.  so  minutely  faithful,  that 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  artist  had  copied 
from  the  actual  machine,  not  from  memory.     In- 
deed a  tradesman  would  have  no  difficulty  in 
making  such  another,  using  the  sculpture  as  a 
model.     The  singularity  of  the  matter  is,  that  the 
principle  on  which  the  instrument  is  used  is,  so 

far  as  I  am  aware,  though  more  powerful  and 
j  more  controllable,  quite  different  from  that  now 
|  used  in  the  surrounding  district.  The  press  in 
common  use  consists  of  a  strong  oblong  frame  of 
wood.  In  the  centre  of  the  upper  transverse  bar 
are  a  nut  and  screw  made  of  rod  iron,  about  a  foot 
in  length.  To  the  lower  end  of  this  rod  is  linked 
on  a  heavy  stone,  dressed  square,  of  such  weight 
as  may  be  judged  sufficient.  When  the  press  is 
to  be  used,  the  stone  is  raised  by  means  of  the 
moveable  nut,  and  the  chizzard,  or  cheesevat, 
filled  with  curd,  placed  below,  when,  the  nut 
being  turned  the  reverse  way,  the  weight  of  the 
stone  rests  on  the  mould  placed  below  it,  and,  thus 
pressing  out  the  whey,  consolidates  the  curd.  In 
the  sculptured  press,  the  oblong  frame  is  the  same, 
but  the  upper  corners  are  strengthened  by  cross- 
bars to  resist  pressure  from  beneath.  This  pres- 
sure is  supplied  by  the  screw,  which  is  turned 
from  below  by  a  short  moveable  iron  lever,  such 
as  is  used  in  a  blacksmith's  vice.  There  is  no 
stone,  only  a  strong  moveable  face  of  wood  or  iron 
similar  to  the  pressure-board  of  a  Bramah  press. 

3.  In  the  churchyard  of  Dunnichen,  a  few  miles 
south  of  Tannadice,  there  is  a  gravestone  bearing 
still  less  mistakeable  memorials  of  agricultural 
operations.  It  is  to  the  memory  of  David  Ford, 
and  bears  the  date  1787.  It  bears,  sculptured  in 
bold  relief,  the  old  lumbering  yoke  for  a  couple 
of  oxen,  with  the  heavy  beam  for  crossing  their 
necks,  and  the  central  ring  for  the  thetes.  There 
are  also  the  usual  number  of  swingle  trees,  a  long 
single-handed  scythe,  such  as  old  Father  Time 
delights  in,  a  long-toothed  wooden  grass  rake,  and 
a  culter  impaling  what  seems  the  head  of  a  double- 
boarded  plough. 

Close  beside  this  stone  is  another,  dated  1782,  to 
the  memory  of  David  Pullar,  Mains  of  Dunnichen. 
It  is  hardly  necessary  to  tell  the  "  passing  stranger" 
that  Mr.  Pullar  followed  the  business  of  a  car- 
penter. A  glance  at  the  elaborately  carved  tenon 
saw,  carpenter's  axe,  square,  and  compasses,  at 
once  proclaims  the  fact.  Strolling  a  few  steps 
further  on,  in  the  same  churchyard,  we  stumble 
on  another  stone.  It  was  erected  in  1791  to 
Alexander  Mason,  shoemaker,  in  Craichie.  In  a 
shield  in  the  centre  of  one  side  of  the  stone  we 
find  the  implements  of  his  craft  blazoned  very 
plainly.  There  is  an  antique-looking  last,  a  veiy 
attenuated  broad-headed  hammer,  a  pair  of  pecu- 
liarly savage-looking  pincers,  a  sharp-pointed  knife, 
backed  by  an  impish-like  awl.  Were  any  further 
proof  needed  of  the  common  occurrence  of  the 
emblems  of  every-day  occupation  on  the  monu- 
ments of  the  departed,  it  would  be  found  in  the 
accompanying  extract,  which  is  all  the  more  valu- 
able as  the  testimony  of  a  gentleman  very  inti- 
mately acquainted  with  the  mortuary  antiquities 
of  Scotland,  and  very  favourably  known  for  his 
exertions  to  preserve  whatever  may  illustrate  the 



X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

past.  The  author  of  The  Memorials  of  Angus  and 
Mearns,  in  speaking,  p.  195,  of  "  The  Howff," 
formerly  the  principal  graveyard  of  Dundee, 
says : — 

"  Here,  as  in  other  places,  and  from  the  earliest  date, 
the  tombs  of  many  of  the  burgesses  bear  carvings  of  ob- 
jects illustrative  of  their  crafts  or  trades.  The  scissors,  or 
goose,  is  found  on  the  tomb  of  the  tailor ;  the  glove,  on 
that  of  the  skinner  ;  the  broad  Scotch  bonnet,  on  that  of 
the  bonnet-maker ;  the  hammer  and  crown,  or  anvil,  on 
that  of  the  blacksmith ;  the  loom,  or  shuttle,  on  that  of 
the  weaver ;  the  circular  knife,  on  that  of  the  cordiner,  or 
shoe  maker;  the  compasses  and  square,  on  that  of  the 
mason  ;  the  expanded  compasses,  or  saw,  on  that  of  the 
wright ;  the  axe  and  knife,  on  that  of  the  flesher ;  the 
crossed  peels,  on  that  of  the  baker ;  the  ship  in  full  sail, 
on  that  of  the  seaman ;  the  plough,  culter,  harrows,  or 
yoke,  on  that  of  the  farmer ;  the  millstone,  pick,  and  rynd, 
on  that  of  the  corn-miller ;  the  lancet,  or  other  surgical 
instruments,  on  that  of  the  chirurgeon." 

S.  I).  S. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  452,  502,  523 ;  x.  16,  56.) 

When  I  said  that  Warburton  was  "  often  coarse  " 
in  his  conversation,  the  coarseness  which  I  meant 
was  not  of  that  kind  which  CYRIL  would  wish  to 
fix  upon  him.  I  intended  to  admit  nothing  more 
than  that  he  was  frequently  rude,  abrupt,  impolite, 
not  very  choice  about  the  sort  of  phraseology  in 
•which  he  expressed  himself.  But  that  what  he 
expressed,  in  his  ordinary  talk  with  literati  or 
others,  was  ever  of  the  description  which  repeti- 
tions of  the  anecdote  about  Theodora  would  indi- 
cate, I  do  not  believe,  and  see  no  grounds  for  any 
one  to  suspect ;  because  there  is,  as  I  have  said, 
nothing  in  any  records  which  we  have  of  his 
conversation,  and  nothing  in  his  writings,  episto- 
lary or  other,  to  intimate  a  propensity  in  him  to 
such  sort  of  discourse. 

CYRIL  asks  me  for  an  account  of  the  many  at- 
tempts which  have  been  made  to  discover  the 
name  of  Gibbon's  "  distinguished  prelate."  I  did 
not  say  that  many  such  attempts,  or  any,  were 
recorded  in  print  j  but  I  believe  that  there  "are  few 
readers  of  Gibbon,  who  think  about  literary  mat- 
ters at  all,  that  have  not  asked  themselves  or 
their  neighbours,  or  both,  on  coming  to  the  his- 
torian's note  on  Theodora,  "  who  could  that  pre- 
late be  ?  "  and  then  making  some  attempts,  as  far 
as  their  knowledge  reached,  to  settle  who  the 
dignitary  was.  I  know  that  I  myself,  when  I 
first  read  Gibbon,  and  another  young  man  who 
had  read  him  just  before,  tried  in  vain,  in  our 
imperfect  acquaintance  with  the  lives  of  the  pre- 
lates of  the  last  century,  to  form  any  satisfactory 
conjecture  as  to  the  bishop  or  archbishop  intended 
What  we  did  then  I  know  many  others  have  done 
since — probably  many  before ;  and  if  any  one  had 
come  to  any  probable  conclusion  on  the  question 
it  is  likely  that  some  declaration  of  it  would  bj 

his  time  have  appeared  in  print.  The  note  of 
W.  D.  shows  that  he  had  thought  on  the  subject, 
md  had  partially  convinced  himself  that  Bishop 
Dlayton  was  meant,  though  a  reference  to  chro- 
nology, proving  that  he  died  twenty-six  years 
>efore  Gibbon's  note  was  written,  showed  that  he 
3ould  hardly  be  mentioned  by  Gibbon  as  "  lately 
deceased."  Nor  am  I  aware  that  anything  is 
:old  of  Bishop  Clayton's  conversation  to  make  it 
ppear  that  he  could  be  Gibbon's  prelate.  I  am 
jlad  to  observe,  however,  that  W.  D.  finds  no 
grounds  for  CYRIL'S  belief  that  it  was  Warburton. 

I  am  glad  also  to  see  that  MR.  CROSSLEY,  who 
las  given  much  attention  to  Warburton's  life  and 
character,  believes  that  if  Warburton  was  Gibbon's 
( deceased  prelate,"  the  charge  conveyed  in  Gib- 
aon's  note  is  "  a  malicious  falsehood,"  or,  in  other 
words, u  an  impudent  lie."  Gibbon,  as  MR.  CROSS- 
LEY  happily  conjectures,  may  have  been  deceived 
by  Steevens  or  some  other  mischievous  inventor, 
and  have  seized  upon  the  story  for  a  sneer  at  the 
bishops  through  a  member  of  their  body,  whom 
tie  did  not  think  proper  to  name.  Gibbon  has 
reasonably  expressed  his  wonder  that  Warburton's 
"  critical  'telescope  should  have  seen  in  the  gene- 
ral picture  of  triumphant  vice  any  personal  refer- 
ence to  Theodora  ; "  but  neither  Warburton's 
account  of  Theodora  in  his  note  on  Pope's  Epilogue 
to  the  Satires,  nor  the  style  in  which  he  gives  it, 
indicate  any  propensity  in  him  to  "  quote  "  such 
passages  as  that  which  Gibbon  was  ashamed  to 
take  out  of  the  original  Greek. 

The  uncertainty  about  this  "  deceased  prelate  " 
having  lasted  so  many  years,  CYRIL  must  not  be 
surprised  at  my  having  reason  to  believe  that 
many  have  been  inclined  to  consider  him  a  myth. 

The  correspondence  to  which  CYRIL  alludes  in 
vols.  Iviii.  and  lix.  of  the  Gentleman's  Magazine, 
furnishes,  as  far  as  I  see,  no  clue  to  the  name  of  the 
deceased  prelate ;  but  one  correspondent  very  j  ustly 
animadverts  on  Gibbon  for  having  reproached  the 
prelate  with  "  repeating  to  his  learned  friends,  in 
private,  a  passage  which  he  himself  gives  to  the 
public  in  print."  J.  S.  W. 

Your  correspondent  W.   D.,   quoting  Bishop 

Home's  words—"  I  think  it  must  have  been 

for  they  do  not  always  go  together"  —  asks, 
"How  does  this  apply  to  Warburton?"  The 
application  is  obvious  enough ;  but  would  be  made 
more  so  by  adding,  according  to  what  was  no 
doubt  Bishop  Home's  meaning,  at  the  end  of  the 
passage  [on  points  of  history  and  criticism].  Gib- 
bon differed  with  Warburton  most  essentially  on 
several  of  the  subjects  on  which  the  latter  had 
written,  as  is  sufficiently  evidenced  by  his  well- 
known  pamphlet  on  the  sixth  book  of  Virgil's 
^Eneid,  and  some  of  his  notes  to  his  Decline  ana, 
Fall,  and  was  on  that  account  the  more  likely  to 

S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



seize  an  opportunity  of  showing  up  the  Bisho] 
when  an  occasion  offered. 

With  respect  to  Bishop  Clayton,  who  died  in 
1758,  your  correspondent  seems  to  admit  that  the 
distance  of  time,  twenty-six  years,  is  sufficient  t< 
negative  any  idea  that  he  was  the  party  referrec 
to.  Indeed,  I  should  never  have  supposed  such 
a  reference  at  all  probable,  had  that  difficulty 
teen  removed.  Bishop  Clayton  appears  to  have 
been  an  amiable  and  well-intentioned,  but  weak 
man.  He  never  took  first  rank  as  an  author 
though  his  publications,  now  long  forgotten,  wer 
numerous ;  and  was  scarcely  game  for  Gibbon  to 
fly  at,  to  whom  indeed  his  heterodoxy  woulc 
rather  have  recommended  him  than  otherwise 

I  am  not  aware  that  any  evidence  exists  to 
show  that  Clayton  did  not  observe  in  society  the 
proper  decorum  of  his  station,  and  I  have  yet  to 
learn  why,  because  this  prelate  entertained  Arian 
views,  which  as  Warburton  facetiously  observed 
was,  in  an  Irish  bishop,  not  heresy  but  simply  a 
blunder,  and  wished  to  expunge  the  Nicene  and 
Athanasian  Creeds  from  the  Liturgy,  he  should 
be  selected  as  the  episcopal  delinquent  on  a  very- 
different  charge,  for  whom  the  literary  police  is 
at  present  in  search.  JAS.  CEOSSLET. 

(3rd  S.  x.  39,  73.)  —  The  Delabere  family,  the 
former  possessors  of  Southam  Delabere,  near  Chel- 
tenham, bore  as  their  crest  the  prince's  plume, 
said  to  have  been  given  to  their  ancestor  by  the 
Black  Prince  at  the  battle  of  Poictiers  for  saving 
his  life.  It  is  represented  on  their  monument  as 
very  full,  and  falling  to  the  right  and  left,  gold 
on  one  side  and  purple  on  the  other  ;  but  in  the 
picture  of  the  knight  kneeling  to  receive  his  crest, 
the  plume  consists  of  five  feathers.  S.  D. 

It  may  not  be  generally  known  that  this  badge 
occurs  on  the  ancient  entrance  gateways  of  St. 
John's  and  Christ's  Colleges,  Cambridge.  It  there 
belongs  to  Lady  Margaret,  of  the  house  of  Beau- 
fort, whose  rebus,  the  daisy,  or  marguerite,  also 
appears.  E.  S.  D. 

THE  POEM,  "Mr  MOTHER"  (3rJ  S.  x.  25.)  — 
Again  I  have  to  thank,  and,  in  part,  agree  with 
my  critics,  confessing  also  that  at  my  age  it  is  a 
favour  to  have  any  critic  at  all!  With  some  of 
their  views  I  may  not  fully  agree,  but  in  the  con- 
cluding verses  just  received,  I  concur  so  nearly 
that,  were  they  simply  my  own,  I  might  be  glad 
to  employ  them.  Yet  I  would  rather  be  honestly 
myself  than  cleverly  any  one  else.  Excuse  me, 
therefore,  for  retaining  that  I  have  already  sent, 
should  another  edition  allow  it. 

Young  as  I  was  when  the  original  verse  was 
written,  I  did  not  see,  as  I  do  now,  its  incongruity 
in  tone  with  those  preceding  it.  Still  I  believe 

that  all  moral  evil  is  sin ;  that  all  sin  incurs  the 
divine  displeasure.  But  vengeance  is  a  word  which 
I  would  not  now  employ.  "  ANN  GILBERT. 

"As  LAZY  AS  LAURENCE"  (3rd  S.  x.  38.) — In 
Prideaux's  Readings  of  History,  published  at  Ox- 
ford in  1655,  it  is  stated  that  St.  Laurence  suffered 
martyrdom  about  the  middle  of  the  third  century, 
250  to  260  A.C.,  in  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Valerian,  who  decreed  the  ninth  persecution  of 
the  Christians ;  when  Bishop  Cyprian,  the  African 
Pope  Stephanus,  and  many  other  eminent  pro- 
fessors of  Christianity,  suffered  martyrdom ;  and 
among  them,  (l  that  famous  and  resolute  champion 
Laurence,  who  was  roasted  on  a  gridiron." 

A  traditional  tale  has  been  handed  down  from 
age  to  age,  that  at  his  execution  he  bore  his  tor- 
tures without  a  writhe  or  groan,  which  caused 
some  of  those  standing  by  to  remark:  "How 
great  must  be  his  faith."  But  his  Pagan  execu- 
tioners said :  "  It  is  not  his  faith,  but  his  idleness, 
he  is  too  lazy  to  turn  himself."  And  hence  arose 
the  saying — "As  lazy  as  Laurence." 

W.  D.f  JUN. 

ROYAL  ASSENT  REFUSED  (3rd  S.  ix.  519 ;  x.  55.) 
The   occasion  referred  to  appears  to  have  been 
when  Lord  Howick,  afterwards  Earl  Grey,  intro- 
duced a  Bill  on  the  5th  of  March,  1807,  to  allow 
Catholics  to  serve  and  receive  promotion  in  the 
army  and  navy.     The  King  had  at  first  agreed  to 
it,  but  was  induced,  by  the  strong  opposition  of 
Perceval,  to  withdraw  his  approval,  and  after- 
wards signified  to  his  ministers  his  strong  disap- 
probation of  the  Bill.     His  Majesty,  indeed,  re- 
quired rrom  them  a  promise  never  to  propose  to 
him  a  •:  'n  anything  connected  with  the  Catholic 
questi-  i.     This  they  respectfully  objected  to,  as 
inconsistent  with  their  duties,  and  the  King  in 
consequence  changed  his  ministry.  The  coronation 
oath,  he  imagined,  forbad  him  to  admit  Catholics 
to  any  offices  in  the  state ;  and  this  was  the  ground 
of  his  opposition.     In  the  year  1$01  Dr.  Milner 
had  published  his  Case  of  Conscience  solved;  or  the 
Catholic  Claims  proved  to  be  compatible  with  the 
Coronation  Oath;  and  he  had  the  satisfaction  to 
earn  by  a  letter  from  Mr.  Pitt,  that  the  King  had 
read  it,  and  that  it  had  removed  his  difficulty. 
Yet  he  seemed  in  1807  to  have  returned  to  his 
>revious  objection;  and  Dr.  Milner  thought  it  a 
it  occasion  to  publish  a  second  edition  of  his 

It  is  perhaps  not  generally  known  that  when  at 
ength  the  Emancipation  Act  was  passed  in  1829, 
jreorge  IV.  refused  his  assent  to  it ;  and  it  was 
not  till  the  ministers  in  consequence  had  all  re- 
igned,  and  he  found  himself  for  several  hours 
without  a  ministry,  that  he  finally  consented  to 
ign  the  Bill.  F.  C.  H. 

CRA WALLS  (3rd  S.  ix.  532;  x.  57.)  — SCHIN 
sks  "  Is  craivall  intended  to  represent  a  German 



S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 

word  ?  "  It  is  one  of  the  commonest  words  in  that 
language,  although  it  must  be  regarded  as  slang. 
Its  best  English  equivalent  is  street  row.  In  Ger- 
many, during  the  stormy  times  of  1848,  one  heard 
every  day  of  krawallen.  I  need  not  say  to  any 
one  understanding  German  that  the  word  has  no 
connection  whatever  with  the  English  word  quarrel, 
nor  at  all  resembles  it  in  sound.  To  a  French- 
«,«„  "cravalle"  would  pretty  nearly  represent 

the  pronunciation  of  the  word. 


46.)  —  This  celebrated  structure,  once  the  pride 
of  Nankin,  and  which  is  said  to  have  been  261 
feet  in  height,  and  ascended  in  the  interior  by  a 
spiral  staircase  of  190  steps,  has  been  completely 
obliterated  in  the  course  of  the  terrible  civil  com- 
motions which  have  now  for  many  years  convulsed 
China.  See  Oliphant's  Narrative  of  the  Earl  of 
Elgin's  Mission  to  China  and  Japan  (vol.  ii.  p.  456), 
where  the  author  states,  in  his  account  of  his  visit 
to  Nankin  in  December,  1858  :  — 

"  We  passed  the  spot  on  which  stood  formerly  the  Por- 
celain Tower,  but  not  a  fragment  is  left  to  mark  the  site 
of  this  once  celebrated  monument." 


CLTJB  AND  CLUB  (3rd  S.  ix.  411,  496  j  x.  53.)— 
Some  four  years  ago  I  gave  in  this  very  periodical 
("N.  &  Q.,"  3rd  S.  i.  294)  an  elaborate  account 
of  this  word  in  its  two  senses,  and  I  cannot  see 
that  any  additional  light  has  been  thrown  upon 
the  subject  by  the  more  recent  articles.  They  do 
not  appear  to  me  to  contain  anything  of  import- 
ance that  I  had  not  already  given,  whilst  I  give 
much  that  they  do  not  contain.  It  is  rather  dis- 
heartening to  contributors  to  "N.  &  Q."  to  find 
that  in  four  years  their  contributions  are  as  com- 
pletely forgotten  as  if  they  had  never  been  writ- 
ten ;  and  to  the  Editor  it  cannot  be  pleasant  to 
discover  that  his  general  and  other  indices  are  of 
so  little  use.  F.  CHANCE. 

THE  HARRINGTONS  (3rd  S.  x.  27.)  —  The  house 
at  Bourton-on-the-Water,  Gloucestershire,  still 
stands,  and  is  now  occupied  by  a  brewer.  It  is 
indeed  a  very  fine  old  house.  Tradition  asserts 
that  when  the  Harringtons  lived  there  they  in- 
dulged in  so  much  state  that  a  carriage  and  four 
horses  were  always  ready  to  take  the  family  to 
church  on  Sundays,  although  the  building  was 
not  far  distant  in  the  village.  There  are  some 
most  charming  remains  of  manorial  houses  in  the 
neighbourhood,  full  of  architectural  interest ;  and 
the  large  dovecotes  still  standing  are  quite  remark- 
able. One  near  the  old  house  at  Bourton,  gabled  on 
each  side,  having  a  turret  at  the  junction  of  the 
roofs,  with  bold  projecting  leaden  gurgoyles  sup- 
ported by  elaborately  wrought  metal  work  at  the 
terminali  of  the  valleys,  forms  a  most  picturesque 
feature  in  the  landscape.  Another  equally  good 
remains  at  the  village  of  Lower  Slaughter. 

Artists  might  find  much  to  occupy  their  pencil  in 
this  part  of  Gloucestershire.          BENJ.  FERRET. 

BLUE-STOCKINGS  (3rd  S.  x.  59.)  — There  are 
several  theories  respecting  the  origin  of  the  term 
"  Blue-Stocking."  The  authority  for  the  one  I 
gave  is  a  note  to  the  "  I^ife  of  Mrs.  Montague  " 
in  Chalmers's  Biographical  Dictionary.  That  the 
wearing  of  blue  stockings  by  a  gentleman  at  a 
literary  assembly  originated  the  title  is  supported 
both  by  Boswell  and  Madame  D'Arblay.  That  it 
was  Stillingfleet  is  exceedingly  likely  from  his 
character  and  homely  ways.  Madame  D'Arblay 
gives  the  remark  of  the  lady  at  whose  house  the 
club  was  held,  in  almost  the  same  words  as  Chal- 
mers— "  0  never  mind  dress,  come  in  your  blue 
stockings."  Was  the  lady  Mrs.  Montague  or  Mrs. 
Vesey  ? 

Chalmers  may  not  be  very  high  authority  for 
a  story  of  this  kind,  though  he  seems  to  have 
taken  some  pains  to  discover  the  truth,  saying, 
"  We  have  heard  many  accounts  of  the  origin  of 
the  title,  but  believe  it  arose,"  &c.  &c.  But 
Madame  D'Arblay  is  far  less  to  be  depended  on, 
for  her  inaccuracy  is  notorious.  Mrs.  Montague 
held  such  a  position  that  a  joking  title  given  to 
her  assemblies  would  have  been  at  once  widely 
spread  and  readily  adopted.  Mrs.  Vesey  was 
literary,  but  in  fashion  very  inferior  to  Mrs.  Mon- 
tague, and  scarcely  a  person  whose  club,  we 
should  expect,  would  give  a  name  to  all  others  of 
similar  character.  According  to  Boswell,  Stil- 
lingfleet was  in  the  habit  of  attending  assemblies 
at  various  houses  in  his  blue  stockings,  and  the 
title,  taken  from  his  dress,  was  by  degrees  esta- 
blished. But  Chalmers  refers  to  the  particular 
assembly  at  which  he  first  appeared  in  that  cos- 
tume, and  the  occasion  of  the  origin  of  the  title. 
The  two  accounts  are  therefore  not  contradictory, 
but  refer  to  successive  periods.  Boswell  men- 
tions no  lady's  name,  but  says  that  Stillingfleet 
was  t(  one  of  the  most  eminent  members  of  those 
societies  when  they  first  commenced"  It  is,  I  be- 
lieve, acknowledged  that  Mrs.  Montague  set  the 
fashion  of  these  literary  assemblies,  and  Boswell 
therefore  seems  to  point  to  her.  That  he  did  not 
mention  her  name  may  perhaps  be  accounted  for 
by  the  fact  of  her  being  alive  at  the  time  he  wrote. 

H.  P.  D. 

SIR  JOHN  MANDEVILLE  (3rd  S.  x.  45.)— The 
dictionary  of  L'Advocat  states  that  Sir  John  Man- 
deville  died  at  Liege  in  1372,  and  this  is  repeated 
in  Maunder's  Biographical  Manual ';  but  in  the 
Itinerum  Delidce  of  Nathan  Chybrasus,  1599 
(2nd  edition),  there  is  a  copy  of  the  monumental 
inscription  on  his  tomb  at  Liege,  which  states 
that  he  died  in  1371.  As  this  monumental  in- 
scription contains  some  interesting  particulars,  and 
the  work  of  Chybrseus  is,  I  believe,  scarce,  I  sub- 
join a  copy:  — * 

S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66.] 



"  Leodii  in  Guilielmitarum  Ccenobio. 
Hie  jacet  vir  nobilis  Dominus  JOANNES  DB  MANDEVILLE, 
Al.  D.  ad  Barbara,  Miles,  Dominus  de  Campdi,  natus  de 
Anglia,  Medicinae  Professor,  devotissimus  orator,  et  bo- 
norum  largissimus  pauperibus  erogator,  qui  toto  quasi 
orbe,  lustrato,  Leodii  diem  vitae  suae  clausit  extremum  An. 
Domini  M.CCC.LXXI.  m.  Novemb.  die  xvii." 

QUOTATIONS  WANTED  (3rd  S.  x.  46.) — The  author 
of  the  remark  quoted  by  CALIDORE  was  the 
French  chronicler  Froissart,  who  says,  speaking 
of  the  English,  "  ils  s'ainusaient  tristement,  selon 
la  coutumie  de  leur  pays."  *  J.  W.  W. 

The  two  lines  regarding  satire  — 
"  Satire  should,  like  a  polished  razor  keen, 

Wound  with  a  touch  that's  scarcely  felt  or  seen,"— 
are,  I  am  nearly  certain,  by  Lady  M.  W.  Montague. 
They  were  taken  as  a  motto  by  Figaro  in  London. 

The  lines  often  quoted  by  Lord  Brougham,  and 
quoted  incorrectly  (as  copied  by  T.  W.),  are  in 
(Jowper's  poem  of  "  Retirement/'  and  should  stand 
thus: — 

"  Absence  of  occupation  is  not  rest, 
A  mind  quite  vacant  is  a  mind  distress'd." 


PHOTOGRAPHIC  MIRACLE  (3rd  S.  ix.  474.) — On 
this  subject  the  Popular  Science  Revieiv  says  (No. 
15,  p.  394)  :  — 

"  A  large  number  of  absurd  rumours  have  appeared  in 
our  home  and  foreign  contemporaries  from  time  to  time 
during  the  last  few  years.  These  marvellous  stories, 
however,  had  been  confined  to  the  kind  of  paragraph 
which  is  used  chiefly  on  the  score  of  the  merit  it  possesses 
of  filling  a  stray  corner  when  other  more  important 
matter  is  not  handy  or  come-at-able.  The  editor  of  the 
Morning  Post,  however,  has  been  betrayed  into  an  error 
truly  comical  by  devoting  a  leading  article  to  the  subject, 
in  which  his  we-ship  sagely  asserts  'our'  faith  in  the 
story.  The  stupidity  of  the  affair  is  seen  when  we  tell 
our  readers  that  the*  said  image  from  the  eye  of  a  mur- 
dered person,  which  the  photographer  is  said  to  have  ob- 
tained, was  on  the  cornea  of  the  eye.  Just  fancy  the  ex- 
tent of  the  aforesaid  editor's  scientific  knowledge.  The 
photographer  concerned  has  since  written  to  a  contem- 
porary describing  the  whole  affair  as  a  blunder." 


I  am  inclined  to  think  that  this  canard  was 
hatched  in  Once  a  Week,  At  all  events  there  is  a 
curious  story  concerning  a  post-mortem  photo- 
graph of  the  retina  in  an  article,  entitled  "  From 
Darkness  into  Light"  (vol.  xi.  p.  136,  1864), 
which  those  interested  in  the  subject  should  not 
fail  to  read.  ST.  SWITHIN. 

CHRISTIAN  ALE  (3rd  S.  x.  28.)— Your  Somerset 
querist,  E.  V.,  will  find  full  and  interesting  ac- 
counts of  Ales,  Wakes,  Revels,  and  Games,  in 
Prynne's  Canterburies  Doome  (1646) ;  Kennett's 
Parochial  Antiquities;  Carew's  Survey  of  Corn- 
wall (1602);  Brand's  Popular  Antiquities;  and 

[*  But  where  in  Froissart  ?— ED.  "  N.  &  Q."  J 

Archceologia,  vol.  xii.  I  do  not  remember  to  have 
seen  tf  Christian  "  ale  mentioned,  but  it  is  probably 
only  another  name  for  "  church  ale,"  which  is  thus 
described  by  Carew  (book  i.  p.  70)  :  — 

"  Touching  Church  Ales ;  these  be  mine  assertions,  if 
not  my  proofs : — Of  things  induced  by  our  forefathers 
some  were  instituted  to  a  good  use,  and  perverted  to  a 
bad  ;  again,  some  were  both  naught  in  the  invention  and 
so  continued  in  the  practice.  Now  that  Church  Ales 
ought  to  be  sorted  in  the  better  rank  of  these  twaine, 
may  be  gathered  from  their  causes  and  effects,  which  I 
thus  raffe  up  together :— entertaining  of  Christian  love ; 
conforming  of  men's  behaviour  to  a  civil  conversation ; 
compounding  of  controversies;  appeasing  of  quarrels; 
raising  a  store,  which  might  be  converted  partlie  to  good 
and  godlie  uses,  as  relieving  all  sorts  of  poor  people,  re- 
pairing of  bridges,  amending  of  highways,  and  partlie  for 
the  Prince's  service  by  defraying,  at  an  instant,  such 
rates  and  taxes  as  the  magistrate  imposeth  for  the  coun- 
trie's  defence.  Briefty,  they  do  tend  to  an  instructing  of 
the  Mind  by  amiable  conference  and  an  enabling  of  the 
Bodie  by  commendable  exercise." 

S.  R.  T.  MATER. 

18,  Norfolk  Street,  Strand,  W.C. 

THOMAS  WHITE  (3rd  S.  ix.  533.)— This  gentle- 
man was  Mathematical  Teacher  in  the  Dumfries 
Academy.  He  is  honourably  mentioned  by  Dr. 
Currie  in  his  Life  of  JBitrns ;  and  I  have  seen  a 
copy  of  Burns's  Poems,  1793,  presented  to  him  by 
the  "poet,  with  this  inscription  on  the  fly-leaf:  — 

"  Mr.  White  will  accept  of  this  book  as  a  mark1  of  most 
sincere  friendship  from  a  man  who  has  ever  had  too 
much  respect  for  his  friends,  and  too  much  contempt  for 
his  enemies,  to  flatter  either  the  one  or  the  other. — THE 


STICK  "  (3rd  S.  x.  9,  52.)  —  I  fear  the  ingenious 
explanations  of  the  phrase  "a  crooked  stick," 
which  have  appeared  in  "N.  &  Q.,"  are  more 
amusing  than  true.  The  true  explanation  is  much 
more  simple  and  commonplace.  A  stick  (Ger. 
stiick,  A.-S.  sticce,  Scottish  steik)  simply  means  a 
piece  of  money,  as  I  have  already  explained  in 
"N.  &  Q.,"  3rd  S.  vii.  407;  and  a  crooked  sixpence 
and  a  crooked  stick  mean  much  the  same  thing. 
See  also  3rd  S.  vii.  254.  WALTER  W.  SKEAT. 

DIGHTON'S  CARICATURES  (3rd  S.  x.  13,  70.)  — 
"  Write  'em  or  let  'em  alone."  This  is  an  excel- 
lent likeness  of  the  late  Robert  Pulsford,  a  rich 
and  well-known  City  merchant,  "  Old  Q."  is,  of 
course,  the  old  Marquis  of  Queensberry.  No.  40, 
the  "  very  corpulent  man,"  must  be  the  Duke  of 
Buckingham.  No.  8,  "  The  Towns-end,"  is  the 
well-known  Townsend,  the  Bow  Street  officer. 

A  knowledge  of  the  slang  and  low  sayings  of 
society  is  often  very  useful ;  for  it  saves  one  from 
!  asking  questions  which,  when  answered  or  ex- 
plained, cause  one  embarrassment  and  confusion. 
MR.  WOOD  should  have  submitted  his  list  to  some 
friend  (if  he  has  any  such)  well  versed  in  the 
vulgar  tongue.  JAYDEE. 



rd  S.  X.  AUG.  4,  '66. 


The  Old-Northern  Runic  Monuments  of  Scandinavia  and 
England.  Now  first  collected  and  deciphered.  By 
Professor  George  Stephens,  F.S.A.  Part  I.  (3.  R. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that,  up  to  this  time,  com- 
paratively little  attention  has  been  paid  to  Runic  litera- 
ture by  the  present  generation  of  English  antiquaries. 
This  state  of  things  is  not  destined  to  continue.  The 
publication  of  this  handsome  and  elaborate  volume  by 
Professor  Stephens,  will  show  the  archaeologists  of  this 
country  how  wide  and  profitable  a  field  is  opened  to  their 
inquiries  in  the  direction  of  our  Runic  monuments.  This 
first  half,  or  rather  instalment — for  the  author  honestly 
avows  that  he  believes  the  second  division  will  extend  to 
greater  length — extends  to  320  folio  pages,  through  which 
are  scattered  a  large  number  of  well-executed  woodcuts, 
contains,  first,  some  Wayside  Hints  by  way  of  preface, 
then  a  chapter  on  "  Runic  Literature,"  then  various  pre- 
liminary chapters  on  the  letters,  language,  dialects,  &c. ; 
and  then  descriptions  of  the  Runic  Remains  of  Scandi- 
navia, profusely  illustrated  with  engravings  of  them. 
This  will  show  the  importance  of  the  book  ;  but  scarcely 
so  much  so  as  the  announcement  that  the  remaining  Part, 
which  Professor  Stephens  hopes  to  issue  next  spring,  will 
contain  the  Runic  Monuments  in  England  ;  the  Brac- 
teates,  Wanderers — the  remaining  Scandinavian  Runic 
Monuments  (about  120  in  number,  most  of  them  either 
engraved  for  the  first  time,  or  first  published  with  correct 
readings) ;  the  Word-Row  of  the  Scandinavian-Runic 
words  on  pieces  here  given ;  the  Word-Roll  of  all  words 
occurring  on  all  northern  Runic  objects  ;  and,  besides  a 
complete  Index,  Corrigenda,  &c.,  all  the  chief  metallic 
pieces  printed  in  gold,  silver,  bronze,  colours,  &c.,  accord- 
ing to  their  workmanship  and  material,  as  only  in  this 
way  can  any  correct  idea  be  given  of  the  wonderful  skill 
of  our  ancestors  in  this  department  of  the  Arts.  This 
will  show  how  complete  and  exhaustive  is  Professor  Ste- 
phens' treatment  of  his  subject,  and  how  highly  the  work 
deserves  a  place  in  the  library  of  every  archaeological 
student ;  and  in  every  public  library  to  which  such 
students  have  access. 

Great  Yarmouth  and  Lowestoft.    A  Handbook  for  Visitors 
and  Residents  :   with  Chapters  on  the  Archaeology,  Na- 
tural History,   Sfc.,  of  the  District ;    a   History,   with 
Statistics,  of  the  East  Coast  Herring  Fishery,  and  an 
Etymological  and  Comparative  Glossary  of  the  Dialect  of 
East  Anglia.     By  John  Greaves  Nail.     (Longman.) 
This  ample  title-page  fitly  introduces  a  closely-printed 
volume  of  upwards  of  seven  hundred  pages  illustrative 
not  only  of  the  topography  of  Yarmouth  and  Lowestoft, 
and  their  immediate  vicinity,  but  of  the  geology,  archaeo- 
logy, and  natural  history  of  the  district,  and  which  are  sup- 
plemented by  much  information  respecting  the  East  Coast 
Herring  Fishery  ;  and  a  valuable  Glossary  of  the  Dialect 
and  Provincialisms  of  East  Anglia.    The  author  has  ob- 
viously had  his  heart  in  the  work,  and  has  produced  a 
volume  of  considerable  interest  and  originality  ;  and  any 
of  our  readers  who  may  have  the  good  fortune  to  find 
themselves  holiday  making  at  Yarmouth  or  Lowestoft 
will  find  Mr.  Nail's  volume  not  only  an  instructive  guide 
but  a  very  pleasant  companion. 

Julius  Caesar :   Did  he  cross  the  Channel?    SytheRev. 

Scott  F.  Surtees.     (J.  R.  Smith.) 

While  the  Imperial  Biographer  of  Caesar,  the  Astro- 
nomer Royal,  and  Mr.  Lewin,  are  discussing  at  what  point 
Caesar  crossed  the  Channel,  the  Rev.  author  of  this  little 

volume  denies  that  he  crossed  it  all ;  and  contends  that 
he  sailed  from  some  place  in  front  of  the  mouths  of  the 
Rhine  or  Scheldt,  most  probably  from  a  peninsula  for- 
merly the  foreshore  of  Walcheren  ;  that  he  made  the 
coast  of  Britain  in  his  first  expedition  off  Cromer  ;  that 
in  his  second  he  proposed  to  make  the  land  at  or  near 
Wells,  and  being  carried  a  little  beyond  the  point,  found 
himself  off  Hunstanton,  and,  pulling  into  the  shore  at 
Brancasta  Bay,  fixed  there  his  camp.  Mr.  Surtees'  paper 
deserves  attention. 

Proverbial  Philosophy  {Bijou  Edition.)     By  Martin  F. 

Tupper,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  &c.  Two  Hundredth  Thousand. 

(Moxon  &  Co.) 

The  magic  words, "  Two  Hundredth  Thousand,"  on  the 
title  of  Mr.  Martin  Tupper's  volume  render  all  comment 
upon  it  superfluous  beyond  the  announcement  that  this 
Bijou  Edition  of  The  Proverbial  Philosophy  is  got  up  with 
the  good  taste  which  distinguishes  all  the  books  issued  by 
Messrs.  Moxon  &  Co. 

Colonel  Alfred  B.  Richards,  already  well  known  as  a 
dramatist  and  lyrist,  has  a  volume  of  verse  in  the  press, 
entitled  Religio  Animce,  and  other  Poems,  which  will  be 
published  immediately  by  Messrs.  Moxon. 



Particulars  of  Price,  &c.,  of  the  following:  Books,  to  be  sent  direct 
to  the  gentlemen  by  whom  they  are  required,  whose  names  and  ad- 
dresses are  given  for  that  purpose:  — 

GENTLEMAN'S  MAGAZINE  for  July,  1817. 

Wanted  by  Mr.  David  Rogers,  Registry  of  Deeds  Office,  Henrietta 
Street,  Dublin. 

GENTLEMAN'S  MAGAZINE    for  November  and  December,  1861;  July, 
August,  September,  and  October,  1«62. 

Wanted  by  Mr.  J.  Piggot,  Jan.,  The  Elms,  Ultrey,  Maldon. 

ULSTER  JOURNAL  OP  ARCHAEOLOGY.    Complete  or  odd  parts. 
DUBLIN  REVIEW.    Complete.    New  or  Old  Series,  or  odd  numbers. 
COLOANI  ACTA  SANCTOROM,  ET  TKIADIS,  &c.    2  vols.  folio.    Perfect  or 

Wanted  by  Mr.  W.  B.  Kelly,  8,  Grafton  Street,  Dublin. 

GAIU.ARDET,  MJMOIRES  DU   CHEVALIER   D'EON.    2  tomes,  8vo.    Paris, 

Wanted  by  William  J.  Thorns,  Esq.,  40,  St.  George's  Square, 


B.  H.  W.  is  referred  to  "N.  &  Q.,"  3rd  S.  viii.  292,  for  a  notice  of 
F.  A.  Obermayr's  Picture  Gallery  of  Catholic  Abuses,  1784. 

THE  LYONS  op  STRATHMORE Will  IT.,  whose  Query  respecting  this 

family  appeared  in  "  N.  &  Q."  of  July  15,  1865,  p.  48,  say  where  a  letter 
may  be  addressed  to  him,  as  a  Correspondent  wishes  to  be  put  in  com- 
munication with  him. 

ALMJOIS.  There,  is  no  charge  for  tlie  insertion  of  Queries,  or  of  parti- 
culars of  Books  wanted. 

***  Cases  for  binding  the  volumes  of  "  N.  &  Q."  may  be  had  of  the 
Publisher,  and  of  all  Booksellers  and  Newsmen. 

A  Reading  Case  for  holding  the  weekly  Nos.  of  "N.  &  Q."  is  now 
ready,  and  maybe  had  of  all  Booksellers  and  Newsmen,  price  Is.  6d. ; 
or,  free  by  post,  direct  from  the  publisher,  for  Is.  Bd. 

"  NOTES  AND  QUERIES  "  is  published  at  noon  on  Friday,  and  is  also 
issued  in  MONTHLY  PARTS.  The  Subscription  for  STAMPED  COPIES  for 
six  Months  forwarded  direct  from  the  Publishi-r  (including  the  Half- 
yearly  INDEX)  is  Us.  \d.,  which  may  be  paid  by  Post  Office  Order, 
payable  at  the  Strand  Post  Office,  in  favour  of  WII.LIAM  G.  SMITH,  32, 
FOR  THE  EDITOR  should  be  addressed. 

"Nor**  &  QUERIES"  is  registered  for  transmission  abroad. 

Surgeon,  22,  Slaney  Street,  Enniscorthy:  "  I  have  used  them  myself, 
and  ordered  them  with  marked  benefit.  '  They  give  instant  relief  to 
asthma,  consumption,  coughs,  colds,  and  all  disorders  of  the  breath, 
throat,  and  lungs.  Price  Is.  \\d.  per  box.  Sold  by  all  Druggists. 

3'd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 




CONTENTS.— NO  241. 

NOTES  :  — A  Begging  Letter,  101  —  A  General  Literary  In- 
dex, &c.,  102  —  Edinburgh  Dancing-masters,  1700,  104  — 
Fac-simile  Reprint  of  Whitney's  "  Emblems,"  105  —  The 
Electric  Telegraph  in  1796, 106  —  Psalm  xxii.  16  —  Benson 
andLauder  — A  Six -fingered  Child  — The  oldest  Man  in 
the  World  —  "  Notchel  Crying  "  Extraordinary  —  Mul- 
berry-tree Folk-lore  — Tyburn  Gate,  106. 

QUERIES:  — Tweedledum  and  Tweedledee,  108  — Ballad  — 
"Blackwood's  Magazine"  —  Discharging  Insolvents  — 
Dobbins  of  Beer  —  "  Footsteps  of  Peace  "  —  Battle  of 
Gloucester  — Heraldic  — Emanuel  Howe  — Rev.  Thomas 
Howe  —  St.  Ignatius  of  Loyola  and  Cardinal  Pole  —  In- 
comer —  Quotations  —  Routs  and  Dog-horses — St.  Helen's, 
Bishopsgate  —  Tomb  of  Napoleon  I.,  Hotel  des  Invalides 

—  "  Vie  privee  des  Cesars  "  —  Westminster  Abbey,  108. 

QUERIES  WITH  ANSWERS  :  —  St.  Juliana  of  Norwich  —  Sale 
at  Stowe  —  Bang-beggars  —  Quotation,  111. 

REPLIES :— Loving  Cup,  112— The  Thumb,  16.  — Lady 
Hanham,  113  —  Passage  in  Shakspeare's  "  King  Henry 
VI."  —  Honorary  Canons  —  "  Winter  Leaves  "  —  Testa- 
mentary Burials  —  German  Hyrnn,  "  Meine  Lebenszeit 
verstreicht"  — Obsolete  Terms  of  Merchandise  —  Short- 
hose  Family  —  Hildebert  —  Muschamps  —  Waste  Paper  — 
Pure  Scarlet  in  Illuminations  —  "  Rhyme  nor  Reason  "  — 
Feckle  —  Howard :  Hay  ward  —  B.  Prescott's  Anticoperni- 
can  Book  —  Dutch  Bibliography  —  Male  and  Female  Births 

—  Peusy :  Smittle  —  Greek  Carrier  —  Quotations  wanted : 
"Quid  levius  penn&  "  ?  —  Burials  above  Ground  —  Sabbath 
Queries  — The  "Rounding"  System,  114. 

Notes  on  Books,  &c. 


The  art  of  begging  by  letter,  through  which  so 
Tnuch  money  has  been  and  continues  to  be  ob- 
tained from  the  charitably  disposed,  is  not  always 
confined  to  direct  mendicity  or  imposture,  however 
varied  may  be  the  form  employed.  Occasionally 
it  approaches  in  the  shape  of  a  quid  pro  quo,  and 
assumes  the  character  of  a  subscription  for  some 
article  which  the  person  addressed  has  no  inten- 
tion or  desire  of  procuring  at  any  price  whatever, 
and  is  disinclined  to  purchase  what  he  really  does 
not  want  and  sets  no  value  upon.  This  is  par- 
ticularly the  case  with  literary  productions,  as 
many  of  us  probably  are  aware.  Still  it  is  men- 
dicity, from  the  tramp  who  offers  you  a  tract  at 
the  door  to  the  more  accomplished  entreaty  of  the 
letter  that  polishes  and  relieves  its  contents  by 
felicity  of  expression,  and  introduces  a  Latin  pas- 
sage, or  a  quotation  from  a  well-known  poet. 

Of  all  the  literary  attempts  of  this  kind  that 
have  fallen  under  my  observation,  the  following  is 
the  most  singular.  It  was  discovered  among  some 
ancestral  papers,  and  had  been  thought  worthy  of 
being  preserved.  Whether  the  Editor  of  "  N.  &  Q." 
will  admit  it  to  be  such,  is  submitted  to  his  con- 

The  writer,  who  informs  us  that  he  has  been 
well  educated,  and  shows  himself  to  have  had 

some  scholarlike  attainments,  was  apparently  an 
object  of  compassion  from  age  and  infirmity,  and 
has  sufficiently  explained  who  he  is.  Personally 
I  have  met  with  nothing  respecting  him,  except 
this  production ;  but  it  is  recorded  of  his  father, 
that  he  died  leaving  his  family  wholly  unpro- 
vided for,  among  whom  were  Aaron  and  Gilbert 
Hill,  the  petitioner.  Aaron  Hill,  on  whose  works 
Gilbert  founds  his  application,  was  well  known 
as  a  traveller  and  speculator  connected  with 
Handel  as  a  theatrical  manager,  and  the  author 
of  several  dramatic  and  other  productions.  He 
died  in  February,  1750,  and  was  buried  in  the 
Cloisters  of  Westminster  Abbey.  The  letter  is 
dateless,  but  this  circumstance  is  sufficient  to 
point  out  the  period  about  which  it  was  written. 

"  Has  facili,  vir  digne,  oculo  percurre  tabellas, 

Atq ;  precor,  votis  sis  bonus  ipse  meis. 
"  Sir, 

"  To  a  Gentleman  of  your  Learning,  and  great  Hu- 
manity, it  will  be  needless  to  make  any  Apology  for  an 
Address  of  this  Nature,  because  it  is  in  Behalf  of  good 
Sense,  and  a  very  unhappy  Person.  I  have,  Sir,  had  the 
Advantage  of  a  very  liberal  Education,  and  the  Pleasure 
of  having  spent  the  happy  Part  of  my  Days  among  the 
Learned,  and  the  Polite.— I  am  Brother  to  the  late  Mr. 
Aaron  Hill,  whose  Works  have  been  printed,  by  Subscrip- 
tion, for  the  Benefit  of  his  Son,  and  his  3  Daughters. 

"  Their  Royal  Highnesses,  the  Princess  Dowager  of  Wales, 
and  the  Princess  Caroline,  have  been  graciously  pleased  to 
honour  this  Subscription  with  their  illustrious  Names. — 
As  have,  also,  above  3  hundred  of  the  Nobility,  and  more 
than  Half  the  Members  of  the  honourable  House  of  Com- 
mons, and  a  very  great  Number  of  other  learned  Gentle- 
men, and  Ladies  of  high  Distinction.— Seventeen  of  the 
Aldermen,  and  many  of  the  most  eminent  Merchants  and 
Citizens  of  London  have,  likewise,  generously  subscribed 
to  this  Work. 

"  My  3  Neices  have  been  so  kind  (in  Regard  to  my  dis- 
tressed Circumstances)  as  to  give  me  some  of  these  Books 
to  dispose  of,  for  my  own  particular  Profit. — I  am,  good 
Sir,  in  the  seventy  third  Year  of  my  Age,  and  have  out- 
lived all  my  Friends,  and  old  Acquaintance,  and  am  quite 
destitute  of  every  thing  that  is  necessary  for  the  Support 
of  Life. — I  am,  likewise,  sadly  afflicted  with  a  Variety  of 
Maladies,  and  have  very  nigh  lost  the  Use  of  my  Sight, 
one  of  my  Eyes  being  totally  blind,  and  the  other  in  so 
very  weak,  and  dim  a  Condition,  that  I  am  in  dreadfull 
Apprehension  of  losing  the  Sight  of  That,  also. 

"  How  infinitely  good,  therefore,  will  it  be  in  you,  most 
worthy  Sir !  and  what  a  binding  Obligation  shall  I  owe 
to  your  Benevolence,  if  you  will  but  be  so  kindly  indul- 
gent to  my  Distress,  as  to  buy  of  me  a  Sett  of  these  Books, 
which  are  the  only  Means  I  have,  at  present,  of  relieving 
myself  from  the  Extremity  of  ill  fortune  ? — The  Price  of 
the  4  Volumes  in  octavo,  neatly  bound  in  Calf,  and  gilt 
on  the  Back,  is  twenty  six  Shillings. — And,  as  the  Author 
was  a  Gentleman  of  sound  Learning,  Wit,  and  Judgment, 
I  doubt  not,  Sir,  but  you  will  be  very  agreeably  enter- 
tained, in  reading  his  Works. 

"  Your  kind  Condescention  to  my  humble  Address  will, 
indeed,  be  an  Act  of  very  timely  Humanity,  and  a  Fa- 
vour, that  shall  ever  dwell  on  the  Memory  of  Him,  who 
has  the  honour  to  be,  with  great  Respect, 

"  Sir, 
"  Your  most  obedient,  and 

"  very  humble  Servant 




[3'd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66. 

"  P.S.  My  Messenger  shall  wait  on  you  with  the  Books, 
if  you  are  kindly  disposed  to  give  him  your  Commands 
for  so  humane  a  Purpose. 

"  The  Right  Honble  Sir  Robert  Henley,  Lord  Keeper  of 
the  Great  Seal,  and  Eight  of  the  12  Judges,  and  many  of 
the  most  eminent  CounseUors  at  Law,  have  generously 
subscribed  to  this  Work. 

"  If  you  should  not  be  inclinable  to  favour  my  Petition, 
I  most  earnestly  beg  you,  Sir,  to  return  me  this  Letter 
by  the  Bearer ;  for  writing  is  now  become  exceedingly 
troublesome  to  my  very  weak  Eyesight. 

"  Sad,  and  oppress'd  with  Grief,  in  silent  Shame, 

I  suffer— Avhat  I  must  not,  cannot  name. 

Tho'  born  to  happier  Lot,  I'm  now  deprest 

By  Cares,  too  heavy  for  my  aged  Breast. 

Depriv'd  of  every  Comfort,"  Life  can  give, 

And  wholly  destitute  of  Means  to  live. 

I  have  no  Friend  t'  assist  me  in  Distress, 

Nor  scarce  a  Hope  to  make  my  Sorrows  less. 

Mv  Hopes  prove  fruitless,  and  my  Friends  are  lost, 

And  every  Aim  to  help  myself  is  crost. 

Ills  upon'llls  my  mournfull  Hours  persue,  "i 

Nor  have  I  One  fair  Prospect  in  my  View, 

But  from  the  Sale,  good  Sir,  of  what  I  offer  3-011. ) 
"  Pray,  therefore,  buy  these  Works,  in  wch  you'll  find 

The  virtuous  Morals  of  a  noble  Mind. 

Besides,  'twill  give  you  some  Delight  to  know, 

That  you've  befriended  Age,  immerg'd  in  Woe. 

For  every  generous  Heart  with  Pity  feels, 

What  modest  Want,  unwillingly,  reveals. 

This  Pleasure  will  be  yours — to  comfort  Grief : 

And  mine — to  thank  you  for  your  kind  Relief. 

"  Sors  mea  difficilis  non  est  indigna  favore, 
Si  bene  natus  homo  quid  mereatur  opis. 
Sin  peto,  quod  tibi  non  gratum  est,  ignosce  petenti, 
Me  facit  urgentem  causa  severa  nimis." 

TJ.  U. 


(2Dd  S.  iii.  63,  81,  104,  390;  3rd  S.  ii.  270,  352; 

viii.  413.) 

"  All  books  on  alchemy,"  says  A.  A.,  "are  now 
so  excessively  scarce,  and  their  general  contents 
so^little  known,  T  believe  I  need  not  apologise  for 
this  note  on  one  of  the  popular  credulities  of  the 
seventeenth  century."  "  Alchemy  was  more  than 
a  popular  credulity,"  remarks  PBOFB8SOB  DE 
MORGAN.  "  Newton  and  Boyle  were  among  the 
earnest  inquirers  into  it."  Your  correspondent 
II.  C.  (viii.  413)  observes :  — 

"Bishop.  Berkeley  was  of  opinion  that  M.  Homberg 
made  gold  by  introducing  light  into  the  pores  of  mer- 
cury. [Cf.  Thomson's  Hist,  of  Magic.']  I  marvel  that 
the  alchymists,  among  other  absurdities,  never  affirmed 
that  gold  was  solidified  flame.  [See  Mennens,  infra.] 
They  conceived  from  its  colour  that  sulphur  entered 
largely  into  the  composition  of  gold."  "The  theory 
avowed  by  the  most  recent  alchymists  is  as  follows : — 
They  believe  that  the  metals  were  composed  of  two  sub- 
stances—metallic, earth  and  an  inflammable  substance 
called  sulphur.  Gold  possesses  these  principles  in  nearly 
a  pure  state  ;  in  other  metals  they  are  more  or  less  cor- 
rupted and  intermixed  with  other" ingredients.  Hence  it 
is  only  necessary  to  purify  them  from  those  debasements 
to  convert  them  into  gold,  and  this  is  the  precise  object  ! 
of  all  the  different  alchymical  processes.  The  instrument  ' 

of  this  purification  is  the  philosopher's  stone,  a  small  por- 
tion of  which  being  injected  into  any  of  the  inferior 
metals  while  in  a  state  of  fusion,  the  whole  would  be  con- 
verted into  gold  or  silver." — EncycL  Metropol.  4th  Div. 
s.  v.  "  Alchymy." 

I  here  propose  to  furnish  the  bibliography  of 
this  portion  of  the  occult  sciences,  by  which  pro- 
bably many  will  be  interested,  as  it  is  so  intimately 
connected  with  the  history  of  science  generally. 
I  have  enumerated  those  works  only  to  which  I 
have  access  ;  for  a  list  of  others  here  omitted  the 
reader  may  consult  Boerhaave's  Historia  Chemica, 
vol.  i.  p.  200;  as  well  as  the  bibliographical  works 
referred  to  in  "  N.  &  Q."  as  above.  I  have  been 
indebted  principally  to  a  "  Catalogue  of  Chymical 
Books/'  appended  to  the  Philosophical  Epitaph  of 
W.  C.  Esq.,  Lond.  1673,  and  Mangeti,  Bibliotheca 

Part  I. — Authors  Edited  separately. 
Lord  Francis  Bacon,  Natural  History,  Cent.  iv. 
Bacon  here  points  out  the  importance  of  che- 
mical investigations,    and  predicts   the   immense 
advantages  which  would  result  from  the  science,, 
when  it  came  to  be  properly  cultivated  and  ex- 
tended.    Of  "the  intention  that  nature  hath  to 
make  all   metals  gold,"  and  "  of  the  dreams  of 
alchemy,"    his   judgment  is   also   found    in  his- 
Apophthegms,  as  follows  (202  ;  94)  :  — 

"  Sir  Dyer,  a  grave  and  wise  gentleman,  did  much  be- 
lieve in  Kelly  the  alchemist,  that  he  did  indeed  the  work,, 
and  made  gold  ;  insomuch  that  he  went  into  Germany, 
where  Kelly  then  was,  to  inform  himself  fully  thereof. 
After  his  return,  he  dined  with  my  Lord  of  Canterbury, 
where  at  that  time  was  at  the  table  Dr.  Brown,  the  phy- 
sician. They  fell  in  talk  of  Kelly.  Sir  Edward  Dyer, 
turning  to  the  Archbishop,  said,  '  I  do  assure  your  Grace 
that  that  I  shall  tell  you  is  truth :  I  am  an  eyewitness 
thereof;  and  if  I  had  not  seen  it  I  should  not  have  be- 
lieved it.  I  saw  Master  Kelly  put  of  the  base  metal  into 
the  crucible  ;  and  after  it  was  set  a  little  upon  the  fire, 
and  a  very  small  quantity  of  the  medicine  put  in  ami 
stirred  with  a  stick  of  wood,  it  came  forth  in  great  pro- 
portion perfect  gold  ;  to  the  touch,  to  the  hammer,  to  the 
test.'  My  Lord  Archbishop  said,  '  You  had  need  take 
heed  what  you  say,  Sir  Edward  Dyer,  for  here  is  an  in- 
fidel at  the' board?  Sir  Edward  Dyer  said  again,  plea- 
santly, '  I  would  have  looked  for  an  infidel  sooner  in  any 
place  than  at  your  Grace's  table.'  '  What  say  you,  Dr. 
Brown  ? '  saith  the  Archbishop.  Dr.  Brown  answered 
after  his  blunt  and  huddling  manner,  'The  gentleman 
hath  spoken  enough  for  me.'  '  Why,'  saith  the  Bishop, 
'  what  hath  he  said  ?  '  '  Marry,'  saith  Dr.  Brown,  '  he 
said  he  would  not  have  believed  it  except  he  had  seen  it,, 
and  no  more  will  I.' " 

Koger  Bacon,  Art  of  Chymistry,  Myrrour  of 
Alchimy,  Opus  Majus.  See  Maier's  Symbola  Aurcee 
Menstc,  which  was  reviewed  by  J.  J.  Conybeare 
in  Thomson's  Annals  of  Philosophy,  JNT.  S.  vol.  vi. 

"Of  all  the  alchemicalVorks,"  says  Conybeare,  "into 
which  I  have  been  occasionally  led  to  search,  this  appears 
the  best  calculated  to  afford  the  curious  reader  an  insight 
into  the  history  of  that  art,  and  of  the  arguments  by 
which  it  was  usually  attacked  and  defended.  It  has  the 
additional  merit  of  being  more  intelligible  and  more  en- 
tertaining than  most  books  of  the  same  class." — (P.  241.) 

3rd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 



Roger  Bacon  is  made  to  affirm  that  each  metal 
contains  its  peculiar  merciuy  mixed  with  a  cor- 
ruptible sulphur,  which  latter  may  be  separated 
by  the  application  of  the  fixed,  tinged,  and  pene- 
trating mercury,  *.  e.  the  tincture.  " Gold  itself 
(he  proceeds)  is  mercury  entirely  freed  from  this 
sulphur,  as  may  be  concluded  from  its  weight, 
splendour,  and  other  accidents."  See  also 
"N.  &Q."2BdS.  ix.  40. 

Jo.  Beguiniis,  Tyrocinium  Chymicum,  edit,  a 
Biasio,  Amstelod.  1669  :  — 

"  Alchymia  nihil  est  quam  ars  purum  ab  impure  sepa- 
rans.  .  .  .  Spagyriam  si  quis  nuncuparit  proecipua 
officia  ffvyKpiffiv  nempe  et  SiaKpiaiv  insinuet." — Prcefat. 

Olaus  Borrichius,  De  ortu  et  progress^  Chemicc 
Dissertatio,  4to,  Hafniae,  1668 ;  Hermetis  sEyyp- 
tiorum  et  Chemicorum  Sapentia  ab  Hermanni  Con- 
rmf/ii  animadvcrsionibus  vindicata,  Hafnise,  1674. 
In  both  of  these  learned  works  he  vindicates  the 
merits  of  the  Egyptians  in  respect  to  science  and 
inventions,  and  particularly  in  respect  to  medical 
and  chemical  science,  from  the  attacks  of  Con- 
ringius.  An  account  of  the  controversy  between 
them  will  be  found  in  Phil.  Trans.  Abr.,  ii. 
207-10.  Our  author  mentions  a  statement  of  the 
Count  of  Windishratz,  that  — 

"  a  certain  monk,  who  resided  at  Vienna,  in  the  Emperor's 
palace,  was  in  possession  of  a  purplish  powder,  by  means 
of  which  he  could  transmute  the  baser  metals  into  pure 
gold  ;  and  that  being  dangerously  ill  of  a  fever,  he  was 
questioned  by  the  physician  who  attended  him  concern- 
ing this  matter,  and  confessed  '  ex  indiciis  quibusdam  se 
inductum  ut  latentem,  quern  olim  Paracelsus  seposuerat, 
lapidem  philosophicum  fodiendo  investigaret,  quaesivisse 
sollicite,  et  reperisse.' " — See  Conringius,  infra. 

Hon.  Robert  Boyle,  "  An  Historical  Account  of 
a  Degradation  of  Gold,  made  by  an  Anti-Elixir ; 
a  strange  Chemical  Narrative  "  ( Works,  vol.  iv. 
pp.  13—19):- 

"  To  make  it  more  credible  that  other  metals  are  ca- 
pable of  being  graduated,  or  exalted  into  gold,  by  way  of 
projection,  I  will  relate  to  you  that  by  the  like  way  gold 
has  been  degraded,  or  imbased.  .  .  .  Our  experiment 
plainly  shows  that  gold,  though  confessedly  the  most 
homogeneous  and  the  least  mutable  of  metals,  may  be  in 
a  very  short  time  (perhaps  not  amounting  to*  many 
minutes)  exceedingly  changed,  both  as  to  malleableness, 
colour,  homogeneity,  and  (which  is  more)  specific  gravity ; 
arid  all  this  by  so  very  inconsiderable  a  portion  of  in- 
jected powder,"  &c. 

When  Locke,  as  one  of  the  executors  of  Boyle, 
was  about  to  publish  some  of  his  works,  Newton 
wished  him  to  insert  the  second  and  third  part  of 
Boyle's  recipes  (the  first  part  of  which  was  to  ob- 
tain "a  mercury  that  would  grow  hot  with  gold"), 
and  which  Boyle  had  communicated  to  him  on 
condition  that  they  should  be  published  after  his 
death  (Brewster's  Life  of  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  ii. 
•*i76).  Mangetus  gives  a  relation  of  a  stranger 
calling  on  Boyle,  and  leaving  with  him  a  powder 
which  he  projected  into  the  crucible,  and  in- 
stantly went  out.  After  the  fire  had  gone  out, 

Boyle  found  in  the  crucible  a  yellow-coloured 
metal,  possessing  all  the  properties  of  pure  gold, 
and  only  a  little  lighter  than  the  weight  of  the 
materials  originally  put  in  the  crucible  (Preface 
to  Bibl.  Chem.  Curiosa,  quoted  by  Thomson,  p.  18). 
For  a  list  of  Boyle's  works  connected  with  al- 
chemy, see  the  Philosophical  Epitaph  by  W.  C. 

Hermannus  Conringius,  De  Hermetica  Medicina, 
Helmstadii,  4to,  1669.  His  medical  knowledge 
appears  from  his  "Introduction  to  the  Medical 
Art,"  and  his  "  Comparison  of  the  Medical  Prac- 
tice of  the  Ancient  Egyptians  and  the  Modern 
Paracelsians."  His  book,  De  Hermetica  Medicina, 
and  his  Antiquitates  Academicce,  discover  a  correct 
acquaintance  with  the  history  of  philosophy 
(Chalmers).  In  reference  to  the  Egyptians,  Mor- 
hof  remarks :  — 

"  Non  certe  isto  pretio  ac  loco  habendi,  quo  habet  illps 
Herm.  Conringius  in  libris  ii.  De  Hermetica  Medicina,  iu 
quibus  illos  omnis  Philosophise  rudes,  aut  valde  medio- 
criter  ea  imbutos  fuisse,  contendit,  nullo  certe  idoneo 
argumento  nisus." — Polyhistor,  vol.  ii.  p.  167. 

This  antagonist  of  Borrichius  is  condemned  by 
Morhof  in  another  treatise,  De  Metattorum  Trans- 
mutatione  Epistola,  Hamb.  1673,  8vo  :  — 

"  Kircherus  in  singulis  scientiis,  secundum  quas  par- 
titus  est  libros  suos  (CEdip.  ^Egypt.)  eos  excelluisse  osten- 
dit,  locis  non  paucis,  quae  plena  manu  serit."  —  Morhof, 
ut  supra. 

The  earliest  authority  which,  with  all  his  re- 
search and  erudition,  JVIaier  can  produce  for  the 
chemical  learning  of  the  Egyptians,  is  the  asser- 
tion of  Paulus  Diaconus  (a  writer  of  the  eighth 
century),  that  Dioclesian  burnt  the  library  of 
Alexandria  in  order  to  prevent  the  Egyptians 
from  becoming  learned  in  the  art  of  producing  at 
will  those  precious  metals  which  might  be  em- 
ployed as  the  sinews  of  war  against  himself 
(Conybeare,  p.  242).  Cf.  Conringius,  p.  20,  and 
Bergman's  Chemical  Essays,  vol.  iii.  p.  44. 

Crollius,  Basilica  Chemica  (Hartmanni  Opp. 
Chymico-Medica,  Francofurti  ad  Mcenum,  1684). 
Your  correspondent  EIRIONNA.CH  has  already 
quoted  a  passage  from  Pinnel's  translation  of 
Crollius's  Prcefatio  Admmitoria,  wherein  he  main- 
tains that  this  — 

"  Spirit  in  gold  is  the  same  with  the  generative  Spirit 
of  all  creatures,  and  is  the  same  and  onlv  generative 
Nature  diffused  through  all  things."—"  N.  &  Q.,"  2nd  S. 
iii.  104.  [Prafat.,  p.  22.] 

"  Ex  duobus  Solis  et  Lunae  fontibus,  ut  docte  disserit 
Suchtenius,  oritur  Spiritus  mundanus  et  Naturalis  et 
Vitalis  cuncta  permeans  Entia,  omnibus  vitam  et  con- 
sistentiam  prjebens,  per  quern  ut  mediatorem  omnis  oc- 
culta  proprietas,  omnis  virtus,  omnis  vita  propagatur  in 
inferiora  corpora,  in  herbas,  in  metalla,  in  lapides,  in 
animalia ;  ita  ut  nihil  sit  in  toto  mundo  quod  hujus 
spiritus  scintilla  cai-eat  vel  carere  possit." — Prof  at.,  p.  38. 

"  Oswald  Crollius,  of  Hesse,  must  take  his  'station  in 
this  honourable  fraternity  of  enthusiasts  (the  Rosicru- 
cians).  He  was  physician  to  the  Prince  of  Anhalt,  and 
afterwards  a  counsellor  of  the  Emperor  Rodolphus  II. 
The  introduction  to  his  Basilica  Chymica  contains  a  short 



[3'd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66. 

"but    exact  epitome  of  the    opinions  of  Paracelsus."— 
Thomson,  p.  174. 

Alchemical  Collections. 

John  Dee,  MS.  70,  in  Aih.  Cantab.  ;  Ashmole, 
1486,  v.  MS.  Addit.  2128,  2325,  art.  1—8 ;  2327, 
MS.  66,  "  Treatise  of  the  Rosie  Crucian  Secrets, 
their  excellent  Method  of  making  Medicines  of 
Metals ;  also  their  Laws  and  Mysteries,  with  an 
alphabetical  Explanation  of  certain  chymical  hard 
Words  used  in  the  Treatise."  MS.  Harl.  6485, 
Pr.  Testamcntum  Jo.  Dee  philosophi  summi  ad  Jo. 
Gwynn,  1568.  In  Ashmole's  Theatrum  Chemi- 
cum,  p.  334 ;  MS.  Ashmole,  1442,  art.  5,  Harl. 
2407,  art.  33:  — 

"  Some  time  lie  bestowed  in  Vulgar  Chemistry,  and 
was  therein  Master  of  divers  Secrets,  amongst  others  he 
revealed  to  one  Roger  Cooke  the  great  Secret  of  the 
Elixir  (as  he  called  it)  of  the  Salt  of  Metals,  the  Projec- 
tion whereof  was  One  upon  a  Hundred. 

"...  Tis  generally  reported  that  Dr.  Dee  and  Sir 
Edward  Kelly  were  so  strangely  fortunate  as  to  find  a 
very  large  quantity  of  the  Elixir  in  some  parts  of  the 
ruins  of  Glastonbury  Abbey.  It  had  remained  here 
perhaps  ever  since  the  time  of  the  highly-gifted  St.  Dun- 
stan  in  the  tenth  century."  —  Godwin's  Lives  of  the 
JVecromancers,  art.  "Dee." 

That  alchemy  was  much  studied  in  conventual 
establishments  appears  from  Maier's  Symbola  Au- 
rece  Mensee,  cf.  Charnock's  Breviary  of  Natural 
Philosophy,  fifth  chapter,  in  Ashmole's  Theatrum 
Chcmicum  (p.  297),  who  says,  in  his  Prole- 
gomena :  — 

"  He  who  shall  have  the  happiness  to  meet  with  St. 
Dunstan's  work,  De  Occulta  JPhilosophia  [that  on  the 
Philosopher's  Stone  is  in  the  Ashmole  Museum],  may 
therein  read  such  stories  as  will  make  him  amazed  to 
think  what  stupendous  and  immense  things  are  to  be 
performed  by  virtue  of  the  Philosopher's  Mercury." 

See  also  some  verses  on  the  Elixir,  which  he 
attributes  to  "Pearce  the  Black  Monke"  ;  Eipley's 
Preface  to  his  Twelve  Gates  (ibid.  p.  122),  de- 
scribing himself — 

"  according  to  my  professyon, 
In  order  Chanon  regular  of  Brydlyngton." 

In  the  Prologue  to  the  "Chanonn's  Yeman," 
Chaucer  furnishes  the  technical  terms  of  this 
science  or  art  of  multiplication  j  and  it  is  to  this 
vain  pursuit  of  the  Canon's  we  are  indebted  for 
the  golden  visions  and  labours  of  Friar  Bacon. 


(To  be  continued.) 


In  the  month  of  January,  1700,  Miss  Anne  Hous- 
toune,  a  daughter  of  the  baronet  of  that  name,  and 
a  niece  of  Lady  Whitelaw,  then  the  wife  of  Sir 
William  Hamilton,  a  Lord  of  Session,  was  placed 
with  a  fashionable  dancing-master  in  the  northern 

metropolis,  called  William  Balham.  His  terms 
were  one  hundred  pounds  Scots  for  a  year  ;  one- 
half  payable  in  advance,  and  the  other  at  the  ter- 
mination of  the  contract.  The  young  lady  com- 
menced receiving  his  instructions  till  the  month  of 
August,  when  she  went  to  the  country,  from 
which  she  did  not  return  until  November,  when 
she  again  took  lessons  from  Balham  j  but  did  not 
continue  with  him  because  the  advent  of  Mons.  le 
Roche,  a  French  artist,  took  the  northern  capital 
by  storm,  and  captured  numerous  sprigs  of  quality 
at  the  rate  of  "  a  guinea  a  month."  This  oppor- 
tunity of  acquiring  the  graces  was  not  overlooked, 
and  Lady  Houstoune  and  her  sister-in-law,  the 
judge's  wife,  removed  the  fair  creature  from  her 
original  teacher,  and  placed  her  with  the  all-con- 
quering Frenchman. 

The  papa,  who  knew  the  value  of  a  guinea 
better  than  his  wife  or  sister,  was  of  opinion  that 
one  month  was  sufficient,  and  Miss  Anne  was 
again  placed  with  her  first  instructor,  with  whom 
she  continued  until  the  contract  was  implemented, 
so  far  as  the  dancing-master  was  concerned.  Sir 
John,  however,  was  not  disposed  to  perform  his 
part  of  the  premises  by  paying  the  remaining  fifty 
pounds  Scots,  or  4/.  3-9.  Qd.  sterling ;  and,  acting 
perhaps  under  the  advice  of  his  brother-in-law 
the  judge,  declined  payment  for  reasons  which 
now-a-days  would  be  considered  as  very  strange, 
it  having  transpired  that  the  dancing-master  had 
been  a  very  naughty  man,  and  a  confirmed  offender 
against  morality;  consequently  he  was  barred  per- 
sonali  exceptione.  Had  his  "  lapses,  relapses,  and 
trelapses  "  occurred  during  the  currency  of  the  en- 
gagement, and  had  Miss  Anne  been  removed  in  con- 
sequence of  any  such  discovery,  the  defence  would 
have  been  intelligible;  but  as  the  young  lady 
was  allowed  to  remain  the  entire  period,  it  cer- 
tainly was  an  original,  but  assuredly  not  an  equit- 
able plea,  to  maintain  that  the  man's  vices  were 
a  bar  to  his  receiving  the  wages  he  had  earned. 
Sir  John  might  on  the  same  pretence  have  re- 
fused to  pay  his  butcher,  his  grocer,  or  his  baker, 
if  one  or  all  of  them  had  been  brought  before  a 
Kirk  session  for  similar  offences,  Kirk  sessions 
having  an  especial'  taste  for  such  investiga- 
tions, the  members  being  always  on  the  look  out 
for  what  was  not  inappropriately  called  "  Sculdud- 

What  was  the  final  result  we  have  not  ascer- 
tained, but  it  is  not  improbable  that  sooner  than 
engage  in  a  lawsuit  with  a  great  man  like^Sir 
John,  a  member  of  Parliament,  and  a  high-spirited 
Lord  of  Session  to  back  him,  Balham  was  suffi- 
ciently prudent  to  retire  from  the  contest. 

J.  M. 

3'd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 




Although  indiscriminate  reviews  of  new  books 
would  be  manifestly  out  of  place  in  these  columns, 
I  think  that  it  will  not  be  held  that  these  are 
unworthily  employed  in  occasionally  giving  pub- 
licity to  some  volume  of  unusual  character  or 
merit,  or  which  may  appear  to  possess  special 
points  of  interest  to  the  readers  of  "  N.  &  Q." 
Such  a  volume  I  conceive  to  be  the  photo-litho- 
graphic reprint  of  old  Geffrey  Whitney's  Choice 
of  Emblems,  recently  published  under  the  editorial 
care  of  the  Rev.  Henry  Green,  M.A.,  of  Kuuts- 
ford ;  and  I  accordingly  make  no  apology  for  thus 
introducingit  to  the  notice  of  my  co-workers  in  these 

I  need  not  point  out  the  special  titles  to  their 
attention  which  the  book  itself  possesses ;  the  rarity 
and  value  of  the  original ;  the  artistic  character 
of  the  "  emblemes  and  other  devices  j  "  the  great 
poetic  merit  and  local  interest  of  the  illustrative 
verses ;  and  the  peculiar  charm  which  attaches  to 
the  volume  from  the  probability,  as  ably  set  forth 
by  the  editor,  that  it  was  mainly  from  it,  as  "  a 
representative  book  of  the  greater  part  of  the  em- 
blem literature  which  had  preceded  it,"  that 
Shakespeare  gained  the  knowledge,  which  he  evi- 
dently possessed,  of  the  great  foreign  emblematists 
of  the  sixteenth  century.  Thus,  with  high  in- 
trinsic merit  of  its  own,  and  its  added  interest  for 
the  modern  reader,  the  quaint  eulogy  will  not  be 
thought  out  of  place  which,  following  the  fashion 
of  the  day,  the  author  himself  set  upon  the  title 
of  his  book,  when  he  described  it  as  "a  worke 
adorned  with  varietie  of  matter,  both  pleasant  and 
profitable ;  wherein  those  that  please,  maye  finde 
to  fit  their  fancies :  Bicause  herein,  by  the  office 
of  the  eie,  and  the  eare,  the  minde  maye  reape 
dooble  delighte  throughe  holsome  preceptes, 
shadowed  with  pleasant  deuises :  both  fit  for  the 
vertuous,  to  their  incoraging  :  and  for  the  wicked, 
for  their  admonishing  and  amendment." 

In  the  early  part  of  last  year  a  very  interesting 
paper  "  On  the  Emblems  of  Geffrey  Whitney,  of 
Nantwich,  in  the  Sixteenth  Century,"  was  read 
by  the  editor  of  the  present  volume  before  the 
Architectural,  Archaeological,  and  Historic  So- 
ciety of  Chester.  This  essay,  extracted  from  the 
Chester  ArchceologicalJournal,  handsomely  printed, 
as  it  deserved,  by  Minshull  and  Hughes  of 
Chester,  8vo,  pp.  20,  with  fac-similes  on  wood 
and  in  photo-lithography,  awakened  considerable 
interest,  not  only  to  its  more  special  subject,  but 
to  the  beauty  and  interest  of  emblem  literature 
generally,  and  soon  became  out  of  print.  At  the 
close  of  his  paper,  the  author  mooted  the  ques- 
tion^  of  the  expediency  of  a  fac-simile  reprint  of 
Whitney,  and  this  met  with  so  warm  a  response 
that  he  was  speedily  induced  to  issue  his  "pro- 

posals "  for  the  undertaking.  These  were  to  the 
effect  that  the  impression  should  consist  of  450 
copies,  on  tinted  paper,  of  the  exact  size  of  the 
original,  and  50  copies,  on  similar  tinted  paper,  of 
a  larger  size ;  and  so  quickly  did  the  names  of 
subscribers  come  in  that  Mr.  Green  soon  felt  him- 
self justified  in  going  to  press  with  his  reprint, 
and  the  illustrative  matter  which  a  long  and  lov- 
ing study  of  the  subject  had  enabled  him  to  bring 

The  result  of  his  careful  and  conscientious 
labours  is  now  before  the  public,  and  I  venture 
to  say  that  a  more  beautiful,  interesting,  and  gene- 
rally satisfactory  volume  is  scarcely  to  be  found. 
Not  only  have  we  the  photo-lithographic  reprint 
of  Whitney,  most  skilfully  executed  by  Mr. 
Brothers  of  Manchester,  with  its  250  engravings, 
but  a  very  interesting  and  valuable  introductory 
dissertation  on  emblem  literature,  and  a  series  of 
"  Essays,  Literary  and  Bibliographical,"  of  which 
I  need  only  specify  one  as  of  unusual  interest, 
"  On  Shakespeare's  references  to  Emblem  Books, 
and  to  Whitney's  Emblems  in  particular."  This 
is  a  subject  to  which  Mr.  Green,  as  he  informs  us 
in  a  note  (p.  308),  has  long  devoted  his  attention, 
and  I  am  sure  that  his  readers  will  join  with, 
me  in  the  hope  that  he  will  soon  feel  justified  in 
giving  his  "  volume  of  nearly  400  pages,  4to,"  to 
the  public. 

To  the  part  of  his  work  which  I  have  just 
alluded  to  we  have  an  "Appendix  of  Literary 
and  Biographical  Notes,"  and  this  is  followed  by 
a  series  of  no  less  than  seventy-two  illustrative 
plates,  being  fac-similes  of  titles,  devices,  &c., 
from  emblem  books  prior  to  Whitney,  and  alluded 
to  or  described  in  the  course  of  the  preceding 
essays.  In  the  composition  of  his  original  matter, 
which  is  the  more  valuable  from  the  paucity  of 
bibliographical  information  relating  to  emblem 
literature,  the  editor  has  had  the  advantage  of 
reference  to  several  fine  collections,  notably  to 
those  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Corser  of  Stand,  and 
the  late  Joseph  Brooks  Yates  of  Liverpool,  whose 
paper  on  Emblem  Literature,  read  before  the 
Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of  Liverpool, 
and  published  in  the  Proceedings  (Nos.  v.  and  vi.) 
of  that  body,  is  the  most  valuable  contribution  to 
the  bibliography  of  the  subject  which  we  possess. 

Mr.  Green,  too,  has  made  more  than  one  special 
journey  to  Holland  and  Belgium,  visiting  the 
public  libraries,  and  "the  house  of  Christopher 
Plantyn,"  the  publisher  of  Whitney,  at  whose 
Antwerp  mansion,  which,  at  the  expiration  of  three 
centuries,  is  still  owned  by  a  descendant,  are  yet 
stored  "his  types  and  presses,  and  all  the  ap- 
pliances of  his  noble  art,  which  in  modern  days 
queenly  hands  (those  of  our  own  Victoria)  have 
not  disdained  to  work."  Thus,  it  may  be  well 
inferred,  our  editor  is  one  of  those  men  who, 
Pygmalion-like,  become  enamoured  of  their  sub- 



AUG.  11. '66. 

} — whose  horizon  retreats  as  they  proceed,  til 
the  limits  of  their  proposed  journey  are  _ far  ex- 
ceeded, and  its  expense  and  fatigue  alike  for- 
gotten. Mere  reimbursement — not  to  speak  of 
profit — he  can  hardly  have  expected,  and  with  the 
most  perfect  truth  he  may  assert,  with  Alexander 
Barclay  in  his  Shyp  of  Folys  of  the  Worlde,  that 
"sothely  he  hathe  taken  upon  hym  .  .  .  this  pre- 
sent Boke  neyther  for  hope  of  rewarde  nor  lawde 
of  man:  but  onely  for  the  holsome  instruccion 
commodyte,  and  doctryne  of  wysdome." 

Since  writing  the  foregoing  I  have  learnt  with 
much  pleasure  that  the  favourable  opinion  I  have 
expressed  of  this  volume  is  entertained  by  men 
more  capable  of  forming  a  correct  judgment  than 
myself,  the  editor  having  received  most  gratifying 
letters  from  M.  J.  T.  Bodel  Nyenhuis,  of  Leyden 
(a  descendant  of  Francis  Raphelengius,  the  son- 
in-law  and  press-corrector  of  Christopher  Plan- 
tyn),  from  M.  C.  Ruelen,  Librarian  cf  the  Biblio- 
theque  Royale  at  Brussels,  and  from  Mr.  J.  Payne 
Collier.  Mr.  Ruelen  remarks:  "Votre  travail 
est  certainement  le  plus  complet  que  nous  ayons  sur 
ce  genre  interessant  et  curieux,  et  il  sera  lu  avec  le 
plus  vif  plaisir  j  "  whilst  Mr.  Collier  writes  of  the 
book :  "  It  is  an  admirable  specimen  of  what  may 
be  called  a  new  branch  of  art  as  applied  to  the  re- 
production of  rare  works." 

I  perceive  from  a  statement  prefixed  to  the  list 
of  subscribers  that  the  50  large  paper  copies  have 
been  all  appropriated ;  and  that,  of  the  450  small 
paper,  314  were  accounted  for  at  the  time  of  pub- 
lication. Many  of  the  remainder,  I  have  reason 
to  know,  have  been  since  applied  for ;  and  as  we 
are  informed  that  the  negatives  of  the  emblem 
plates  have  been  destroyed,  thus  preventing  repro- 
duction, it  will  be  apparent  that  the  reprint  of 
Whitney  will  soon  be  also  numbered  among  rare 
books,  and  that — to  adopt  the  usual  formula — 
"  early  application  is  recommended  to  those  wish- 
ing to  secure  a  copy."  WILLIAM  BATES. 

The  news  just  received  across  the  Atlantic 
ocean  with  the  rapidity  of  lightning  led  me  to 
refresh  my  memory  on  the  history  of  telegraphic 
communication  ;  and  as  France  gave  birth  to  the 
art  in  one  of  its  forms,  it  seemed  to  me  that  I 
could  do  no  better  than  consult  the  Encyclopedic 
des  gens  du  monde.  I  therefore  read  the  article 
Telegraphe — whence* I  transcribe  a  few  lines :  — 

"Tous  ces  systemes  [the  methods  of  Claude  Chappe 
and  others]  n'ont  pas  suffi  neanmoins  a  1'impatience  de 
nos  contemporains.  On  a  cherche'  dans  I'eHectricite  un 
moyen  de  communication  encore  plus  rapide.  L'idee  de 
pareils  telegraphed  avait  ete  mise  en  avant  des  1790.  En 
1796,  on  s'en  occupa  en  Espagne.  Dans  ces  derniers  temps 
ils  ont  e'te'  mis  en  faveur,  par  suite  de  1'etablissement 
des  chemins  de  fer  qui  les  rendent  plus  faciles  &  con- 

struire.    On  en  a  eleve'  &  Munich,  en  Belgique,  le  long 
du  chemin  de  fer  de  Londres  a  Bristol,"  etc. — 1844. 

The  article  was  contributed  by  M.  Louvet.  It 
occupies  nine  columns,  and  is  no  doubt  the  result 
of  much  inquiry.  I  must  observe,  however,  that 
the  author  cites  no  evidence  of  a  proposal  for  the 
application  of  electricity  to  telegraphic  communi- 
cations so  early  as  1790;  and,  moreover,  that  his 
remark  on  the  experiments  made  in  Spain  is  de- 
fective in  point  of  circumstantialit}r.  On  that 
head,  a  partial  remedy  occurs  to  me  in  the  shape 
of  an  extract  from  the  Magasin  encyclopedique  of 
M.  Aubin-Louis  Millin  and  his  learned  associates : 

"  Le  Prince  de  la  Paix,  qui  te'moigne  un  tres  grand 
zele  pour  le  progres  des  sciences,  ayant  appris  que  le  doc- 
teur  don  Francisco  Salva  avoit  lu,  a  Pacade'mie  royale  des 
sciences  de  Barcelone,  un  memoire  sur  1'application  de 
1'electricite  a  la  telegraphie,  et  prcsente'  en  meme-temps 
un  tele'graphe  electrique  de  son  invention,  a  de'sire  exa- 
miner lui-meme  cette  machine.  Satisfait  de  1'exactitude 
et  de  la  celerite  avec  lesquelles  on  peut  se  parler  par  son 
moyen,  il  a  procure  k  1'auteur  1'honneur  de  paroitre  de- 
vant  le  roi.  Le  Prince  de  la  Paix,  en  presence  de  leurs 
Majestes  et  de  plusieurs  seigneurs,  a  fait  parler  le  tele'- 
graphe &  la  satisfaction  de  toute  la  cour.  Le  telegraphe  a 
passe',  quelques  jours  apres,  chez  1'Infant  D.  Antonio. 

"  Son  Altesse  se  propose  d'en  avoir  un  plus  complet, 
qui  ait  une  force  electrique  suffisante  pour  communiquer  a 
des  distances  eloignees  sur  terre  ou  sur  mer.  L'Infant 
a  done  ordonne'  de  construire  une  machine  electrique, 
dont  le  plateau  a  plus  de  quarante  pouces  de  diametre, 
avec  les  appareils  ordinaires.  Son  Altesse  se  propose 
d'entreprendre  a  1'aide  de  cette  machine,  une  suite  d'ex- 
pe'riences  utiles  et  curieuses  qu'il  a  proposees  au  docteur 
D.  Salva,  et  dont  nous  rendrons  compte  quand  leur  re- 
sultat  nous  sera  parvenu.'"'  —  Magasin  Encyclopedique, 
seconde  anne'e,  tome  quatrieme,  Paris,  1796,  p.  542. 

This  second  transcript  was  made  by  me  some 
years  since,  and  I  have  never  met  with  any  other 
account  of  the  circumstance  which  it  describes. 
The  Magasin  encyclopedique  is  a  rare  and  volu- 
minous series,  and  the  Table  generale,  which  forms 
four  volumes  of  more  than  four  hundred  pages 
each,  has  no  reference  to  Telegraphe  of  so  early  a 
date  as  1796.  BOLTON  COKXEY. 

PSALM  xxn.  16. — Very  fe*y  readers  of  the  Bible, 

[  apprehend,  are  aware  that  the  last  line  of  this 
verse  in  the  Hebrew  is  meaningless.  It  is  "  As  a 
lion  (n&O)  my  hands  and  my  feet."  The  LXX 
seem  to  have  conjectured  "HD,  for  they  render  it 
tipv^av,  they  have  dug,  and  they  have  been  followed 
more  or  less  closely  by  the  Vulgate  and  other 
versions.  But  this  correction  will  not  stand,  for 

t  is  contrary  to  all  the  principles  of  critical 
emendation,  the  K  being  unaccounted  for.  Various 

ttempts  at  extracting  sense  from  the  passage  have 
been  made,  but  all  in  vain.  Even  that,  in  my 
mind,  best  of  critics,  J.  Olshausen,  is  driven  to 
;he  supposition  of  two  marginal  notes  having  been 
combined  to  form  this  line.  Perhaps  it  will  seem 

resumption  in  me  to  say  that  the  difficulty  is  easy 

3'<»  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 



of  solution.  We  have  then  only  to  suppose  that  the 
original  word  was  12&O,  are  sore  (with  wounds), 
see  Gen.  xxxiv.  25 ;  and  that,  in  the  copy  from 
which  the  present  text  was  transcribed,  the  lower 
part  of  the  two  last  letters  was  effaced,  leaving 
"1N3,  the  very  word  we  now  find  there.  The 
whole  passage  then  would  run  thus  — 

"  For  dogs  have  compassed  me, 
The  assembly  of  the  wicked  have  enclosed  me : 
My  hands  and  my  feet  are  sore  (with  wounds), 
I  can  tell  all  my  bones  : 
They  look  and  stare  upon  me, 
They  part  my  garments  among  them, 
And  cast  lots  upon  my  vesture  : 
But  thou  be  not  far  from  me,"  &c. 

By  "  hands  and  feet "  are  meant,  by  a  common 
figure,  the  legs  and  arms,  t.  e.  the  limbs ;  and  by 
"  t)ones  "  the  ribs.  We  may  also  notice  the  em- 
phases on  they  and  thou.  Thus,  after  a  lapse  I  may 
say  of  two  thousand  years,  sense  has  at  last  been 
given  to  this  passage  ;  for  though  critics  may  re- 
ject they  cannot  disprove  my  correction,  as  it 
fulfils  all  the  conditions  of  critical  emendation.  I 
have  made  many  more  corrections  of  the  text  of 
the  Psalms  and  other  books  of  the  Old  Testament, 
but  I  will  not  communicate  any  more  of  them  for 
fear  of  controversy,  which  I  abhor. 


P.S.  I  take  this  opportunity  of  informing  the 
readers  of  Shakespeare  that  my  volume,  intitled 
The  Shakespeare  Expositor,  an  Aid  to  the  perfect 
understanding  of  the  Plays  of  Shakespeare,  is  in  the 
hands  of  the  printer. 

BENSON  AND  LATJDER. — Cause  and  effect  are 
curiously  shown  in  the  following  circumstance. 
Lauder,  when  his  forgeries  were  exposed  by  Dr. 
Douglas,  declared  that  his  offence  had  been  occa- 
sioned by  disappointment  of  profit  from  the  pub- 
lication of  Johnston's  Translation  of  the  Psalms, 
which  he  attributed  to  Pope's  couplet  in  The  Dun- 
dad  :  — 

"  On  two  unequal  crutches  propt  he  came, 
Milton's  on  this,  on  that  one  Johnston's  name." 

And  that  from  thence  originated  his  rancour 
against  Milton.  The  couplet,  however,  was  aimed 
against  Auditor  Benson,  who  was  a  great  admirer 
both  of  Milton  and  Johnston,  and  who,  to  honour 
the  memory  of  the  former,  erected  a  monument  to 
him  in  Westminster  Abbey,  and  who  gave  a  thou- 
sand pounds  to  one  Dobson  of  New  College,  Ox- 
ford, for  translating  Paradise  Lost  into  Latin  verse. 
Thus  the  lines  which  were  a  satire  on  Milton's 
great  admirer  were  made  the  excuse  for  the  crime 
of  his  great  detractor.  Lander's  edition  of  John- 
ston's Psalms  was  published  at  Edinburgh  in  17.39, 
the  fourth  book  of  The  Dunciad,  in  which  the 
couplet  occurs,  in  1742.  That  Lauder  really  re- 
ceived injury  from  it  can  hardly,  therefore,  be  be- 
lieved, unless  he  had  any  interest  in  Benson's 

edition,  published  in  London  in  1741  at  his  own 
expense,  the  sale  of  which  the  satire  is  said  to 
have  ruined.  H.  P.  D. 

A  SIX-FINGERED  CHILD. — From  the  registry- 
book  of  the  district  of  Ballarat  AVest  1  copied  the 
other  day  the  following  entry :  — 

"  Born  on  the  5th  March,  at  Soldier's  Hill,  Denis  Mac- 
douald,  first  child  of  his  parents.  He  has  five  fingers  and 
a  thumb  on  each  hand,  and  six  toes  on  each  foot." 

The  registrar  informed  me  that  he  had  seen  the 
child  before  making  the  entry.  In  ancient  times 
the  birth  of  a-  six-fingered  child  was  reckoned  a 
supernatural  prodigy.  D.  BLAIR. 


THE  OLDEST  MAN  IN  THE  WORLD. — Surely  this 
deserves  a  place  among  the  remarkable  instances 
of  longevity  recorded  in  "  N.  &  Q."  Can  it  be 
true  ?  — 

Joseph  Crele,  who  was  probably  the  oldest  man  in  the 
world,  died  in  Caledonia,  a  little  town  of  Wisconsin,  on 
the  27th  of  January  last,  at  the  age  of  one  hundred  and 
forty-one  years.  Twice  three  score  and  ten  years  may 
be  called  a  ripe  old  age.  He  attained  an  age  greater  by 
twenty  years  than  that  enjoyed  by  the  next  oldest  man 
of  modern  times,  Jean  Claude  Jacob,  a  member  of  the 
French  National  Assembly,  who  was  called  the  '  Dean  of 
the  human  species,'  and  who  died  at  the  age  of  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-one.  This  man  bore  arms  at  Braddock's 
defeat,  was  an  old  man  when  Jackson  defeated  Packen- 
ham  at  New  Orleans,  venerable  when  Taylor  whipped 
Santa  Anna  at  Buena  Vista,  and  yet  was  not  too  old  to 
rejoice  when  Lee  surrendered  to  Grant.  Joseph  Crele 
was  born  of  French  parents,  in  what  is  now  Detroit,  but 
which  was  then  only  an  Indian  trading  station,  in  1725. 
The  record  of  his  baptism  in  the  Catholic  Church  in  that 
city  establishes  this  fact  beyond  a  doubt.  He  was  a 
resident  of  Wisconsin  for  about  a  century,  and  was  the 
'  oldest  citizen '  in  that  State  beyond  any  dispute.  When- 
ever the  '  oldest  citizen '  was  alluded  to,  every  Wiscon- 
sonian  declared  Joseph  Crele  was  the  man  meant.  He 
was  first  married  in  New  Orleans  in  1755,  after  having 
grown  to  be  a  bachelor  of  thirty.  A  few  years  after  his 
marriage  he  settled  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  while  Wiscon- 
sin was  yet  a  province  of  France.  Before  the  revolu- 
tionary war,  he  was  employed  to  carry  letters  between 
Prairie  du  Chien  and  Green  Bay.  A  few  years  ago 
he  was  called  as  a  witness  in  the  Circuit  Court  of  Wis- 
consin, in  a  case  involving  the  title  to  certain  real 
estate  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  to  give  testimony  in  re- 
lation to  events  that  transpired  eighty  years  before, 
and  many  years  before  the  litigants  were  dreamt  of. 
For  some  years  past  he  had  resided  at  Caledonia 
with  a  daughter  by  his  third  wife.  This  child  was  a 
little  over  seventy  years  of  age  a  couple  of  years  ago, 
but  we  do  not  know  whether  she  survives  her  father  or 
not.  He  was  sixty-nine  when  she  was  born.  Up  to 
1864,  Mr.  Crele  was  as  hale  and  hearty  as  most  men  of 
seventv.  He  could  walk  several  miles  without  fatigue, 
and  was  frequently  in  the  habit  of  'chopping'  wood  for 
the  family  use.  He  went  to  all  elections,  and,  from  the 
time  he  first  voted  for  Washington,  he  had  always  voted 
the  straight-out  Union  ticket.  He  had  no  bad  habits, 
except  that  he  was  an  inveterate  smoker ;  but  that  is  not 
considered  among  the  small  vices  in  the  land  of  Grant 
and  Sherman.  In  person  he  was  rather  above  the  me- 
dium height,  spare  in  flesh,  but  showing  evidences  of 



[3'd  S.  X.  ADO.  11,  '66. 

having  been  in  his  prime — a  century  or  so  before — a  man 
of  sinewy  strength.  Of  late  years  a  haunting  sense  of 
loneliness  overwhelmed  and  seemed  to  sadden  him.  The 
only  weakness  of  mind  which  he  ever  betrayed  was  in  the 
last  year  or  two  of  his  existence,  when  he  frequently 
remarked,  with  a  startling  air  of  sadness,  that  he  feared 
that  perhaps  '  Death  had  forgotten  him  ;'  but  he  would 
always  add,  with  more  cheerfulness,  that  he  felt  sure 
*  God  had  not.'  "—New  York  Herald,  Feb.  26,  1866. 


not  remember  to  have  seen  in  any  number  of 
"N.  &  Q."  a  notice  of  what  in  Lancashire  is  called 
Notchel  Crying.  I  think  the  term  is  peculiar  to 
that  county,  and  what  it  represents  will  be  under- 
stood by  the  following  scrap,  which  has  been  cut 
from  The  Standard  of  March  11,  1859.  The  local 
newspaper  from  which  it  is  extracted  is  given  at 
the  foot :  — 

"  On  Wednesday  there  was  at  Accrington  an  extraor- 
dinary instance  of  the  disgraceful  practice  of  '  notchel 
crying.'  The  town's  bellman  went  round  the  town  an- 
nouncing that  a  certain  man  (an  inhabitant  of  the  town) 
would  not,  from  that  day  forward,  be  answerable  or  ac- 
countable for  any  debt  which  his  wife  might  contract. 
On  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  the  same  important 
functionary  was  employed  by  the  wife  to  inform  the  in- 
habitants of  Accrington  that  as  she  was,  up  to  that  day, 
straight  with  her  husband,  she  would  not  be  answerable 
for  any  debts  which  he  might  contract ;  and  stated,  bv  way 
of  additional  information,  that  she  had  been  allowed  by 
him  5s.  per  week  to  find  herself  and  him  in  meat  and 
lodging,  and  that  he  was  also  not  a  very  constant  hus- 
band, and  that  if  he  had  brought  home  the  money  which 
he  had  given  to  other  women  he  might  have  maintained 
them  in  very  comfortable  circumstances.  Great  crowds 
followed  the  bellman  up  and  down  the  town  during  his 
oration." — Blackburn  Standard. 

T.  B. 

MULBERRY-TREE  FOLK  LORE. — In  Gloucester- 
shire I  heard  the  maxim  that  there  was  no  fear 
of  frost  after  the  mulberry-tree  had  shown  a  green 
bud.  An  eminent  living  churchman  told  me  he 
had  achieved  the  prize  poem  at  the  university 
chiefly  on  the  strength  of  setting  this/«c£  forth  in 
one  of  his  lines,  without  knowing  its  value,  but 
which  the  judges  discerned  to  be  an  admirable 
touch  of  accurate  observation  of  nature. 


TYBURN  GATE. — It  may  not  be  generally  known 
among  your  readers  that  the  centre  portion  of  this 
gate,  with  the  clock,  is  still  standing  on  the  pre- 
mises of  Mr.  Baker,  a  farmer  at  Cricklewood, 
who^  bought  it  at  the  time  it  was  taken  down.  It 
consists  of  a  high  wooden  arch  with  two  doors ; 
under  this  arch,  in  its  original  position,  was  a 
weigh-bridge,  over  which  all  waggons  with  goods 
from  the  midland  and  western  counties  passed, 
and  toll  charged  according  to  weight  j  the  height 
of  the  load  was  restricted  to  the  height  of  the 
arch.  These  waggons  were  drawn  by  eight,  ten, 
or  more  horses,  and  carried  goods  and  passengers  j 
underneath  swung  a  "dog-basket,"  which" was 

often  occupied  by  children,  or  even  men,  when 
there  was  no  room  in  the  waggon. 

The  arch  and  doors  with  the  old  clock  over  have 
been  erected  at  the  entrance  to  a  wooden  cow- 
shed, and  can  be  seen  from  the  high-road  through 
Cricklewood.  TRETANE. 


In  Peshall's  History  of  Oxford  is  an  account  of 
the  Music  Room  in  Ilolywell  Street,  Oxford, 
which  is  stated  to  have  been  erected  by  subscrip- 
tion in  1742.  In  this  room  all  the  best  musicians 
of  the  time  have  been  wont  to  perform,  and  no 
doubt  some  of  your  readers  may  recollect  the  cele- 
brated Catalani  singing  there  more  than  once. 
Those  who,  with  me,  heard  her  sing  the  prelude 
to  the  chorus  of  "  The  Horse  and  his  Rider,"  in 
Israel  in  Egypt,  will  never,  while  memory  holds 
good,  forget  it.  It  seems  to  me  but  yesterday, 
although  nearly  fifty  years  ago,  that,  at  the  very 
top  of  her  powerful  voice,  she  sang  the  words  of 
Miriam,  fl  Sing  ye  to  the  Lord,  for  he  hath  tri- 
umphed gloriously  ;  the  horse  and  his  rider  hath 
he  cast  into  the  sea."  The  room  was  too  small  for 
the  voice,  which  seemed  to  ring  round  it.  I  have 
never  heard  anything  equal  to  it. 

My  communication,  however,  is  to  inquire  re- 
specting the  authors  of  a  travestie  of  Acis  and  Ga- 
latea, which,  in  connection  with  the  Music  Room, 
appeared  in  1780.  The  Music  Room  was  then 
under  the  directorship,  as  I  believe,  of  Dr.  Philip 
Hayes,  organist  of  Magdalen  College,  who,  from 
his  bulk,  had  the  sobriquet  of  Dr.  Philchaise  given 
to  him  by  the  wits  of  Oxford.  A  squabble  arose 
between  him  and  Mr.  Munro,  who  seems  to  have 
been  a  violin-player,  and  perhaps  also  a  dancing- 
master.  Many  squibs  were  published  on  the  oc- 
casion, all  of  which  are  very  amusing.  In  the 
travestie,  Dr.  Hayes  takes  the  character  of  Poly- 
phemus, under  the  name  of  Tweedledum,  and  Mr. 
Munro  that  of  Acis  by  the  name  of  Tweedledee, 
but  the  catastrophe  is  reversed. 

Who  wrote  the  travestie  ?  Qy.,  Dr.  Thos.  War- 
ton,  of  Trinity  College  ? 

I  think  a  reprint  in  your  pages  would  please 
your  readers,  and  particularly  old  Oxford  men.  If 
you  agree,  give  me  a  hint,  and  I  will  send  you 
the  MSS.  in  my  possession,  but  I  must  have  them 
returned.  GEO.  P.  HESTER. 

Town  Clerk's  Office,  Oxford. 

BALLAD.  —  Where  is  to  be  found  a  ballad  com- 
mencing — 

"  I'm  ninety-five,  I'm  ninety-five, 
And  to  keep  single  I'll  contrive,"  &c.  ? 

The  refrain  to  each  verse  is  — 

"  A  maid  I  am,  and  a  maid  I'll  die  ; 
Love  to  me  is  all  in  my  eye." 


3rd  s.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 



"BLACZWOOD'S  MAGAZINE."  — Being  in  search 
of  some  odd  volumes  of  Blackwood  to  complete  a 
set,  I  stumbled  a  few  weeks  ago  upon  a  stray 
first  volume,  which  differs  in  some  degree  from 
the  one  belonging  to  my  imperfect  set.  It  con- 
tains part  of  a  preface,  which  preface  I  do  not 
find  in  any  of  the  perfect  sets  accessible  to  my 
inspection,  some  seven  or  eight.  All  those  are 
the  same  as  my  own,  the  general  title  is  followed 
by  a  descriptive  title  of  No.  1 ;  but  in  the  vol.  i. 
referred  to  there  are  four  pages  of  a  preface,  v.,  vi., 
vii.,  viii.,  bearing  the  initials  C.  N.  in  very  large 
Egyptian  capitals,  and  a  date  June  20th,  1822. 
The  former  pages  are  lost,  but  in  all  other  respects 
the  volume  is  perfect.  The  date  would  indicate 
that  this  preface  had  accompanied  No.  3,  or,  what 
is  more  probable,  that  it  was  written  for  the  second 
edition  of  No.  1,  which  is  announced  among  other 
notices  in  No.  3  of  the  imperfect  volume,  but 
not  in  the  other,  which  I  take  to  be  the  original 
or  first  edition.  There  are  some  small  differences 
in  the  arrangement  of  the  title,  and  I  find  that 
the  names  of  Baldwin,  Cradock,  and  Joy,  are  sub- 
stituted in  the  general  title  to  the  second  edition 
for  those  of  T.  Cadell  and  W.  Davies  as  London 
publishers,  and  also  in  the  descriptive  titles  to 
each  number  after  the  first  number,  while  in  the 
original  the  latter  names  appear.  It  is  obvious 
that  the  titles  are  all  reprints,  and  the  general 
index  also,  as  the  imprint,  Oliver  and  Boyd,  printers, 
is  inserted  in  one  case  but  not  in  the  other.  Of 
how  many  numbers  were  there  a  second  edition, 
and  of  how  many  pages  does  the  preface  consist  ? 
Does  my  copy  want  two  or  four  pages  ?  The  in- 
formation may  be  useful,  as  I  was  induced  to 
believe  that  my  first  copy  was  imperfect  until  I 
bought  the  other,  and,  on  comparing  them,  found 
that  there  had  been  a  second  edition,  a  fact  of 
which  I  was  not  before  aware.  T.  B. 

DISCHARGING  INSOLVENTS. — In  an  old  Life  of 
Queen  Anne,  Lonct  1738,  p.  179,  is  this  passage : — 

"An  Act  passed  this  Session  (1703 — 4)  for  discharg- 
ing out  of  prison  such  insolvent  Debtors  as  should  serve, 
or  procure  a  person  to  serve,  in  her  Majesty's  Fleets  or 

^Some  years  ago  persons  convicted  of  small 
crimes,  and  particularly  of  smuggling  or  poaching, 
were  pardoned  on  condition  of  serving  at  sea ;  but 
I  never  heard  this  was  afforded  to  debtors,  and 
above  all,  to  those  who  served  by  substitutes. 
Can  your  correspondents  point  out  any  other  simi- 
lar instances  ?  A.  A. 

DOBBINS  OF  BEER. — A  friend  is  anxious  to  know 
the  meaning  of  this  phrase.    It  occurs  in  the -old 
operetta,   The   Quaker.     Steady  says,    or    rather 
sings,  to  his  man  — 
•'  And  do  thou  attend  with  thy  dobbins  of  beer, 

And  see  that  our  neighbours  and  friends  have  good 
cheer ; 

Make  the  whole  village  welcome,"  &c. 

Is  the  term  that  for  any  particular  measure,  as 
my  friend  supposes ;  or  does  it  mean  the  stillions 
or  "  horses  "  on  which  the  tubs  stand  ?  A.  A. 

Poets'  Corner. 

"  FOOTSTEPS  OP  PEACE." — By  whom  and  when 
was  the  pamphlet  entitled  Footsteps  of  Peace 
published  ?  I  have  reason  to  believe  it  was  at 
Plymouth.  It  is  not  entered  at  Stationers'  Hall. 



BATTLE  OF  GLOUCESTER. — Where  can  I  find  the 
names  of  the  officers  of  the  king's  forces  who  were 
slain  at  Gloucester  in  the  rebellion  ?  Is  there  a 
list  extant  of  officers  who  served  in  the  royal 
army  under  Sir  Simon  Harcourt  ?  H.  C. 

HERALDIC. — I  shall  be  much  obliged  to  any 
one  who  will  have  the  kindness  to  inform  me 
what  family  bears,  or  bore,  Argent,  on  a  pale, 
between  two  leopards'  faces  sable,  three  crescents 


EMANUEL  HOWE. — Can  any  of  your  readers 
direct  me  where  I  can  find  particulars  of  the  de- 
scendants of  Emanuel  Howe,  the  first  Lord  Howe's 
youngest  brother  ?  I  have  never  yet  met  with 
any  account  of  this  branch  of  the  family. 

S.  B.  BLUNT. 

59,  Elgin  Crescent,  Notting  Hill,  W. 

REV.  THOMAS  HOWE. — Wanted  information 
respecting  the  family  antecedents  of  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Howe,  nonconformist  minister  of  Great 
Yarmouth,  ob.  1784,  or  references  that  may  aid  my 
search  for  the  same.  He  was  born  in  1733,  probably 
at  Northampton,  where  he  was  educated  under 
Dr.  Doddridge.  During  his  boyhood  his  father 
was  one  of  their  deacons,  and  a  man  of  some  emi- 
nence among  the  nonconformists  of  Norwich. 

T.  H.  HOWE. 

Eltham,  S.E. 

Is  there  any  published  collection  of  letters  written 
by  St.  Ignatius  and  Cardinal  Pole  ?  If  so,  where 
are  those  letters  to  be  found  ?  The  Saint  wrote 
a  letter  to  the  Cardinal,  dated  from  Rome,  January 
24th,  1555,  which  letter  Cardinal  Pole  answered 
from  Richmond,  May  8th  of  the  same  year.  When 
St.  Ignatius  died  in  1556,  Cardinal  Pole  sent  a 
letter  of  condolence  to  F.  Lainez,  dated  London, 
November  15th,  1556.  I  wish  particularly  to 
peruse  those  letters,  if  any  of  your  correspondents 
would  be  so  kind  as  to  inform,  me  where  they  are 
to  be  found.  J.  DALTON. 

St.  John's,  Norwich. 

INCOMER.  —  In  a  letter  to  the  Earl  of  Bucking- 
ham, dated  June  6,  1617,  Lord  Bacon  says  :  — 

[*  For  some  particulars  of  Sophia,  the  youngest  daugh- 
ter of  Gen.  Emanuel  Howe,  see  "  N.  &  Q.,"  2nd  S.  iii.  6  ; 
x.  473.— ED.] 



[3'd  s.  X.  AUG.  11,  'G6. 

"  I  know  men  think  I  cannot  continue  if  I  should  thus 
oppress  myself  with  business  :  but  that  account  is  made. 
The  duties  of  life  are  more  than  life ;  and  if  I  die  now,  I 
shall  die  before  the  world  be  weary  of  me,  which  in  our 
times  is  somewhat  rare.  And  all  this  while  I  have  been 
a  little  unperfect  in  my  foot.  But  I  have  taken  pains 
more  like  the  beast  with  four  legs  than  like  a  man  with 
scarce  two  legs.  But  if  it  be  a  gout,  which  I  do  neither 
acknowledge,  nor  much  disclaim,  it  is  a  good-natured 
gout;  for  I  have  no  rage  of  it,  and  it  goeth  away 
quickly." — Works,  by  Montagu,  xii.  318. 

A  few  days  after  (June  18)  lie  writes  to  Vis- 
count Fenton  — 

."  My  health,  I  thank  God,  is  good ;  and  I  hope  this 
supposed  gout  was  but  an  incomer." 

What  is  the  meaning  of  incomer  here  ?         D. 

QUOTATIONS.  —  Where  can  I  find  the  passage 
beginning:  " Tears,  idle  tears"  ?  M.  E.  B. 

"  Each  moss, 

Each  shell,  each  crawling  insect  holds  a  rank 
Important  in  the  plan  of  Him  who  framed 
This  scale  of  beings ;  holds  a  rank,  which  lost, 
Would  break  the  chain,  and  leave  behind  a  gap 
Which  Nature's  self  would  rue.    Almighty  Being ! 
Cause  and  support  of  all  things !  can  I  review 
These  objects  of  my  wonder,  can  I  feel 
These  fine  sensations,  and  not  think  of  Thee  ?  " 


ROUTS  AND  DOG-HORSES.  —  Thanking  some  of 
your  readers  for  replies  to  some  of  my  queries, 
may  I  ask  for  the  meaning  of  routs  and  dog-horses 
in  the  following  passage  ?  — 

"Your  worship  has  six  coach-horses  (cut  and  long- 
tail),  two  runners,  half  a  dozen  hunters,  four  breeding 
mares,  and  two  blind  stallions,  besides  pads,  routs,  and 
dog-horses."  —  Vanbrugh's  Esop,  Act  IV.  p.  260,  edit. 

I  should  have  thought  the  last  were  hunters, 
had  these  not  been  mentioned  earlier  in  the  list. 

Oak  Hill,  Surbiton. 

ST.  HELEN'S,  BISHOPSGATE. — In  the  register  of 
burials  in  the  church  of  St.  Helen,  Bishopsgate, 
the  following  entry  occurs  :  — 

"Nicholas  Hylio,  Secretary  to  the  French  Embassa- 
dour,  buried  by  Mr.  Millward's  daughter,  by  the  Pardon 
dore,  Septr,  23",  1594. 

"  Novr,  1629.  George  Axton,  chaundler,  dying  tipper 
churchwarden,  was  buried  in  the  church  in  the  noble 

During  the  last  few  days,  the  old  plaster  having 
been  removed  from  the  wall  of  the  Nun's  Quire, 
several  apertures  have  been  discovered.  The  first 
of  these  nearest  the  west  end  is  a  low  arched 
doorway  communicating  with  a  stone  staircase 
partly  bricked  up,  and  which  doubtlessly  led  to 
the  refectory  of  the  convent ;  within  three  feet  of 
this  another  doorway  is  discernible,  and  further 
east  of  this  an  opening  about  two  feet  square,  the 
sides  being  placed  obliquely  looking  east;  the 
stonework  bears  traces  of  ironwork  having  been 

placed  across.  Still  further  east  another  doorway 
of  much  earlier  character  is  seen.  In  Wilkinson's 
plan  of  the  church  this  is  given  as  one  of  the 
hagioscopes.  I  should  be  glad  of  any  informa- 
tion respecting  the  Pardon  dore.  Also  if  being 
buried  in  noble  ground  refers  to  the  east  end  of  the 
church.  ROBT.  H.  HILLS. 

28,  Chancery  Lane. 

P.S.  Can  either  of  the  above  be  identified  with 
the  Pardon  dore  ? 

A  few  days  since  I  was  showing  the  tomb  of  Na- 
poleon to  some  young  friends  who  were  making' 
their  first  visit  to  Paris,  when  we  observed  among 
the  trophies  of  captured  flags  that  surround 
the  sarcophagus  three  English  flags:  two  were 
"King's  colours,"  and  the  third  was  a  regimen- 
tal one  with  the  "fly,"  white  or  buff.  As  yo-u 
are  not  now  permitted  to  descend  into  the  place 
round  the  sarcophagus,  I  could  not  get  a  near 
view  of  them.  I  wish  to  know  where  and  when, 
during  the  wars  of  the  first  Napoleon,  three  Eng- 
lish regiments  lost  their  colours.  Of  course  they 
would  not  be  so  conspicuously  displayed  if  they 
were  not  taken  in  battle. 

N.B.  When  the  entente  cordiale  first  came  out 
I  was  at  Chelsea,  and  on  asking  the  man  who 
went  round  what  had  become  of  all  the  flags  that 
used  to  hang  up  in  the  chapel,  he  said  they  weie 
removed  to  avoid  giving  offence  !  CrwR3f. 

Forth  yr  Aur,  Carnarvon. 

"ViE  PRIVEE  DES  CtisARS." — Can  any  reader 
of  "N.  &  Q."  who  has  paid  much  attention  to 
ancient  gems,  inform  me  whether  there  really 
exist  any  of  the  original  gems  professed  to  be  en- 
graved in  illustration  of  this  work,  which  is  attri- 
buted toD'Hancarville,  the  well-known  antiquary? 
The  book  appears  to  be  a  collection  of  such  pas- 
sages from  the  Classics  as  described  most  plainly 
the  profligate  lives  of  the  Caesars,  and  it  seems 
more  likely  that  the  prurient  imagination  of  the 
compiler  should  have  produced  the  illustrations, 
than  that  the  enormities  should  have  been  en- 
graved on  gems.  Was  D'Hancarville  really  the 
author  of  the  book  ?  H.  D. 

WESTMINSTER  ABBEY. — When  was  the  superb 
canopy  which  formerly  surmounted  the  tomb  of 
John  "of  Eltham,  Earl  of  Cornwall,  in  St.  Ed- 
mund's chapel,  in  Westminster  Abbey,  removed  ? 
When,  also,  were  the  railings  taken  away  which 
used  to  surround  the  beautiful  altar-tomb  of  Sir 
Giles  and  Lady  Daubeny  in  St.  Paul's  chapel  ? 
Most  of  the  iconoclasm  from  which  the  chapels  in 
Westminster  Abbey  have  suffered  appears  to  have 
occurred  within  at  least  the  last  hundred  years. 
Is  there  any  fund  available,  and  are  there  persons 
responsible,  for  the  restitution  and  repair  of  those 
parts  of  the  Abbey  ?  I  do  not  allude  to  any  re- 
production of  ornamental  features  lost  or  disfigured, 

S.  X.  AUG.  11, 566.] 



such  as  those  which  I  have  mentioned,  but  o^ 
to  the  mending  of  broken  panes  of  glass  (of  which 
there  have  for  some  time  past  been  several,  par- 
ticularly in  Henry  VII.'s  chapel),  and  to  the  stop- 
ping up  of  apertures  in  the  walls  and  in  the  roof, 
caused  by  accident,  decay,  and  weather.  No 
doubt  in  time  all  this  will  be  looked  to,  as  the 
present  dean  and  architect  both  seem  to  take  such 
a  deep  personal  interest  in  the  glorious  old  edifice 
with  which  they  are  connected.  J.  W.  W. 


ST.  JULIANA  OF  NORWICH.  —  In  the  current 
number  of  the  Dublin  Review  (July,  I860)  occurs 
the  following  reference  to  the  saint  mentioned 
above :  — 

"  Devotion  to  the  Passion  assumed  a  far  more  promi- 
nent position  than  before  ;  and  of  the  spirit  which  ani- 
mated it,  we  have  a  touching  example  in  the  '  little 
book '  attributed  to  St.  Juliana  of  Norwich,"  &C.—P.  77. 

Perhaps  your  obliging  correspondent  F.  0.  H. 
will  inform  me  who  St.  Juliana  was  ?  In  the 
sixth  Supplement  to  C.  J.  Stewart's  Catalogues, 
I  find  a  work  advertised  under  the  following 
title : — 

"  Juliana  (Mother),  an  Anchorete  of  Norwich  (A.D. 
1373),  XVI.  Revelations  of  Divine  Love.  Published  by 
R.  F.  S.  Cressy,  1G70  :  reprinted  1843,  12»«,  5s." 

No  doubt  this  is  the  "  little  book  "  referred  to 
in  the  Dublin  Review,  as  quoted  above. 



[The  original  editor,  Hugh  Paulin  Cressy,  was  only 
able  to  collect  a  few  brief  notices  of  St.  Juliana.  He  says 
in  his  Preface  to  the  Reader,  "  I  was  desirous  to  have  told 
thee  somewhat  of  the  happy  virgin,  the  compiler  of  these 
Revelations;  but  after  all  the  search  I  could  make,  I 
could  not  discover  airything  touching  her,  more  than 
what  she  occasionally  sprinkles  in  the  book  itself.  The 
postscript  acquaints  us  with  her  name,  Juliana  ;  as  like- 
wise her  profession,  which  was  of  the  strictest  sort  of  soli- 
tary livers;  being  inclosed  all  her  life  (alone)  within 
four  walls :  whereby,  though  all  mortals  were  excluded 
from  her  dwelling,  yet  saints  and  angels,  and  the  Supreme 
King  of  both,  could  and  did  find  admittance.  Moreover, 
in  the  same  postscript  we  find,  that  the  place  in  a  high 
manner  dignified  by  her  abode,  and  by  the  access  of  her 
heavenly  guest,  w^the  city  of  Norwich.  The  time  when 
she  lived,  and  particularly  when  these  celestial  Revela- 
tions were  afforded  her,  she  herself  in  the  beginning  of  the 
book  informs  us,  was  in  the  year  of  grace  1373,  that  is, 
about  three  years  before  the  death  of  the  famous  con- 
queror, King  Edward  III.,  at  which  time  she  herself- was 
about  thirty  years  of  age." 

This  virgin  is  also  noticed  in  Blomefield's  History  of 
Norfolk,  ed.  1806,  iv.  81,  where  we  read,  that  "in  the 
east  part  of  the  churchyard  of  St.  Julian  stood  an  an- 
chorage, in  which  an  ankeress  or  recluse  dwelt  till  the 

dissolution,  when  the  house  was  demolished,  though  the 
foundations  may  still  be  seen.  In  1393,  Lady  Julian,  the 
ankeress  here,  was  a  strict  recluse,  and  had  two  servants 
to  attend  her  in  her  old  age,  anno  1443.  This  woman,  in 
those  days,  was  esteemed  one  of  the  greatest  holiness. 
The  Rev.  Francis  Peck,  author  of  the  Antiquities  of  Stan- 
ford, had  an  old  vellum  MS.,  thirty-six  quarto  pages  of 
which  contained  an  account  of  the  Visions,  &c.  of  this 
woman,  which  begins  thus  :  '  Here  es  a  Vision  schewed 
be  the  goodenes  of  God,  to  a  devoute  woman,  and  hir 
name  is  Julian,  that  is  Recluse  atte  Norwyche,  and  yitt 
ys  on  life,  anno  1442.  In  the  whilke  Vision  er  fulle  many 
comfortabyll  wordes  and  greatly  styrrande  to  alle  they 
that  desyres  to  be  Crystes  Looverse."] 

SALE  AT  STOWE.  —  Will  some  kind  reader  inform 
me  when  the  great  sale  at  Stowe,  the  seat  of  the 
Duke  of  Buckingham,  took  place  ?  J.  F. 

[The  sale  of  the  furniture,  sculpture,  plate,  and  objects 
of  art  and  vertu,  formerly  in  the  princely  mansion  of 
Stowe,  was  entrusted  to  Messrs.  Christie  and  Manson.  It 
lasted  for  forty  days,  commencing  on  August  15,  and 
ending  on  October  7,  1834,  and  produced  75.562Z.  4s.  6d.— 
The  sale  of  the  printed  books  by  Messrs.  Sotheby  and  Co. 
commenced  on  January  8,  and  ended  on  February  10, 
1849  ;  and  the  engravings  on  March  5,  1849,  &c.  The 
manuscripts  were  purchased  by  Lord  Ashburnham  for  the 
sum  of  8000/.  ;  a  Catalogue  of  them  is  in  print.  The 
unpublished  Diaries  and  Correspondence  of  George  Gren- 
ville  were  bought  by  Mr.  Murray  of  Albemarle  Street.] 

BANG-BEGGARS.  —  I  have  heard  this  name  ap- 
plied by  Lancashire  people  to  the  apparitor  of  a 
church.  Is  it  used  elsewhere,  and  what  is  its 
origin  ?  H.  FISHWICK. 

[Bang-beggar  is  a  name  given  in  derision  to  parish 
beadles  in  many  parts  of  England  and  Scotland.  Jamie- 
son  thus  notices  the  phrase  :  BANG-THE-BEGGAR,  s.  (1.) 
A  strong  staff;  a  powerful  kent,  or  rung.  Roxb.  (2.) 
Humorously  transferred  to  a  constable,  Dumf.  ;  and  to  a 
beadle  in  Derbyshire.  The  verb  Bang-a,  to  beat,  seems 
to  be  the  origin  of  Teut.  benghel,  bengel,  Su.  G.  baengel,  a 
strong  staffer  stick,  the  instrument  used  for  beating."] 


"  In  no  slight  degree  Hermann  has  given  an  impulse  to 
the  minds  of  his  countrymen,  and  breathed  life  into  their 
ahilological  researches!  He  is  no  mere  word-catcher, 
lone  of  those 

Tb  a$\v  teal  rb  ff<p$ 

b  fAv  rj5e  rb 

sut  a  ripe  and  good  scholar."  —  Quarterly  Review,  Ixiv. 
372,  Oct.  1839,  art.  "  Modern  Criticism  on  JSschylus." 

As  the  Greek  lines  are  quoted  without  refer- 
ence, probably  they  are  familiar,  but  I  do  not 
know  whence  they  are  taken,  and  shall  be  glad  to 
be  told.  H.  B.  C. 

U.  U.  C. 

[  Vide  Angulibombyces  vertit  Grotius  in  Bosch.  Antha- 
ogia  Grceca,  vol.  i.  p.  401,  ed.  1795;  also  Stephanus, 
Thesaurus  Greece  Lingua,  ed.  1833,  ii.  840.] 



[3*1  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66. 


(3rd  S.  ix.  98.) 

I  have  just  caught  sight  of  MR.  WEIGHT'S 
query,  "  Loving  Cup  and  Drinking  Health ;  "  per- 
haps these  notes  may  be  more  or  less  useful  — 

"  At  Danly  Wisk,  N.  Riding,  co.  York,  the  parishioners 
having  received  the  Holy  Sacrament,  go  from  church  to 
an  ale  house,  and  drink  together  as  a  testimony  of  charity 
and  friendship.  (Ex  ore  YV.  Lester  Armig.)" — Aubrey. 

Mr.  Thoms's  notes  on  this  passage  are  — 

'•  This  practice  is  allied  to  one  still  existing — the  '  Lov- 

information  upon  the  pagan  custom  of '  minnetrinken,' 
drinking  to  the  love,  or  rather  memory,  of  the  absent." — 
Thorns,  Anec.,  p.  82,  Camd.  Soc. 

May  I  be  allowed  to  claim  for  the  custom  of 
health-drinking,  or  perhaps  more  properly  pledg- 
ing, an  antiquity  greater  than  that  advanced  by  so 
great  an  authority  as  Mr.  Wright  ? 

In  the  Convivium  seu  LapithcB  of  Lucian,  who 
died  in  his  ninetieth  year,  A.D.  180,  I  find  this 

"  Caeterum  Alcidamus  (jam  enim  potus  erat)  percon- 
tatus  quodnam  esset  nomen  puellse  nubenti,  turn  clara 
voce  indicto  silentio,  simul  ac  ad  feminas  converse  vultu, 
Praebibo,  inquit,  tibi  Cleanthi,  Herculis  Archegetae  no- 
mine. (npoTriVw  <rot,  €(£17,  5  KAeayfli.) 

"  Sub  hsec  cum  risissent  omnes,  Ridetis,  inquit,  sacrilegi, 
quod  sponsae,  Herculis  dei  mei  nomine,  propinaverim  ? 
(Et  rrf  vvfAfpri  irpovirivov  em  rov  fyuerepoy  0eou  TOV 
'HpcttfAeous.)  Imo  illud  scito  opus  est,  ni  scyphum  a  me 
traditum  accipiat  (ws  V  pr}  AajSj?  Trapa  ffj.ov  T^V  aKvfyov), 
nunquam  futurum  ut  illi  filius  obtingat  talis,  qualis  ego 
sum,  virtute  interritus,  animo  liber,  turn  corpore  adeo  ro- 
busto ;  simulque  cum  dicto  magis  se  renudabat,"  &c.  &c. 
— Luciani  Convivium  seu  Lapithcs. 

I  have  used  the  marginal  translation  from  the 
edition  of  J.  Bourdelottius,  Lut.  Paris.  1615. 

To  this  passage  of  Terence — 

"  At  ego  pro  istoc,  Phaedria,  et  tu,  Chaerea, 
Hunc  comedendum  et  deridendum  vobis  propino. 

(Eunuchus,  Act  V.  Sc.  ix.,  56-7)— 
I  find  this  note  in  ed.  Delph. — 

"  Propino.  Graecis  in  conviviis  mos  fuit,  praegustandi 
vinum,  priusquam  poculum  alteri  traderetur ;  unde 
TTpoTrti/cav  et  propinare  dicuntur ;  propinantes  autem  subla- 
tum  poculum  ostentabant,  nominantes  cui  erant  illud 

The  15th  Epigram  of  the  2nd  book  of  Martial 
is  this — 

"  Quod  nulli  calicem  tuum  propinas, 
Humane  facis,  Herme,  non  superbe." 

The  note  to  this,  ed.  Delph.,  is  — 

"  Habebant  veteres,  honoratiores  maxime  in  conviviis 
peculiares  suos  calices;  quos  aliis  interdum  propinare, 
humanitatis  erat :  contrarium,  superbize." 

Plautus.,  Stichus,  Act  III.  Sc.  2,  line  16,  says  — 
"  Propino  tibi  salutem  plenis  faucibus." 

Juvenal,  Sat.  v.  line  127  — 

"  Quando  propinat 

Virro  tibi,  sumitque  tuis  contacta  labellis 
Pocula,  quis  vestrum  temerarius  usque  adeo,  quis 
Perditus,  ut  dicat  regi,  bibe  ?  " 

^For  fear  of  ^  intruding  on  your  valuable  space,  I 
will  only  subjoin  these  indications  — 

Plautus,  Curculio,  Act  I.  Sc.  2,  line  32;  II.  3,  80. 
Asinaria,  IV.  1,  27.  Stichus,  III.  1,  24;  V.  4,  25-30. 

Martial,  Epig.,  lib.  i.  69;  iii.  82;  v.  78;  vi.44;  viii.  6; 
x.  49;  xii.  74. 

Apuleius,  Metamorph.  lib.  v.  108. 

See  Suidas  in 


P.S.  Much  may  be  found  relating  to  the  Loving 
Cup  in  Athenseus,  lib.  v.  cap.  iv.  It  appears  that 
the  old  plan  was  to  drink  the  whole  cup,  but 
afterwards  to  drink  part  and  hand  it  round  ;  one 
form  of  salutation  was  irpoirivu  aoi  Ka\u>s  ;  and  the 
response,  Xa^dvu  airo  ffov  ^8eW,  which  was  termed 

Potter,  in  his  Grecian  Antiquities  (vol.  ii.  p.  393, 
edit.  1820),  quotes  Athenseus  (lib.  x.  cap.  9,  and 
lib.  xi.  cap.  3)  to  prove  that  the  Greek  loving  cup 
was  handed  to  the  right,  hence  called  SeliWis  : 
whence  5ei5e'<r/ce<r0ai,  in  Homer,  is  always  trans- 
lated irpoir'uxav  8e£iov6aai.  Thus  Iliad,  a.  — 

Again,  Iliad  a.  597,  Vulcan  fills  to  the  gods 

ro7s  deals 

There  is  yet  another  cup,  which  may  be  termed 
the  lover's  cup,  and  that  was  when  it  was  emptied 
once  for  each  letter  of  the  fair  one's  name,  as  in 
the  72nd  epigram  of  book  i.  of  Martial  :  — 
"  Naevia  sex  cyathis,  septern  Justina  bibatur,"  — 

which  gave  rise  to  the  epigram  of  Geo.  Hardinge 
on  Job's  daughters  :  — 

"  Sex  Jemima  scyphis,  septem  Kheziah  ' 
Ebrius  est  si  quis  te,  K^renhappuch, 


Any  how,  I  hope  I  have  shown  that  the  loving 
cup  circled  round  the  Greeks  and  Eomans  in  the 
days  of  Lucian,  Athenseus,  Plautus,  Martial,  and 


(3rd  S.  x.  46.) 

The  thumb,  as  the  most  indispensable  member 
of  the  hand,  seems  to  have  been  regarded  from 
time  immemorial  as  its  representative,  and  we  ac- 
cordingly find  numerous  instances  of  this  metonymy 
in  ancient  and  modern  popular  usage.  The  hand, 
it  is  well  known,  has  always  been  the  natural  and 
favourite  instrument  for  the  signification  of  assent 
or  completion  of  a  bargain  in  the  absence  of 
writing.  In  Blackstone 's  Commentaries  (book  ii. 

3'd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 



chap,  xxx.),  we  find  the  following  passage  relative 
to  this  subject:  — 

"  Anciently,  among  all  the  northern  nations,  shaking 
of  hands  was  held  necessary  to  bind  the  bargain,  a  custom 
which  we  still  retain  in  many  verbal  contracts.  A  sale 
thus  made  was  called  handsale,  f  venditio  per  mutuam 
manuum  complexionem,'  till  in  process  of  time  the  same 
word  was  used  to  signify  the  price  or  earnest,  which  was 
given  immediately  after  the  shaking  of  hands,  or  instead 

In  Scotland  the  thumb  was  anciently  recognised 
as  a  symbol  in  the  completion  of  a  bargain,  to 
which  legal  effect  would  be  given.  On  this  point 
Erskine,  in  his  Institute  of  the  Law  of  Scotland 
(book  iii.  tit.  3.  sec.  5),  published  posthumously 
in  1773,  states :  — 

"  Another  symbol  was  anciently  used  in  proof  that  a 
sale  was  perfected  which  continues  to  this  day  in  bargains 
of  lesser  importance  among  the  lower  rank  of  people,  the 
parties  licking  and  joining  of  thumbs.  And  decrees  are 
yet  extant  in  our  records  prior  to  the  institution  of  the 
College  of  Justices,  sustaining  sales  upon  summonses  of 
thumb-licking,  upon  this  medium,  that  the  parties  had 
licked  thumbs  at  finishing  the  bargain." 

The  popular  custom  here  referred  to  has  pro- 
bably not  even  yet  fallen  into  desuetude.  I  am 
informed  by  an  old  alumnus  of  the  High  School 
of  Edinburgh  that  in  his  day  the  usual  form 
among  boys  for  concluding  any  paction  or  agree- 
ment was  by  the  parties  licking  and  pressing  their 
thumbs  together. 

Among  the  ancient  Romans  we  find  this  sym- 
bolism of  the  thumb  in  bargain-making  so  general 
as  to  give  rise  to  the  verb  polliceo  or  polliceor,  to 
promise,  from  pollex,  the  thumb.  At  least  this 
derivation  seems  a  probable  one.  In  the  amphi- 
theatre the  fate  of  the  vanquished  gladiator  was  de- 
clared by  the  audience,  who  signified  their  favour- 
able judgment  by  pressing  down  their  thumbs  — 
premere pollicem — but  pronounced  the  unfortunate 
man's  death-warrant  by  turning  them  up — vertere 
pollicem.  Thus  Juvenal,  in  his  third  Satire,  re- 
marks — 

"  Et  verso  pollice  vulgi 
Quern  libet  occidunt  populariter." 


In  the  Muniment  Room  at  Hardwick  Hall  I 
have  seen  several  deeds  sealed  by  the  thumb,  i.  c. 
the  wax  appended  to  the  parchment  bore  the  im- 
pression of  the  thumb.  No  doubt  the  practice 
was  common  at  one  time.  L. 

In  palmistry  the  thumb  is  considered  a  synopsis 
of  the  rest  of  the  hand,  to  represent  in  brief  the 
character  and  destiny  of  the  man.  Tom  Thumb 
and  Hop  o'my  Thumb  probably  arose  from  its 
being  a  couple  of  joints  less  than  the  fingers,  and 
from  its  stumpy  appearance.  In  clasping  hands 
the  thumb  is  the  upper  and  visible  member  of 

the  hand,  and  that  which  imparts  the  pressure, 
which  may  account  or  the  line  :  — 

"  There's  my  thumb,  I'll  ne'er  beguile  thee." 

5,  Gloucester  Street,  S.W. 

(3rd  S.  x.  66.) 

If  your  correspondent  E.  T.  refers  to  Burke's 
Peerage  and  Baronetage,  he  will  see  that  Sir 
William  Hanham,  first  baronet,  1667,  married 
Elizabeth,  daughter  of  George  Cooper,  Esq.,  niece 
of  Anthony  Ashley,  first  Earl  of  Shaftesbury; 
1679,  the  Earl  passed  through  Parliament  his 
famous  Act,  Habeas  Corpus;  1689,  according  to 
Luttrell's  Diary,  Lady  Hanham  was  removed 
from  the  Tower  to  the  Court  of  King's  Bench,  i.  e. 
on  the  Accession  of  William  III.,  and  admitted 
to  bail  in  four  sureties.  The  charge  against  her 
was,  no  doubt,  for  being  a  partisan  of  James  II. 
I  have  turned  to  the  Hanham  pedigree  in  the 
History  of  Dorset,  by  Hutchins,  which  more  fully 
explains  the  baronet's  lineage,  and  the  connection 
by  marriage  between  the  first  baronet  Sir  William 
Hanham  and  Anthony  Ashley  Cooper,  first  Earl 
of  Shaftesbury.  It  may  be  worth  observing  that, 
as  William  was  the  Christian  name  of  a  long  suc- 
cession of  Hanham  baronets,  so  Anthony  has  been 
the  constant  name  in  the  Shaftesbury  family  in 
every  succeeding  generation  from  the  first  Earl. 
So  careful  was  the  late  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  Crop- 
ley  Ashley  Cooper,  who  succeeded  his  brother 
Anthony,  dying  without  male  issue,  to  preserve 
and  perpetuate  the  family  Christian  name,  that, 
as  each  of  his  six  sons  was  born,  he  was  baptized 
Anthony — of  course  with  the  addition  of  William, 
Henry,  Lionel,  &c.,  as  the  case  might  be ;  and  by 
this  other  name  each  was  called,  to  prevent  con- 
fusion in  addressing,  or  speaking  of,  them. 


I  think  this  lady  must  have  been  the  wife  of 
Sir  John  Hanham,  of  Dean's  Court,  Dorset,  Bart. 
On  referring  to  the  pedigree  in  Hutchins  (vol.  ii. 
p.  562),  I  find  that  she  was  daughter  and  heiress 
of  William  Eyre,  of  Newstone  Park,  Wilts,  Esq. 
Appended  to  the  pedigree  is  a  note,  in  which  she 
is  thus  spoken  of :  — 

"  This  incomparable  lady  discharged  the  several  duties 
of  wife,  mother,  friend,  and  neighbour,  with  the  greatest 
integrity  and  applause." 

The  charge  could  be  no  other  than  Jacobitism. 
The  French  Admiral,  De  Tourville,  was  then 
hovering  about  the  south  coast,  in  hopes  of  effect- 
ing a  descent ;  and  several  persons  of  distinction 
*were  taken  up,  accused  of  corresponding  with 
him.  This  was  the  plot  which  was  revealed  by 
Fuller  and  by  Crone  under  moral  torture.  A 



s.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66. 

gibbet  was  erected  opposite  his  window,  with  a 
rope  depending  from  it ;  and  it  was  signified  to 
him  that  he  must  either  'peach  or  swing  (Macau- 
lay,  History  of  William  III. ;  Diary  of  Narcissus 

After  all,  there  is  some  room  for  doubt  whether 
the  Dowager  Lady  Hanham,  mother  of  Sir  John 
Hanham,  was  not  the  person  accused.  She  was 
left  a  widow  by  her  husband,  in  1671,  during  the 
minority  of  her  son.  She  was  Elizabeth,  daughter 
of  Geo.  Cooper,  Esq.,  of  Clarendon  Park,  Wilts. 

In  Luttrell's  Diary  the  name  is  mis-spelt  Han- 
nam,  as  it  is  still,  by  uneducated  people,  at  the 
present  day.  W.  D. 

Part  II.  Act  IV.  Sc.  1  (3rd  S.  x.  41.)  — 

"  To  brother  born  an  household  cruelty." 

This  line,  according  to  ME.  NICHOLS,  refers  to 
the  Lord  Scrope,  supposed  by  Shakspeare  to  have 
been  the  Archbishop's  brother.  Westmoreland's 
reply,  however,  to  the  Archbishop  contradicts 
this : — 

'•  West.  There  is  no  need  of  any  such  redress, 
Or,  if  there  were,  it  not  belongs  to  you." 

Had  the  Archbishop  thus  pointedly  spoken  of  his 
brother's  death  (supposing,  of  course,  the  Lord 
Scrope  to  have  been  his  brother),  Westmoreland 
could  not  have  made  this  reply  j  but,  on  the  con- 
trary, the  Archbishop  says  :  — 

"  My  brother-general,  the  Commonwealth 
I  make  my  quarrel  in  particular." 

That  is,  I  come  not  here  with  any  personal  or 
even  family  grievance ;  my  concern  is  for  the 
Commonwealth.  What  then  is  the  meaning  of 
the  intermediate  line  ?  — 

"  To  brother  born  an  household  cruelty." 
Simply  this  :  —  The  whole  community  having 
been  styled  by  the  Archbishop  "  his  brother- 
general,"  and  being  thus  grouped  into  one  grand 
family,  he  says  that  they,  by  their  factions  and 
enmities,  have  become  an  household  cruelty  each 
to  the  other  throughout.  "  We  are  all  dise'ased," 
says  the  Archbishop,  "and  we  must  bleed  for 

"  I  have  in  equal  balance  justly  weighed 
What  wrongs  our  arms  may  do,  what  wrongs  we  suffer, 
And  find  our  griefs  heavier  than  our  offences." 

In  short,  the  Archbishop  justifies  the  course  he 
has  taken  by  the  universal  disquietude  of  the 

For  this  usage  of  the  word  born,  cf.  the  phrase 
"  A  gentleman  born  "  with  "  Every  inch  a  gentle- 
man ;"  and  "Never  in  my  born  days"  with 
"  Never  in  all  my  life." 

Born,  then,  is  distributive;  and  there  is  thus 
an  antithesis  between  "my  brother-general"  and 
"brother  born,"  in  the  passage  before  us. 

"My  brother-general"  is  the  Commonwealth 
as  a  whole.  "  Brother  born  "  is  each  individual 
in  that  Commonwealth.  J.  WETHERELL. 

HONORARY  CANONS  (3rd  S.  x.  14.)— I  had  hoped 
that  some  of  your  readers  would  have  corrected 
the  singular  misapprehensions  which  .appear  to 
exist  about  Honorary  Canons. 

1.  Bishop  Denison  never  instituted  Honorary 
Canons  at  Salisbuiy.    In  conjunction  with  Bishop 
Murray,  of  Rochester,  he  procured  the  substitution 
of  the  word  "  suspension  "  for  "suppression,"  when 
the  incomes  of  non-resident  Prebends  were  con- 

2.  The  Queen  was  the  only  Honorary  Canon  in 
England  before  the  recent  Act,  being  Cursal  of 
St.  David's.     By  some  ludicrous  perversity,  the 
novel  designation  of  Honorary  Canons,  l(  Canons 
without  income  or  vote  in  chapter,"  and  consi- 
dered to  be  without   cathedral   preferment,  was 
introduced  in  the  cathedrals  of  the  New  Founda- 

3.  All  capitulars   in  the  Old  Foundation    ca- 
thedrals are  both  Canons  and  Prebendaries.     The 
recent  Act  changed  the  name  of  Prebendary  into 
that  of  Canon  in  cathedrals  of  the  New  Founda- 
tion, and  termed  Residentiaries  Canons.     Canons 
and  Prebendaries  are  not  dignitaries. 

4.  The  Rural  Dean  is  simply  the  bishop's  offi- 
cial in  a  very  limited  portion  of  a  diocese,  acting 
in  subordination  to  the  archdeacon,  who   has  a 
definite   rank   as   a   permanent  dignitary  of  the 
cathedral  in  the  Old  Foundation,  and  in  many  in- 
stances in  the  New  Foundation.     He  has  preced- 
ence within  his  own  rural  deanery  in  chapter,  but 
undoubtedly  none  outside  of  it,  just  as  a  retired 
archdeacon  retains  neither  title  nor  revenue.  Pre- 
cedence in  a  cathedral  is  decided  by  statute  and 

I  have  explained  all  matters  relating  to  pre- 
bends in  my  Cathedralia. 


Your  correspondent  is  in  error,  I  think,  with  re- 
spect to  Bishop  Denison's  institution  (or  adoption) 
of  Honorary  Canons  at  Salisbury.  In  this  cathedral 
there  are  no  such  officers.  I  was  ordained  by  this 
Bishop,  and  I  have  been  connected  by  family 
ties  with  the  diocese  for  many  years,  and  I  do  not 
think  that  Bishop  Denison  ever  made  any  such 
appointments.  There  was  no  necessity  for  so 
doing,  since  the  church  of  Salisbury — like  those 
of  York,  London  (St.  Paul's),  Bangor,  Wells, 
Chichester,  Exeter,  Hereford,  Lichfield,  Llandaff, 
Lincoln,  and  St.  David's — contains  Canons  and 
Prebendaries,  who  occupy  their  ancient  stalls. 
This  cathedral,  with  those  enumerated  above, 
could  hardly  have  been  contemplated  by  an  Act 
which  provides  for  the  foundation  of  Honorary 
Canonries  in  churches  in  which  there  are  not 
already  founded  any  non-resident  prebends,  dig- 

3**  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 



nities,  or  offices.  The  first  bishop  who  availec 
himself  of  the  permission  to  create  this  new  an< 
somewhat  anomalous  office,  was,  I  believe,  Stan 
ley  of  Norwich,  by  the  appointment  of  the  Rev 
W.  Kirby  to  an  honorary  stall  about  the  end  o 
the  year  1840. 

The  question  of  precedence  I  leave  to  the  bette 
informed  on  this  subject;  though  I  should  sup 
pose   that  an  Honorary  Canon  would  take  the 
same  rank  in  the  diocese  as  his  more  ancient  am 
typical  representative,  the  Prebendary. 


"WINTER  LEAYES"  (3rd  S.  ix.  372.)  — I  fine 
the  names  of  the  authors  of  this  volume  insertec 
in  an  Edinburgh  catalogue,  which  appears  to  have 
been  compiled  with  much  care,  and  I  now  trans- 
cribe them:  Rev.  John  Fairbairn,  Free  Church 
minister  at  Allan  ton,  in  Berwickshire ;  and  Charles 
MacDonall,  LL.D.,  Professor  of  Greek  in  Queen's 
College,  Belfast.  MAE. 


TESTAMENTARY  BURIALS  (3rd  S.  x.  68.)  — 

"  We  are  indebted  to  Torre  also  for  what  are  called  the 
testamentary  burials.  It  has  been  usual  in  all  ages  for 
persons  to  give  directions  in  their  M'ills  respecting  the 
places  in  which  their  bodies  shall  be  interred. 

"Torre  went  through  the  wills  proved  at  York,  and 
extracted  from  them  all  clauses  relative  to  the  place  of 
interment  of  the  testator,  and  has  appended  them  to  the 
accounts  he  has  given  of  the  churches  in  which  such  in- 
terments were  to  take  place.  His  testamentary  burials 
are  far  from  being  complete,  but  they  are,  as  far  as  they 
go,  of  great  use,  sometimes  enabling  us  to  appropriate  the 
UHinscribed  tomb,  or  that  from  which  the  inscription  has 
disappeared."  —  Introduction  to  Collections  relative  to  the 
Dioceses  of  York  and  Ripon,  pp.  xii.  and  xiii.  By  George 
Lawton  (8vo,  new  edition,  1842.) 

L.  L.  H. 

[One  word  of  caution  on  the  subject  of  testamentary 
burials.  The  directions  were  not  always  complied  with. 
For  instance,  we  believe,  both  the  late  Lord  Clyde  as  well 
as  the  late  Lord  Palmerston  directed  in  their  wills  where 
they  should  be  buried,  but  their  directions  were  disre- 
garded, as  each  was  buried  in  Westminster  Abbey.  At 
any  rate,  the  direction  of  the  testator  on  his  will  as"  to  the 
place  of  burial  is  conclusive  evidence  that  his  wishes  were 
carried  out  by  his  executors. — ED.  "N  &  Q."] 

STREICHT  "  (3rrt  S.  x.  45.)  —  It  is  printed  in  the 
Neues    Braunschweigisches    Gesangbuch,    Braun- 
schweig, 1783,  but  the  author's  name  is  not  given. 

450,  537  ;  x.  54.)— 

Bankers  of  Verdure. — a  Verdure=ta,yisseriQ  de 
verdure  qui  represente  les  arbres— a  forest-work 
suit  of  hangings." 

Bridges,  or  Seaden  Hashes. — .#as=shaloon  or 
serge.  Etoffe  rase,  plain  stuff. 

"  Ras'es  of  Bruges,  or  Sedan,"  would  appear  to 
be  the  meaning. 

Tikes  of  Stoad.—As  Tikes  seem  to  be  different 

from  Tickings,  I  suggest  that  the  former  may  be  the 
Germ.  Tuch= cloth.  "  Tikes  of  Stoad  ""  would 
then  be  cloth  from  Stade?  and  "Turnal  Tikes  " 
the  same  from  Tournay. 

China  Pease  and  China  Hoots. — This  must,  I 
think,  be  tea.  The  green  sorts,  especially  Caper 
tea,  might  very  likely  have  been  taken  for  green 
peas  j  and  the  black  sorts,  for  $onae  kind  of  small 
twisted  root. 

Postlethwayte's  Dictionary  of  Trade  and  Com- 
merce, 2  vols.  folio,  might  be  advantageously  con- 
sulted on  these  points,  particularly  (I  should  say) 
on  the  question  of  eels  and  stockfish. 

Query,  What  are  Gentish  and  Isingham,  which 
Frank  Osbaldistone  deemed  of  such  importance  as 
to  enter  them  into  his  note-book  ?  E.  KING. 

Further  investigations  into  the  Tonnage  and 
Poundage  Acts,  the  Revenue  Acts  of  the  time, 
show  other  curious  information.  We  are  in- 
formed — 

"An  English  Peny  shall  weigh  32  grains  of  Wheat 
well  dried,  and  gathered  out  of  the  middle  of  the  ear ;  and 
20  Pence  make  an  Ounce ;  and  12  Ounces  make  a  Pound  : 
and  8  Pounds  make  a  Gallon  of  Wine ;  and  8  Gallons  of 
Wine  make  a  Bushel  of  London  ;  which  is  the  eighth 
part  of  a  Quarter.  31  Ed.  I. ;  11  Hen.  VII.  cap.  4  ;'  12 
Hen.  VII.  cap.  5." 

Of  course  this  must  have  been  the  silver  penny, 
and  all  the  other  weights  are  Troy  weight,  by 
which  gold,  silver,  and  jewels  are  weighed.  The 
pound  and  ounce  Troy  are  also  the  same  in  apothe- 
caries' weight,  but  differently  subdivided. 

In  all  the  tables,  24  grains  are  given  as  a  penny- 
weight, and  not  32.  Is  this  a  misprint  ?  There 
were  231  cubic  inches  in  the  old  wine  gallon,  and 
282  in  that  for  ale  and  beer.  Now  there  are 
5760  grains  in  the  pound  Troy,  and  7000  in  that  of 
avoir-du-pois.  As  5760 :  7000  : :  231  : 281  nearly. 
This  seems  a  proof  that  wine  was  estimated  by 
ihe  nobler,  and  ale  by  the  inferior  scale.  "  Pottle 
Pots"  and  "potations  pottle  deep"  are  often 
mentioned  in  old  writers.  I  cannot,  however,  say 
[  remember  the  expression  of  "  Bushel "  or  of 
'  Quarter  "  as  applied  to  wine. 

On  looking  to  other  matters  mentioned  I  find 
3hina  Pease  paid  only  3s.  4td.  old,  and  3s.  4rf.  new 
iuby.  the  pound. 

Although  I  find  "Bashes  voc.  Bridges,  or 
Leaden  *  Rashes,  the  single  piece  cont,  15  yds.," 
nd  "Bridges  or  Leaden  Rashes  the  double  piece," 
[  find  next,  lt  Cloth  Rashes  the  piece."  In  the 
3ackage  Tables  of  Rates  Outwards,  amongst 
'Stuffs  voc.  Rashes  of  all  sorts  the  piece/; 
:  China  Roots,  the  pound  I/,  old,  and  6s.  8d.  new, 
3s.  4<7.  1690,"  "impositions"  are  classed  with 

There  is  also  mention  of  "Vinegar  the  Ton/' 
nd  "  Wine  Lees  the  Ton,"  and  also  of  "  Syder 

A."  A. 

By  a  mistake  this  is  printed  Seaden. 



[3'd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66. 

The  Cole  Fish  is  the  hake  of  Devonshire  and 
Waterford,  not  a  species  of  whiting.  It  is  caught 
very  plentifully  off  Whitby,  where  it  is  called  to 
this  day  the  «  cole  fish." 

I  have  no  doubt  Tikes  means  ticks.  Tykes 
is  quite  modern  slang  for  bull-dogs.  "  Sheffield 
tykes  "=Sheffield  bull-dogs,  from  their  famous 
breeds  of  that  dog,  and  the  love  of  the  inhabitants 
for  pugilistic  encounters.  EBOEACTJM. 

SHOETHOSE  FAMILY  (3rd  S.  x.  75.)  —  "  On  the 
death  of  John  Shorthose,  the  vicarage  of  Stanton 
St.  Bernard  was  given  to  James  Watt,  1721." 
This  should  be  James  Wall,  as  appears  from  the 
Wiltshire  Institutions  (vol.  ii.  p.  57),  printed  by 
Sir  Thomas  Phillipps.  ANON. 

HILDEBERT  (3rd  S.  x.  29.) — I  believe  few  per- 
sons have  read  more  of  Hildebert  than  myself, 
and  I  send  all  my  reading.  Most  likely  the  an- 
notator  drew  from  the  same  source :  — 

"  *  Cujus  cura  sequi  naturam,  legibus  uti, 
Et  mentem  vitiis,  ora  negare  dolis  : 

Virtutes  opibus,  verura  prceponere  falso, 
Nil  vacuum  sensu  dicere,  nil  facere. 

Post  obitum  vivam  secum,  secum  requiescam  ; 
Nee  fiat  melior  sors  mea  sorte  sua ! ' 

"  In  a  poem  of  Hildebert's  on  his  master,  the  perse- 
cuted Be'renger."— Coleridge,  Aids  to  Reflection,  p.  164, 
ed.  1854. 


MTJSCHAMPS  (3rd  S.  x.  46.)— Muschamps  is  pro- 
bably in  Peckham.  See  Allport's  History  of 
Camberwell,  p.  64.  W.  H. 

WASTE  PAPEE  (3rd  S.  x.47.) — SUBSCEIBEE  may 
dispose  of  his  waste  paper  at  Loyd's  Paper  Mills, 
Bow  Bridge,  Bow  Station :  where  old  envelopes 
and  letters  are  purchased  at  6s.  per  cwt.  for  re- 
manufacture.  Old  ledgers  and  account  books  are 
also  bought.  JOHN  PIGGOT,  JTTN. 

68.) — It  is  not  clear  what  preparation  was  used 
by  ME.  WOODWAED  for  "  pure  scarlet."  The  only 
colours  supplied  in  the  shops  for  it  would  be  the 
two  preparations  of  cinnabar,  common  vermilion 
and  silica  vermilion.  The  common  vermilion  is 
not  to  be  depended  upon j  but  I  believe  we  may 
safely  trust  to  the  silica.  Nor  can  one  guess  how 
many  years  are  included  in  the  term  "  some  time 
ago."  I  have  employed  silica  vermilion,  which 
produces  a  pure  and  bright  scarlet  colour,  in  illu- 
minations upon  vellum,  with  perfect  satisfaction ; 
and  I  can  answer,  at  least,  for  its  being  as  fresh 
now  as  when  laid  on  more  than  twenty  years  ago. 

I  have  in  my  possession  a  valuable  folio  missal 
of  the  Sarum  use,  which  belonged  to  Archbishop 
Chicheley,  and  was  given  by  him  to  his  niece  as  a 
part  of  her  dowry,  on  occasion  of  her  marriage. 
As  he  died  in  1443,  this  missal  was  probably 
executed  early  in  the  fifteenth  century.  It  is 

very  rich  in  illuminated  letters  and  borders ;  but, 
like  so  many  other  service  books,  it  was  imperfect 
when  it  came  into  my  possession.  The  calendar 
was  entirely  gone,  and  about  twenty-six  leaves 
had  been  torn  out,  chiefly  those  which  had  con- 
tained the  most  elaborate  illuminations.  I  set 
myself  to  the  work  of  restoring  all  that  was  mis- 
sing ;  and  by  patient  perseverance  I  wrote  out,  in 
close  imitation  of  the  old  letter  of  the  rest  of  the 
missal,  about  fifty-two  folio  pages,  besides  entirely 
restoring  the  calendar  of  twelve  more.  All  these 
were  executed  in  black  and  red,  and  illuminated 
as  the  missing  pages  might  have  been,  the  designs 
being  copied  from  various  illuminations  remaining. 
For  all  these  I  employed  for  scarlet  colour  the 
silica  vermilion,  mixed  up  with  thin  gum-water, 
and  I  have  no  fear  of  its  standing  well. 

Perhaps  it  might  be  worth  while  for  ME.  WOOD- 
WAED to  go  over  his  scarlet  with  silica  vermilion  : 
though  this  would  not,  in  my  opinion,  be  im- 
proved by  an  admixture  of  Chinese  white,  allow- 
ing that  this  is  an  excellent  and  durable  colour  of 
itself,  being  prepared  from  zinc  instead  of  lead. 

F.  C.  H. 

11  RHYME  NOE  REASON  "  (3rd  S.  x.  67.) — These 
words  are  used  together,  of  course  for  allitera- 
tion's sake,  as  we  say  "  sense  and  sound."  The 
exigencies  of  rhyme  might  possibly  be  admitted 
as  an  excuse  for  want  of  reason,  but  that  which  is 
"  without  rhyme  or  reason  "  admits  of  no  excuse 
whatever.  There  is  something  like  this  in  Samuel 
Rowland's  "The  Knave  of  Clubs,"  1600  (Percy 
Society,  ix.  27).  An  unfaithful  wife,  on  the  point 
of  detection,  forms  a  plan  to  save  herself,  and  in- 
structs the  gallant'thus :  — 

"  Drawe  out  your  weapon,  and  goe  swearing  downe  ; 
Looke  terrible  (I  neede  not  teach  you  frowne), 
And  vow  you'le  be  reveng'd  some  other  time, 
And  then  leave  me  to  make  the  reason  rime" 


This  expression,  I  suppose,  was  originally  ap- 
I  plied  to  a  poetical  attempt,  in  which  the  rhyme 
j  was  bad,  and  free  use  made  of  the  canon  that  — 

"  Rhyme  with  reason  may  dispense, 
And  sound  has  right  to  govern  sense." 

At  any  rate,  Spenser  and  Shakspeare  used  the 
above  phrase  in  the  same  proverbial  sense  that  it 
now  has.  Thus,  in  The  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor 
(Act  V.  Sc.  5),  Falstaff,  referring  to  his  late  tor- 
mentors, declares  that  he  had  been  convinced, 
"  in  despite  of  the  teeth  of  all  rhyme  and  reason, 
I  that  they  were  fairies." 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  remark,  that  allitera- 
tion is  one  of  the  strongest  elements  which  con- 
duce to  the  popularity  of  a  proverb.  E.  S.  D. 

I   am    inclined  to    think  that  this   phrase  is 

one  of  the  numerous  current  quotations — the  dis- 

\  jecta  membra  poctce — which  float  about  in  the  sea 

I  of  prose  unacknowledged,  and  so  drift  about  until 

3'd  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 



their  origin  is  almost  forgotten.  As  to  the  phrase 
being  more  emphatic  than  the  one  word  unrea- 
sonable, I  should  say  it  is  simply  because  there  is 
more  of  it;  that  it  has  the  jingle  of  the  allitera- 
tion, and  takes  a  little  more  trouble  to  say  it  than 
the  single  word  unreasonable.  The  following  anec- 
dote is  told,  but  on  what  authority  I  am  not 
aware.  Spenser  having  presented  some  poems  to 
Queen  Elizabeth,  she  ordered  him  a  gratuity  of  a 
hundred  pounds,  at  which  the  Lord  Treasurer 
Burleigh  exclaimed  :  "  What  !  all  this  for 
song?"  The  queen  replied:  "Then  give  him 
what  is  reason."  The  poet  waited  for  some  time, 
but  hearing  no  further  of  the  matter,  and  neither 
getting  back  his  rhymes  nor  receiving  payment 
for  them,  he  wrote  :  — 

"  I  was  promised  on  a  time, 
To  have  reason  for  my  rhime  ; 
From  that  time  unto  this  season, 
I  received  nor  rhime  nor  reason." 

To  finish  the  story,  we  are  told  that  Elizabeth, 
not  without  some  reproof,  directed  the  immediate 
payment  of  the  hundred  pounds  she  had  first 
ordered.  JEPHSON  HUBA^D  SMITH. 

May  not  this  expression  have  its  origin  in  the 
following  dialogue  ?  — 

"  Rosalind.  But  are  you  so  much  in  love  as  your  rhymes 
speak  ? 

Orlando.  Neither  rhyme  nor  reason  can  express  how 
much."—  As  You  like  It,  Act  III.  Sc.  2. 


There  is  nothing  in  it  to  make  it  commend- 
able :  neither  the  melody  of  verse,  which  com- 
pensates to  some  extent  for  the  want  of  sense; 
nor  reason,  which  is  an  indispensable  element  in 
plain  prose.  The  alliteration,  doubtless,  originated 
the  popular  acceptance  of  the  conjunction  of  the 
two  words.  J.  W.  W. 

FECKLE  (3rd  S.  x.  17.)— I  never  heard  of  feck 
or  Jlck  being  used  except  to  kick  violently  like  a 
rabbit  in  the  throes  of  death,  or  a  fat  sheep  on  its 
back  unable  to  rise.  May  I  further  observe  that 
it  is  absurd  (to  use  a  mild  expression)  of  G.,  at 
p.  544,  praising  the  Scottish  language  whilst  he 
condemns  the  Yorks  as  "barbarous."  Let  him 
learn  both  languages  are  from  one  common  origin, 
the  Norse  or  Scandinavian,  whatever  Lord  Jeffrey 
may  announce !  EBOEACTJM. 

DUTCH  BIBLIOGKAPHT  (3rd  S.  x.  45.)  — The 
Naamregister  van  Nederduitsche  Boeken  by  Abkoude 
and  Arrenberg  (Rotterdam,  1773),  with  the  con- 
tinuation by  J.  de  Jong  and  Van  Cleef  (Amster- 
dam, 1832) ;  and  the  further  continuation  by  Ch. 
Brinckman  (Amsterdam,  1858),  will  probably  be 
what  your  correspondent  desires.  The  three  works 
comprise  books  printed  between  1600  and  1849 

W.  E.  A.  A. 

HOWARD:  HAYWARD  (3rd  S.  x.  29,  74.)  — In 
Chambers's  Edinburgh  Journal  (xi.  p.  284)  it  is 
said  that  "Howard  is  the  keeper  of  the  ha'  or 
hall ;  Durward,  keeper  of  the  door."  The  duties 
of  the  hayward,  five  hundred  years  ago,  are  thus 
described  in  the  Vision  of  Piws  Plowman :  — 
"  Canstow  serven,  he  seide, 

Other  have  an  home  and  be  hay-warde, 

And  liggen  out  a  nightes, 

And  kepe  my  corn  in  my  croft 

From  pykers"  and  theeves  ?  "  E.  S.  D. 

This,  as  a  family  name,  can  scarcely  be  derived 
from  any  such  origin  as  tl  one  that  keepeth  the 
common  herd  of  the  town,"  or  any  officer  consti- 
tuted by  a  manorial  court.  In  a  grant  by  Aethel- 
stan,  the  Saxon  monarch,  A.D.  931,  to  Wulfgar,  of 
lands  at  Hamane,  one  of  the  witnesses  subscribes 
thus — (( Ego  If  award  Dux  consensi  et  subscripsi." 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  common  popular  pro- 
nunciation of  the  name  is  still  t{  H«ward." 


x.  67.) — Of  Mr.  Bartholomew  Prescott  I  can  give 
no  information,  except  that  he  was  the  author  of 
a  very  interesting  pamphlet,  entitled  Remarks  on 
the  Architecture,  Sculpture,  and  Zodiac  of  Palmyra, 
with  a  Key  to  the  Inscriptions.  Lond.,  1830.  The 
passage  inquired  after  by  M.  PROUHET  occurs  at 
p.  251  of  Whiston's  Memoirs  (edit.  1753)  : — 

"  He  was  of  the  most  fearful,  cautious,  and  suspicious 
temper  that  I  ever  knew  ;  and  had  he  been  alive  when  I 
wrote  against  his  chronology,  and  so  thoroughly  confuted 
it,  that  nobody  ever  ventured  to  vindicate  it  that  I  know 
of  since  my  confutation  was  published,  I  should  not  have 
thougH  proper  to  publish  it  during  his  lifetime,  because 
I  km  his  temper  so  well,  that  I  should  have  expected 
it  wou.d  have  killed  him." 

JMuny  similar  passages  might  be  cited,  but  no 
dependence  is  to  be  placed  on  them.  Sir  David 
Brewster  passes  over  the  charge  in  total  silence, 
following  the  example  of  Chalmers  (Biog.  Diet.}, 
and  M.  Biot  (Biog.  Vmver.,  t.  xxi.)  The  writer 
in  the  Biographia  Britannica  (v.  3243)  indeed 
quotes  the  passage,  but  only  to  laugh  at  the 
'flaming  vanity  of  Mr.  Will.  Whiston." 

W.  E.  A.  Axoar. 

MALE  AND  FEMALE  BIRTHS  (3rd  S.  x.  26,  76.) 
3n  reading  the  articles  on  this  subject,  I  felt  sur- 
prised that  doubts  were  being  thrown  on  what  I 
lad  long  thought  was  a  recognised  principle — 
namely,  that  the  male  births  universally  exceeded 
;he  female.  When  I  say  universally,  I  mean  as 
"ar  as  research  has  gone  over  the  world,  and  in- 
brmation  obtained.  And  I  had  understood  that 
he  proportion  of  male  infants  born  over  females, 
n  the  human  race  generally,  was  as  14  to  13.  At 
a  long  distance  of  time,  I  cannot  now  refer  to  the 
ource  from  which  I  gathered  this  statement; 
>ut  the  statistics  quoted  in  the  articles  alluded 



[3*«S.X.  AUG.  11, '66. 

to  fully  bear  it  out.  And  this  rule,  with  no  ex- 
ception on  the  grand  scale,  has  "been  looked  upon 
as  a  wise  provision  of  the  creator  of  the  universe, 
whereby  the  greater  destruction  of  male  life  over 
female  life,  by  accidents  or  war,  is  compensated 
for.  If  it  be  true  "  that  an  excess  of  one  sex  over 
the  other,  in  population,  is  accompanied  by  a  rela- 
tive deficiency  of  that  sex  in  births,"  such  a  fact 
would  indeed  be  extraordinary  :  and  such  a  state- 
ment requires  corroborative  authorities. 

Is  it  really  the  case  that  sheep  on  fertile  land 
produce  more  ewe  lambs  and  less  wethers,  and 
vice  versa  on  poor  land?  I  have  just  put  the 
question  to  a  Devonshire  farmer,  who  tells  me  he 
never  heard  of  such  a  thing  before.  Of  course  the 
testimony  of  one  farmer  does  not  amount  to  any- 
thing. One  writer,  connecting  the  human  race 
with5  these  sheep,  declares  that  soldiers,  who  live 
on  poor  land,  or  fare  on  poorer  diet  than  other 
folks,  produce  more  male  than  female  children. 
Soldiers  are  very  wonderful  fellows  no  doubt ;  but 
if  the  great  rule  on  the  grand  scale  mentioned 
above  be  correct,  all  other  men  do  just  the  same. 
My  own  opinion  is,  that  men  are  not  sheep. 

The  last  census  shows  that  there  are  upwards 
of  400,000  more  females  than  males  in  England, 
notwithstanding  that  more  male  than  female  chil- 
dren are  born  every  year.  This  startling  in- 
equality in  the  sexes  is  accounted  for  from  the 
fact  that  a  vast  number  of  boys  and  youths  are 
drafted  into  the  army,  navy,  and  merchant  marine ; 
that  the  lives  of  men,  by  their  out-of-door  pur- 
suits and  hazardous  occupations,  are  being  con- 
tinually reduced  by  fatal  accidents,  exposure,  or 
overwork ;  but  of  late  years  another  great  cause 
of  this  state  of  things  may  be  referred  to  the  im- 
mense drain  of  the  male  population  of  this  country 
by  colonization,  which  removes  such  a  great 
amount  of  the  young  unmarried  men,  who  go  out 
to  seek  their  fortunes  in  various  parts  of  the 
world,  leaving  the  girls  and  women  behind  them. 
If  every  man  in  England  were  to  marry,  nearly 
half  a  million  females  would  be  left  without  the 
possibility  of  getting  partners. 


A  great  actuary,  who  had  studied  the  subject, 
told  me  about  thirty  years  ago,  that,  the  more 
ill-fed  and  weaker  the  parents,  the  greater  was 
their  chance  of  having  a  majority  of  male  children. 
As  far  as  I  have  observed,  the  theory  is  well 
foamded.  E. 

PENSY:  SMITTLE   (3rd   S.  x.   67.)  — Both  are 
well-known  Scotch  words.    Dr.  Jamieson  states 
the  meaning  of  the  former — f(  Having  a  mixture 
of  self-conceit  and  affectation  in  one's  appearance,' 
and  derives  it  from  the  French  pensif,  thinking  of 
which,  however,  does  not  seem  satisfactory.     H 
defines  smittle  as    "infectious,"   and  gives  it 
Belgic  derivation.      Your  correspondent  regard 

he  word  as  a  verb,  but  it  is  more  correctly  the 
idjective  of  the  verb  "smit,"  to  infect.  G. 


The  word  pensy  is  commonly  used  in  the  Eastern 
bounties,  though  in  a  sense  somewhat  different 
rom  what  S.  L.  reports  from  Cumberland.  In 
hese  parts  it  is  employed  in  the  sense  of  u  fret- 
ul,  peevish,  way  ward,  and  fanciful,"  and  is  chiefly 
ipplied  to  children  when  they  are  capricious,  full 
if  complaints,  and  don't  know  what  they  want. 
?hi3  use  of  the  word  certainly  approximates  to 
he  examples  given  of  the  woman  nice  in  her 
ippetite,  and  the  little  dog  equally  fastidious.  I 
lave  no  doubt  of  its  derivation  from  the  French 
verb  penser,  from  which  we  have  the  legitimate 
English  word  pensive,  which  means  mournfully 
^erious.  Such  a  person  is  liable  to  be  fretful,  dis- 
ontented,  and  fastidious  j  and  hence  the  various 
uses  of  the  corrupted  form,  pensy,  F.  C.  H. 

The  term  pensy,  I  would  suggest,  is  a  corrup- 
ion  of  pensive — meaning,  in  the   application  in- 
tanced, that  the  patient  is  in  a  depressed  and 
melancholy   condition,   which    deprives    him    of 
iiealthy  appetite  for  food. 

Smittle  is  probably  derived  from  the  verb  to 
smite :  the  malady  smites,  or  strikes  forcibly,  and 
s  therefore  likely' to  prove  fatal.  J.  W.  W. 

Is  not  smittle  equivalent  to,  or  a  mere  variation 
of,  smitten ;  i.  e.  smitten  by  a  disease,  which  if 
contagious  becomes  a  smittle  complaint  ?  And  is 
not  slopt,  from  our  common  slop,  slops,  a  pronun- 
ciamento  against,  more  vulgo,  a  slobbering  or  slaver- 
ing kiss  ?  BTTSHEY  HEATH. 

The  term  smittle  is  common  enough  in  this 
part  of  Yorkshire ;  in  fact  it  is  a  kind  of  everyday 
word,  in  common  use.  In  a  "  Collection  of  Eng- 
lish Words,  by  John  Ray,  Fellow  of  the  Royal 
Society,  and  printed  and  published  by  H.  Bruges 
for  Thos.  Burrell,  at  the  Golden  Ball,  under  St. 
Dunstan's  Church,  in  Fleet  Street,  in  1674," 
the  word  "  Smittle "  occurs,  under  the  head  of 
"  North  Country  Words,"  thus :  — 

"To  Smittle,  to  infect;  from  the  old  Saxon  smittan, 
and  Dutch  Sinetten,  to  spot  or  :nfect,  whence  our  word 

The  work  from  which  I  give  the  above  extract 
is  a  very  scarce  one  ;  but  the  word  is  thoroughly 
understood,  in  the  sense  indicated,  in  Yorkshire. 


GREEK  CARRIER  (3rd  S.  ix.  266.)  — LORD  LYT- 
TELTON  has  conclusively  shown,  on  the  authority 
of  Herodotus  and  Thucydides,  that  m<€vo<p6pos, 
skeuophoros,  is  classic,  but  suggests  that  olno,  ceco 
or  eeo,  might  be  prefixed  to  denote  the  houschold- 
furniture  carrier.  I  beg,  however,  to  suggest  that 
ceco  may  be  dispensed  with,  as  the  word  TO.  (TKevrj, 
skeue,  in  the  plural,  comprises  "  all  that  belongs^to 
a  complete  outfit,  house-gear,  kitchen  utensils, 

3**  S.  X.  AUG.  11,  '66.] 



and  moveables,  as  opposed  to  live  stock  and  fix- 
tures," according  to  Liddell  and  Scott,  and  also 
according  to  Mr.  Yonge's  translation  of  Athenseus, 
quoted  in  "  N.  &  Q."  supra,  p.  51,  where  that 
word  is  made  the  equivalent  to  "  all  the  furniture 
and  all  the  sofas  and  chairs,"  although  he  use 
the  word  en-po^aro  lest  the  drapery  should  be  for- 
gotten. In  Luke  xvii.  31,  ra  ovat^,  translatec 
u  stuff,"  means  every  moveable  thing  in  the  house 
Sharpe  has  it  il  goods,"  as  in  Matt.  xii.  29,  anc 
Mark  iii.  27.  Lysias  (154,  37)  is  also  an  authority 
for  comprehending  all  household  furniture  under 
the  single  term  O/CCUTJ.  It  is  certain  there  is  no 
authority  for  such  a  word  as  oiKo-o-icfvoQSpos,  eco- 
skeuophoros.  Whilst  then  skeuophoros  is  the  carrier 
himself,  skeuophoria,  o-Kcvofopla,  is  his  trade,  skeuo- 
pkyldldon,  <TKtvo<pv\dKioi'r  will  serve  as  a  designation 
for  his  lock-up  waggon ;  and  skeuotJieke, 
for  his  storehouse  or  repository. 

T.  J. 

Streatham  Place,  S. 

ETC.  (3rd  S.  ix.  511 ;  x.  46.) — Icannot  supply  the 
source  of  these  lines,  but  a  friend  has  given  me 
an  English  translation  of  them,  which  however  my 
pen  almost  refuses  to  write,  out  of  respect  to  your 
many  lady  readers :  — 

"  Pray,  what  is  lighter  than  a  feather  ? 
Dust,  my  friend,  in  summer  weather. 
What's  lighter  than  the  dust,  I  pray  ? 
The  wind  that  blows  them  both  away. 
What  is  lighter  than  the  wind  ? 
The  lightness  of  a  woman's  mind. 
And  what  is  lighter  than  the  last  ? 
Ah,  now,  my  friend,  you  have  me  fast !  " 


Without  being  able  to  name  the  author  of  the 
epigram  cited  by  G.  E.,  I  can,  if  he  is  a  misogy- 
nist, gratify  him  by  giving  it  in  a  different 
form  :  — 

"  Quid  levius  penna  ?  Pulvis.    Quid  pulvere  ?  Ventus. 
Quid  vento  ?  Mulier.     Quid  muliere  ?  Nihil !  " 



The  lines  — 

"  Satire  should,  like  a  polished  razor  keen, 

Wound  with  a  touch  that's  scarcely  felt  or  seen,"— 
occur  among  some  "  Verses  addressed  to  the  Imi- 
tator of  the  First  Satire  of  the  Second  Book  of 
Horace,"  which  are  said  to  have  been  the  joint 
production  of  Lady  M.  W.  Montagu  and  Lord 
Hervey,  who  considered  themselves  as  called  upon 
to  reply  to  Pope's  covert  satire.  See  the  Poems 
of  Lady  M.  W.  Montagu,  in  her  Works,  ed.  1805, 
vol.  v.  p.  151.  WILLIAM  BATES. 

The  couplet  on  satire  — 

"  Satire  should,  like  a  polished  razor  keen, 

Wound  with  a  touch  that's  scarcely  felt  or  seen  — 
conveys  the  same  idea  as  that  expressed  in  the 
following  lines  of  Young :  — 

"  As  in  smooth  oil  the  razor  best  is  whet, 
So  wit  is  by  politeness  sharpest  set ; 
Their  want  of  edge  from  their  offence  is  seen, 
Both  pain  us  least  when  exquisitely  keen." 

A  kindred  thought  is  embodied  in  these  lines, 
of  which  some  of  your  readers  may  know  the 
author :  — 

"  True  wit  is  like  the  brilliant  stone, 

Dug  from  the  Indian  mine, 
Which  boasts  two  different  pow'rs  in  one, 
To  cut  as  well  as  shine. 

Genius,  like  that,  if  polish'd  right, 

With  the  same  gifts  abounds ; 
Appears,  at  once,  both  keen  and  bright, 

And  sparkles  while  it  wounds." 

C.  Ross. 

BURIALS  ABOVE  GROUND  (3rd  S.  x.  27.) — Many 
years  ago  the  coachmen  of  the  York  and  Lincoln 
coaches  used  to  point  out,  in  the  parish  of  Steven- 
age,  between  Baldock  and  London,  a  lofty  barn, 
in  the  corner  of  the  roof  of  which  one  of  its  former 
proprietors  was  interred.  Some  of  your  Hertford- 
shire correspondents  may  be  able  to  say  whether 
this  is  a  mere  hoax  or  not.  JUXTA  TURRIM. 

LEGAL  PHRASE  (3rd  S.  x.  67.)  —  "  Wher  upon 
he  hath  bound  himeselfe  by  tacky nge  of  a  jd  upon 
and  a  surnsett"  (Diary  of  Philip  Hensloive,  1596). 
I  read  this  as  meaning:  "Whereupon  he  hath 
bound  himself  by  taking  of  one  penny  upon  an 
assumpsit."  Assurnpsit  (from  the  Latin  assumo) 
is  taken  for  a  promise,  by  which  a  man  assumes 
or  takes  upon  him  to  perform  or  pay  anything  for 
or  to  another ;  and  it  comprehends  any  verbal  pro- 
mise, made  upon  consideration,  which  considera- 
tion would  be  the  penny  in  the  above  case.  The 
"  tackynge  "  may,  however,  relate  to  a  tac  or  tak, 
a  customary  payment  of  toll.  The  context  should 
decide  this  latter  point.  EDWARD  J.  WOOD. 

It  may  be  presumptuous  in  a  non-legal  reader 
to  attempt  to  give  the  required  explanation  ;  but 
the  latter  part  of  the  sentence,  "and  a  sumsett," 
is  so  evidently  intended  for  u  an  asumpsit "  that 
I  am  inclined  to  the  opinion  that  the  man  bound 
himself  by  "taking  a  penny  upon  an  assumpsit" 
that  is,  a  voluntary  promise  to  pay  something  to 
another.  F.  C.  H. 


The  Oberland  and  its   Glaciers :  explored  and  illustrated 
with  Ice-Axe  and  Camera.    By  II.  B.  George,  M.A.. 
Editor  of  "  The  Alpine  Journal."     With  Twenty-eight 
Photographic    Illustrations,  by  Ernest  Edwards,  B.A.,, 
and  a  Map  of  the   Oberland.     (A.  W.Bennett.) 
It  would  be  difficult  to  imagine  a  more  beautiful  or  in- 
cresting  volume,  or  one  better  calculated,  at  this  season 
of  the  Parliamentary  Recess  and  Long  Vacation,  to  send 
exhausted  legislators  and  men  of  the  robe,  as  old  Grange 
called  them,  to  see  what  Mr.  George  so  well  describes 



.  X.  AUG.  1.1, '66. 

and  Mr.  Edwards  brings  before  our  eyes  with  such  mani- 
fest truth  and  effect.  Two  objects  are  aimed  at  by  the 
author  of  the  book  before  us.  The  first,  the  humble  but 
useful  purpose  of  obtaining  a  set  of  photographs  which 
should  show  as  completely  as  possible  the  nature  of 
glaciers  and  their  various  appendages,  and  of  writing 
such  an  account  of  them  as  should  supplement  the  effect 
of  the  pictures  and  enable  them  to  speak  for  themselves. 
The  next,  to  furnish  information  to  two  different  classes 
of  readers,  by  giving  narratives  of  a  few  ascents  of  some 
difficulty  and  considerable  interest,  suited  to  the  experi- 
enced Alpine  climber  ;  and  next,  to  furnish  less  ambitious 
travellers  with  some  expeditions  of  slighter  calibre, 
which  do  not  seem  to  be  well  known ;  and  some  hints 
which  may  enable  them  to  see  sights  and  enjoy  pleasures 
usually  regarded  as  the  exclusive  property  of  moun- 
taineers. These  objects  are  successfully  accomplished ; 
and  while  we  doubt  not  that  the  book  will  be  read  with 
profit  and  enjoyment  by  many  "  intending"  visitors  to  the 
Oberland,  that  profit  and  enjoyment  will  be  shared  by 
many  a  home-keeping  reader.  *  Our  photographic  friend's 
will 'be  especially  interested  by  Mr.  Edwards's  "  Notes 
by  the  Photographer,"  in  which  he  tells  us  how  he  con- 
trived to  secure  the  beautiful  pictures  of  glaciers  which 
add  so  much  to  the  value  of  the  book. 

Familiar  Words:  An  Index  Verborum,  or  Quotation 
Handbook,  with  Parallel  Passages,  of  Phrases  which 
have  become  imbedded  in  our  English  Tongue.  By  J. 
Hain  Friswell.  Second  Edition,  revised  and  enlarged. 
(Sampson  Low.) 

When  the  first  edition  of  this  useful  Handbook  of  those 
ever-recurring  quotations  which  are,  as  Mr.  Friswell 
aptly  describes  them,  familiar  as  household  words,  made 
its  appearance  we  commended  it  very  heartily  to  our 
readers.  As  this  second  edition  has  not  only  been  en- 
larged but  also  carefully  revised,  it  has  still  higher  claims 
to  the  favourable  notice  of  all  who,  when  they  meet  with 
an  apt  quotation  or  well-turned  thought,  desire  to  know 
the  source  from  which  it  has  been  derived. 

MESSRS.  WiLijTAMS  &  NORGATE  have  in  the  press  a  new 
translation  of  all  the  "  False  Gospels  "  now  extant.  This 
volume  is  to  be  followed  shortly  by  the  remaining  Apo- 
cryphal books  of  the  New  Testament— Acts,  Epistles,  and 
Revelations.  The  translator  is  Mr.  B.  Harris  Cowper, 
who  will  supply  carefully  prepared  introductions,  notes, 
&c.  No  version  of  these  writings  into  English  has  been 
made  for  above  a  century,  and  no  complete  collection  has 
ever  been  published  in  this  country. 

announces  two  new  volumes  (vols.  III.  and  IV.)  of  Mr. 
Froude's  «  History  of  England,"  the  Reign  of  Elizabeth, 
being  the  ninth  and  tenth  volumes  of  the  History  of 
England  from  the  Fall  of  Wolsey  to  the  Death  of  Eliza- 
beth.— "  Life  and  Correspondence  of  Richard  Whately, 
D.D.,  late  Archbishop  of  Dublin."  By  Miss  E.  J. 
Whately.—"  An  Introduction  to  the  Study  of  National 
Music ;  comprising  Researches  into  Popular  Songs, 
Traditions,  and  Customs."  By  Carl  Engel. — "  Sound :  " 
a  Course  of  Six  Lectures  delivered  at  the  Royal  Institu- 
tion of  Great  Britain.  By  John  Tjndall,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Ac.  — u  The  Lake  Dwellings  of  Switzerland  and  other 
Parts  of  Europe."  By  Dr.  Ferdinand  Keller,  President 
of  the  Antiquarian  Association  of  Zurich  ;  translated 
and  arranged  by  J.  E.  Lee. — "  Notes  on  the  Folk-lore 
of  the  Northern  Counties  of  England  and  the  Borders." 
By  William  Henderson.  With  an  Appendix  on  House- 
hold Stories,  by  the  Rev.  S.  Baring-Gould.— (Vol.  III.) 
Completion  of  "  Brande's  Dictionary  of  Science,  Litera- 
ture, and  Art."  —  "  The  History  of  Philosophy  from 
Thales  to  the  Present  Day."  By  George  Henry  Lewes. 

mentary,  and  Practical  and  Devotional  Suggestions  for 
Readers  and  Students  of  the  English  Bible.  By  the  Rev. 
F.  C.  Cook,  M.A.  Canon  of  Exeter,  &c. — "  Our  Sermons ; 
an  Attempt  to  consider  familiarly,  but  reverent!}',  the 
Preacher's  Work  in  the  present  Day."  By  Rev.  Richard 
Gee— and  many  other  Works  of  considerable  interest. 

general  regret  with  which  the  announcement  of  the  death 
of  the  Marquess  Camden  on  Monday  last  will  be  received, 
will  extend  far  beyond  the  circle  of  his  relatives  and 
more  immediate  friends.  This  accomplished  scholar  and 
kind-hearted  nobleman  had,  of  late  years,  taken  great  in- 
terest in  promoting  historical  and  antiquarian  learning. 
He  was  President  of  the  Kent  Archaeological  Society,  of 
the  Camden  Society,  and  of  the  Archaeological  Institute. 
By  the  Councils  of  those  Societies,  who  came  in  frequent 
personal  communication  with  him,  his  loss  will  be  severely 
felt :  for  it  is  hard  to  say  whether  Lord  Camden  most 
distinguished  himself  when  in  the  Presidential  Chair  by 
his  strong  common  sense  and  business  habits,  or  by  the 
Courtesy  and  kindly  spirit  with  which  he  tempered  the 
deliberations  of  their  meetings.  A  Special  Meeting  of  the 
Camden  Society  was  held  on  Thursday,  for  the  purpose  of 
recording  the  sense  of  the  Council  on  the  great  loss  which 
the  Society  had  sustained  by  the  lamented  death  of  their 



Particulars  of  price,  &c.,  of  :the  following  book  to  be  sent  direct  to  the 
gentleman    by   whom    it   is  r< 
given  for  that  purpose  :  — 

ring  bool 
,  whose 

name  and  address  are 

LAY  BAPTISM  INVALID,  as  edited  in  1841  by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Scott  of 

Wanted  by  Mr.  M.  F.  Carter,  Newnham,  Gloucestershire. 


THB  REV.  J.  DALTOM.  We  are  not  aware  whether  El  Consul  tar  Uni- 
versal (Notes  and  Queries  EspanoU  is  still  continued.  The  sixth  number 
is  the  last  we  have  seen. 

A  LOVER  op  THE  EXACT.  The  question  you  propose  is  a  vexed  one,  of 
which  the  discussion  in,  our  columns,  would,  we  fear,  occupy  more  room 
than  we  could  afford.  See  Matthice's  Greek  Grammar,  translated  by 
Blomfield,  edited  by  Kenrick,Z  vols.  Svo,  1837. 

T  B.  S.  We  are  not  aware  that  any  such  list  can  be  procured.  Your 
Stock  Broker  could  probably  help  you. 

E.  S.  N.  The  Pallant  at  Chichester,  or  chief  quarter  of  the  town,  was 
formerly  a  separate  jurisdiction,  and  called  "  Palatinus  sioe  Palenta." 
It  was.  no  doubt,  from  Roman  times,  a  separate  palatine  jurisdiction. 
See  "  N.  &  Q."  1st  S.  vii.  269. 

JOHN  W.  BONE.  Bishop  Berkeley's  beautiful  verses  on  the  Future  of 
America  will  be  found  in  Ms  Life,  Svo,  i776,  1784;  Kippis'8  Biog.  Britan- 
nica,  ii.  255;  British  Biography  [bi/  Towers'],  ix.  *05;  and  in  Nathan 
Drake's  Essays  on  the  Taller ,  &c.  iii.  66 The  epigram  on  Prof.  Par- 
son's academic  visit  to  the  Continent  appeared  in  "  N.  &  Q."  1st  S. 
ii.  278. 

W.  C.  The  dialect  of  Tennyson's  Northern  Farmer  is  that  of  North- 
eastern Lincolnshire.  Some,  letters  on  this  subject  appeared  in  The 
Header  of  August  and  September,  1864,  pp.  189,  233,  328,  and  383. 

E  an  ATA — In  the  article, "  Dr.  Polidori,"  p.  483  of  the  last  volume,  in 
line  6,  for  "  gall  the  ribs  "  read  "  gall  the  kibe ;  and  in  line  15.  for  "  fo- 
cusize"  read  "  focalize."— 3rd  S.  x.  p. 86, col.  i.  Iine6,/or"  Munk,"  read 
"Marsh;"  and  line  8,  for  "  Edmund  "  read  " Bernard;"  p.  94.  col.  ii. 
line  22,  after  the  Heorew  word  insert  — "  elsewhere  rendered  hail- 

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S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66.] 




CONTENTS.— NO  242. 

NOTES :  —  Madame  de  Sevign6  and  King  James  II.,  121  — 
Cadger  Literature,  123— William.  First  Earl  of  Stirling  : 
Battle  of  Brooklyn,  Ib.  —  Free  Public  Libraries  —  Defoe 
on  Maypoles  —  Rev.  Thomas  Wazstaffe  —  Weather  and 
Health  Notes  —  Ancient  Superstition  —  Proper  .Names, 

QUERIES:  —  Ballad  against  Inclosures  —  Dr.  Birket  — 
John  Bull  — Clifton  of  Clifton,  Notts  — Cure  for  Ants  — 
Derwentwater  Estates  — Diocess  — Family  of  John  Dun- 
combe  —  Gainsborough  —  The  Great  Lord  of  Cronkeyshaw 

—  Historical  Picture  —  Oath,  forms  of,  in  New  Granada 

—  Peter  Pett,  Fisher  Harding,  John  Hughes  —  Quotations 
wanted—  Strand  Maypole  —  To  whom  did  Sorrel  belong  ? 

—  "  The  Visions  of  Piers  Plowman,"  &c.  —  "  Frances  Wal- 
singham,  as  Lady  Sidney,"  Ac.,  125. 

QUERIES  WITH  ANSWERS:  —  Sir  Richard  Ellys  —  O.  K — 
Cowper's  Hymn,  "God  moves  in  a  mysterious  way,"  &c. 

—  Meaning  of  Couthly  —  Salad,  128. 

REPLIES :  —  Clerical  Costume,  129  — Picture  attributed  to 
Humphrey,  Duke  of  Gloucester,  formerly  at  Strawberry 
Hill,  131  —  Dr.  Polidori,  132  —  Abracadabra,  133  —  Periodi- 
cal Publications,  1712  to  1732,  134— Farthing  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  Ib.  — A.  Shakespeare  Scholarship  —  The  Poem 
"  My  Mother  "  —  Testamentary  Burial  —  Epigram  on  Fre- 
derick the  Great  —  The  World's  Birthday  —  Andrea  Ferara 

—  Royal  Assent  —  St.  Juliana  of  Norwich  —  Prelate  men- 
tioned by  Gibbon  —  "  Majestic  Reviah  "  —  Saint  Michael  — 
Almack's  —  Sabbath  Queries  —  The  "  Rounding"  System 

—  Passage  in  "  King  John  "  —  Burial  of  Living  Persons  — 
A  Crest  Query  —  Social  Illustrations  of  Sweden  and  Nor- 
way—Bell Founder's  Name  —  " Quid  levius  penna ?"  — 
Edmund  Parlett-  Unwritten  Books,  Ac.,  135. 


How  often  have  I  thought  of  Horace  Walpole 
when  opening,  volume  after  volume,  M.  Hachette's 
admirable  edition  of  Madame  de  Sevigne  !  What 
would  the  English  nobleman  say  if  he  could  only 
see  this  new  monument  raised  to  the  memory  of 
her  whom  he  called  Notre  Dame  de  Livry  ?  If 
he  could  enjoy  the  mutilated  prose  of  the  Cheva- 
lier de  Perrin,  find  charms  in  a  style  which  scru- 
pulous critics  and  commentators  had  corrected  (!) 
and  revised,  let  us  imagine  with  what  delight  he 
would  hail  these  handsome  octavos,  typographi- 
cally immaculate,  containing  the  text  of  the  im- 
mortal letters,  such  as  Madame  de  Sevigne  wrote 
them,  judiciously  illustrated  with  notes,  com- 
pleted oy  an  index,  and  introduced  by  a  biogra- 
phical preface  which  leaves  nothing  unsaid  that 
ought  to  be  said ! 

It  is  not  my  intention,  however,  to  go  through 
all  the  merits  of  this  edition.  I  must  not  forget 
that  English  literature  is  the  great  object  of 
41 N.  &  Q.,"  and  that  foreign  topics  should  be  dis- 
cussed here  only  so  far  as  they  are  connected  with 
the  belles  lettres,  politics,  history,  or  archaeology 
of  the  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland.  I  shall,  therefore,  limit  myself  to  a  few 
extracts  from  Madame  de  Sevigne's  correspon- 
dence bearing  upon  English  facts,  and  thus  give 

an  idea  of  the  information  which  that  work  can 
supply  on  characters  and  events  in  English 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  episodes  in  the 
annals  of  the  seventeenth  century  is  certainly  the 
Revolution,  which  ended  in/the  dethronement  of 
James  II.  It  affected  the  policy  of  France  to  a 
considerable  degree,  and  its  different  vicissitudes 
could  not  but  be  closely  watched  by  the  court  of 
Versailles.  We  find,  accordingly,  that  it  occupies 
a  prominent  place  in  Madame  Sevigne^s  amusing 
gossip,  and  from  letter  to  letter  we  can  watch  its 
progress :  — 

"  The  Prince  of  Orange  has  declared  himself  the  pro- 
tector of  the  religion  of  England,  and  he  asks  for  the 
young  prince  (James,  Prince  of  Wales,  born  June  20, 
1688)  in  order  to  bring  him  up  in  that  faith :  that  is  a 
very  serious  business.  Several  lords  have  gone  over  to 
him."— Letter  1069,  vol.  viii.  p.  199. 

On  October  13,  Madame  de  Sevigne',  who  had 
heard,  no  doubt,  of  the  intended  expedition  against 
the  king,  writes  thus  to  Madame  de  Grignan  :  — 

"  The  Prince  of  Orange,  it  is  hoped,  has  taken  false 
measures,  and  the  King  of  England  will  defeat  him 
thoroughly.  He  has  spoken  to  his  lords,  allowed  full 
liberty  to  those  who  are  well  disposed,  and  revived  the 
loyalty  of  the  faithful.  He  has  declared  absolute  freedom, 
of  conscience,  and  appointed  the  Count  de  Koye  to  com- 
mand his  cavalrv  ;  as  this  gentleman  is  a  good  Calvinist, 
the  English  are  satisfied."— Letter  1071,  viii.  206. 

We  may  notice  here,  that  Count  de  Roye  did 
not  accept  the  post  to  which  James  II.  had  ap- 
pointed him.  According  to  Dangeau  (Journal, 
Nov.  10,  1688),  "  il  s'en  est  excuse  sur  ce  que,  ne 
sachant  pas  1'anglois,  il  n'e"toit  pas  propre  a 
donner  des  ordres  a  cette  nation-la." 

The  storm  which  obliged  the  Prince  of  Orange 
to  defer  his  landing  appears  as  a  kind  of  favour- 
able omen ;  and  the  amiable  Marquise,  together 
with  her  friends  and  all  the  denizens  of  Versailles, 
hopes  to  the  end  on  behalf  of  James  II. :  — 

"  We  consider  that  the  Prince  of  Orange  has  lost  his 
masts.  The  drinking-water  which  he  had  on  board 
his  ships  is  spoilt.  Out  of  the  vessels  which  he  had 
sent  to  try  and  corrupt  a  part  of  the  English  fleet  — 
vessels  which  would  certainly  have  been  defeated  if  thev 
had  come  to  close  quarters — five  or  six  were  separatee! 
from  the  rest  by  the  wind'.  The  king  has  conciliated 
everybody  by  relaxing  a  little,  as  far  as  freedom  of  con- 
science is  concerned.  God  has  hitherto  protected  him." — 
Letter  1074  (Oct.  20),  viii.  216. 

"  It  is  believed  that  the  Prince  of  Orange  has  em- 
barked, but  the  wind  is  so  good  a  Catholic  that  hitherto 
the  fleet  has  not  been  able  to  set  sail.  The  prince,  it  is 
said,  is  accompanied  by  M.  de  Schomberg, — a  great  mis- 
fortune both  for  that  Marshal  and  for  ourselves." — Letter 
1082,  viii.  243. 

Madame  de  SeVigne"  refers  to  the  same  subject 
in  another  letter,  dated  November  5 :  — 

"  It  is  said  that  the  Prince  of  Orange  has  embarked, 
and  that  several  shots  have  been  heard;  but  the  same 
news  has  so  often  been  repeated  that  I  do  not  give  it  yet 
as  certain."— Letter  1084,  viii.  247. 



X.  AUG.  18,  '66. 

All  sorts  of  false  rumours  were  evidently  got 
up  by  those  who  felt  strongly  on  behalf  of  James 
II.,  and  who  persisted  in  hoping  against  hope. 

"  The  prince's  wife  is  a  Tullia.  She  has  empowered 
her  husband  to  take  possession  of  the  throne  of  England, 
which  it  is  said  is  her  inheritance  ;  and,  if  her  husband  is 
killed  (for  her  imagination  is  not  delicate),  M.  de  Schom- 
berg  has  received  authority  to  take  possession  in  her 
name.  What  do  you  think  of  a  hero  who  sullies  thus 
painfully  the  end  of  so  glorious  a  life  ?  He  saw  the  ship 
on  board  which  he  was  to  go  sink  before  his  eyes ;  and 
as  the  prince  and  he  went  last,  following  the  fleet  which 
was  under  sail  in  .the  most  beautiful  weather,  when  they 
saw  all  of  a  sudden  the  frightful  storm  burst  out,  they 
returned  to  port :  the  prince  suffering  much  from  his 
asthma,  and  M.  de  Schomberg  exceedingly  disappointed. 
Only  twenty-six  vessels  returned,  the  rest  having  been 
scattered  in  the  direction  of  either  Norway  or  Boulogne. 
M.  d'Aumond  (the  governor  of  Boulogne)  has  sent  a 
message  to  the  king,  stating  that  he  had  seen  ships  tossed 
about  by  the  wind,  and  a  few  wrecks.  A  small  ship 
containing  nine  hundred  men  perished  under  the  eyes  of 
the  Prince  of  Orange  (this  fact  is  contradicted  by'Dan- 
geau,  who  says,  in  a  note  to  his  journal :  "  Get  article  des 
neuf  cents  Anglois  ne  s'est  point  trouve  vrai").  Finally, 
the  hand  of  God  has  evidently  weighed  down  upon  this 
fleet."— Letter  1084  (Nov.  8),  viii.  249,  250. 

My  next  quotation  is  a  short  one  from  a  letter 
of  Bussy  Rabutin,  dated  Nov.  14.  It  is  curious 
as  having  been  erased  in  the  autograph  MS.,  no 
doubt  because  subsequent  events  contradicted  the 
statement  it  contains  :  — 

"  I  have  a  good  opinion  of  the  King  of  England  ;  he  is 
at  least  quite  as  brave  as  the  Prince  of  Orange,  and,  up 
to  the  present  time,  he  has  not  been  so  unfortunate." — 
Letter  1087,  viii.  259. 

The  Prince  of  Orange,  however,  had  landed 
safely  at  Torbay,  and  marched  upon  Exeter; 
where  he  entered  on  November  19,  and  where  he 
was  still  when  Madame  de  Sevigne  wrote  to  her 
daughter  a  letter,  from  which  we  quote  a  scrap  : — 

"  We  are  expecting  with  impatience  news  from  Eng- 
land. The  prince  has  landed ;  the  king's  army  is  con- 
siderable ;  hitherto  nothing  has  gone  wrong  with  him  :  if 
matters  continue  thus,  he  will  swallow  his  rash  enemy. 
We  fear  M.  de  Schomberg's  good  fortune  and  his  capa- 
city."— Letter  1093  (Nov.  26),  viii.  285. 

The  wretched  monarch  left  Salisbury  Decem- 
ber 4,  and  arrived  in  London  on  the  6th ;  his 
movements  affording  to  the  French  quidnuncs 
plenty  of  food  for  speculation. 

"  The  King  of  England  has  returned  to  London,  ap- 
parently abandoned  by  his  most  faithful  friends.  He  was 
suffering  from  a  severe  bleeding  of  the  nose.  If  he  had 
been  where  he  purposed  going,  they  would  have  delivered 
him  up  to  the  Prince  of  Orange.  'He  has  been  urged  to 
promise  a  free  parliament  for  next  month  :  many  people 
say  that  it  is  his  certain  ruin.  His  son-in-law,  the  Prince 
of  Denmark,  and  his  other  daughter,  who  is  another 
Tullia,  and  whom  I  call  La  Demoiselle  de  Danemark 
(allusion  to  the  old  romance  of  Amadis),  are  gone  to  meet 
that  scourge,  the  Prince  of  Orange.  It  is  said  that  the 
little  prince  is  not  at  Portsmouth,  where  people  thought 
he  was  besieged.  His  flight  will,  one  day,  form  a  fit  sub- 
ject for  a  novel.  No  one  doubts  but  that  the  king  will 
take  to  flight  likewise.  The  Prince  of  Orange  is  thus 

master  and  protector,  and  soon  something  worse,  unless 
a  miracle  happens." — Letter  1103,  viii.  324,  325. 

It  is  well  known  that  Lauzim,  who  had  incurred 
the  displeasure  of  Louis  XIV.  on  account  of  his 
affairs  with  Mademoiselle  de  Montpensier,  ren- 
dered the  greatest  assistance  to  James  II.  during 
the  few  days  which  immediately  preceded  that 
monarch's  escape  from  England.  Madame  de 
Sevign6  thus  alludes  to  the  circumstance  :  — 

"  No  one  speaks  of  any  thing  else  but  of  the  departure 
of  the  Queen  of  England.  She  has  begged  to  be  allowed 
to  breathe  a  little  at  Boulogne,  till  she  receives  news  of 
the  king  her  husband.  He  has  left  England,  nor  does 
anybody  know  where  he  is  gone.  The  king  has  sent  to 
that  queen  three  carriages,  sedan-chairs,  pages,  footmen, 
guards,  with  a  lieutenant  and  some  officers.  M.  de  Lau- 
zun  must  be  delighted  with  this  adventure,  in  which  he 
has  displayed  spirit,  judgment,  diligence,  and  courage ; 
and  finally,  he  has  found  the  way  of  taking  the  road  to 
Versailles  by  passing  through  London."  —  Letter  1112, 
viii.  359. 

Proper  names  are  often  sadly  misspelt  in  Ma- 
dame de  Sevigne's  letters. 

"  The  King  of  England,  it  is  said,  has  been  taken  whilst 
attempting  to  escape  :  he  is  at  Vittal — I  cannot  write 
that  name  (some  editions  give  Viltal,  Vital,  Witheal, 
WithalT).  He  has  his  captain  of  the  guards,  his  guards, 
lords  at  his  levee,  in  short  a  great  many  honours ;  but 
he  is  closely  watched.  The  Prince  of  Orange  is  on 
the  other  side  of  the  garden,  at  Saint-Jem  (St.  Jems  in 
one  edition).  The  parliament  will  be  held.  May  God 
guide  that  ship!  The  Queen  of  England  will  be  here 
Wednesday."— Letter  1116,  viii.  380. 

The  conduct  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  compelled 
the  French  royalists  to  alter  the  opinion  they  had 
conceived  of  him :  — 

"  As  for  the  flight  of  the  king,  it  seems  that  the  Prince 
of  Orange  wished  it.  He  sent  him  to  Exeter,  where  he 
wanted  him  to  go.  The  front  of  the  house  was  closely 
guarded,  but  all  the  back  doors  wide  open.  The  prince 
would  not  cause  the  death  of  his  father-in-law.  He  is  in 
London  in  the  place  of  the  king,  and  without  assuming 
the  title.  He  only  wants  to  re-establish  the  religion 
which  he  believes  to  be  good,  and  to  maintain  the  laws  of 
the  kingdom,  without  shedding  a  drop  of  blood.  That  is 
just  the  opposite  of  what  we  thought  he  would  do  ;  the 
points  of  view  are  very  different.  In  the  meanwhile,  the 
king  does  for  these  English  majesties  wonderful  things.  .  . 
He  went  to  meet  the  queen  with  all  his  household,  and  a 
hundred  carriages  with  six  horses  each.  When  he  per- 
ceived the  carriage  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  he  alighted 
from  his  own,  and  would  not  allow  the  child — who,  it  is 
said,  is  as  beautiful  as  an  angel — to  get  out ;  but  went  to 
him,  and  kissed  him  affectionately.  He  then  ran  to  meet 
the  queen,  who  had  alighted :  he  saluted  her,  spoke  to  her 
for  some  time,  placed  her  at  his  right  hand  in  his  car- 
riage, and  introduced  to.  her  Monseigneur  and  Monsieur, 
who  were  likewise  in  the  same  carriage.  He  then  took 
her  to  Saint-Germain,  where  she  found  herself  provided 
for  exactly  as  the  queen,  with  all  sorts  of  wearing  ap- 
parel, and  a  very  rich  casket  containing  six  thousand 
'louis  d'or.  The  next  day,  the  King  of  England  was  to 
arrive :  his  majesty  waited  for  him  at  Saint-Germain. 
He  (James  II.)  arrived  late,  because  he  came  from  Ver- 
sailles. The  king  went  to  meet  him  as  far  as  the  ex- 
tremity of  the  guard-room.  The  King  of  England  stooped 
much,  as  if  he  had  wished  to  embrace  his  majesty's 

3rd  S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66.] 



knees  :  the  king  prevented  him  from  doing  so,  and  em- 
braced him  three  or  four  times  very  cordially.  They 
spoke  together  in  a  low  tone  of  voice 'for  a  quarter  of  an 
hour.  The  king  introduced  Monseigneur,  Monsieur,  the 
princes  of  the  blood,  and  Cardinal  de  Bonzi.  He  then 
took  James  II.  to  the  queen,  who  had  some  difficulty  to 
restrain  her  tears.  They  talked  together  for  some  time, 
then  they  all  went  to  see  the  Prince  of  Wales,  in  whose 
room  they  stopped  a  few  minutes.  The  king  then  left 
them,  saying :  '  This  is  your  house ;  when  I  come  you 
will  do  me  the  honours  of  it,  and  I  shall  do  you  the 
honours  of  Versailles  when  you  come.' " — Letter  1121, 
viii.  397—400. 

Now  that  we  have  fairly  installs  James  II. 
under  the  protection  of  Le  Grand  Monarque,  we 
shall  take  leave  both  of  him  and,  for  the  present, 
of  our  amusing  gossip — Madame  de  Sevigne". 



Some  very  curious  and  interesting  information 
as  to  the  character  and  habits  of  the  vagrant  class 
is  to  be  found  in  the  reports  made  to  the  President 
of  the  Poor  Law  Board  by  the  Inspectors,  re- 
cently laid  before  Parliament.  It-  seems  that  the 
walls  and  doors  of  the  vagrant  wards  of  many 
workhouses  contain  frequent  notices  of  visits  made 
by  "cadgers,"  and  information  for  the  guidance  of 
their  "  pals."  Some  of  these  I  have  culled  for  the 
amusement  of  your  readers. 

The  bad  character  of  Congleton  Workhouse, 
near  Sandbach,  is  thus  recorded :  — 

"  Oh,  Sandbach,  thou  art  no  catch, 
For  like  heavy  bread,  a  damned  bad  batch, 
A  nice  new  suit  for  all  tear-ups, 
And  stones  to  crack  for  refractory  pups." 

Seisdon  Union,  at  Trysull,  is  in  better  odour  — 

*  Dry  bread  in  the  morning,  ditto  at  night, 
Keep  up  your  pecker  and  make  it  all  right. 
Certainly  the  meals  are  paltry  and  mean, 
But  the  beds  are  nice  and  clean  ; 
Men,  don't  tear  these  beds,  sheets,  or  rugs, 
For  there  are  neither  lice,  fleas,  or  bugs 
At  this  little  clean  union  at  Trysull. 
But  still  at  this  place  there  is  a  drawback, 
And  now  I  will  put  you  on  the  right  track, 
For  I  would  as  soon  lodge  here  as  in  Piccadilly, 
If  along  with  the  bread  they  gave  a  drop  of  skilly, 
At  this  little  clean  union  at  Trysull. 
So  I  tell  you  again,  treat  this  place  with  respect, 
And  instead  of  abusing,  pray  do  it  protect, 
For  to  lodge  here  one  night  is  certainly  a  treat, 
At  this  little  clean  union  at  Trysull." " 

The  writer  of  the  above  is  one  "Bow  Street," 
who  would  appear  to  be  the  Laureate  of  the 
Cadger  tribe.  Here  are  some  further  effusions  of 
Ins:  — 

"  Stafford,  land  of  wax  and  lapstones, 

Heel-balls,  wax,  and  leather  ; 
Where  the  broth  is  made  of  bones, 
Where  the  cobblers  face  all  weather, 

Where  the  stove  is  seldom  lighted, 
Where  the  rugs  are  daily  boxed, 

Where  the  tramps  are  daily  righted, 
And  out  of  their  grub  are  foxed." 

Another  record  of  his  Staffordshire  experience  : 
"  My  unfortunate  friends,  pray  look  around, 
And  tell  me  for  what  this  place  is  renowned  ; 
The  room  is  large,  but  the  windows  are  small, 
But  that  don't  much  matter  at  all  at  all. 
A  pint  of  skilly  for  your  supper  you  drink, 
But  of  sleep  you  cannot  get  a  wink. 
You  may  lay  on  the  boards  or  the  chilly  floor, 
About  as  warm  as  a  North  American  shore. 
The  old  bed  is  full  of  fleas  all  alive : 
I  killed  in  number  about  five  times  five. 
They  are  not  poor,  but  all  thorough-bred, 
And  before  morning  }rou  will  wish  they  were  all  deacl ; 
And  bj'  this  and  by  that  it  plainly  is  clear, 
This  is  the  worst  relief  in  all  Staffordshire." 

After  a  visit  probably  to  the  neighbouring  gaol 
of  Stafford,  "  Bow  Street/'  who  has  studied  Tom 
Hood,  thus  upon  the  walls  of  the  Tramp  Ward  of 
Newport  Union,  records  his  impression  of — 

"  A  Prison. 
u  No  sun,  no  moon, 
No  morn,  no  noon, 
No  sky,  no  earthly  blue, 
No  distant  looking  view, 
No  road,  no  street, 
No  t'other  side  the  way, 
No  dawn,  no  dark, 
No  proper  time  of  day, 
No  end  to  any  row, 
No  top  to  any  steeple, 
No  indication  where  to  go, 
No  sight  of  familiar  people, 
No  cheerfulness,  no  healthy  ease, 
No  butterflies, 
Nor  yet  no  bees." 

I  must  reserve  for  a  future  Number  specimens 
of  the  different  notices.  PHILIP  S.  KING. 


Amongst  the  most  distinguished  of  the  colo- 
nists who  took  up  arms  against  Britain  was  Wil- 
liam, Earl  of  Stirling.  We  give  him  the  title 
as  he  always  retained  it,  and  because  de  jure 
he  had  established,  according  to  the  forms  au- 
thorised by  the  law  of  Scotland,  his  right  to  the 
dignity  by  service  as  the  collateral  heir  male  of 
the  first  earl,  in  whose  charters  of  creation  there 
was  a  remainder  to  heirs  male  whatsoever. 

A  short  time  ago  I  found  his  lordship  as  a 
"Rebel  Chief  "  introduced  as  one  of  the  dramatis 
persona  in  — 

"  The  Battle  of  Brooklyn  :  a  Farce  of  Two  Acts  as  it 
was  performed  at  Long"  Island  on  Tuesday  the  27th  of 
August,  1776,  by  the  Representatives  of  the  Tyrants  of 
America  assembled  at  Philadelphia.  Edin.  1776." 

This  drama,  which  is  not  noticed  in  the  Biogra- 
phia  Dramatica,  appears  to  have  been  privately 



S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66. 

The  earl  is  represented  as  remarkably  fond  of 
"brandy.  He  is  made  throughout  a  sort  of  Merry 
Andrew  addicted  to  all  sorts  of  vice,  accusations 
which  naturally  create  a  belief  that  the  author 
had  some  private  pique  against  the  noble  lord. 
It  is  remarkable  that  nothing  is  said  derogatory 
to  the  character  of  Washington,  another  leading 
person  of  the  drama,  and  who,  as  commander  of  the 
revolutionists,  might  be  expected  to  have  been 
severely  dealt  with.  Is  anything  known  about 
this  singular  "farce,"  which  is  not  without  a  cer- 
tain degree  of  cleverness. 

Lord  Stirling,  who  had  established  his  propin- 
quity by  service  in  the  spring  of  1759,  according 
to  the  Scotish  forms  of  proceedings,  expected  to 
have  had  his  title  recognised  by  government. 
Indeed,  had  his  case  occurred  before  the  Union, 
there  can  hardly  be  a  question  that  his  peerage 
would  have  been  recognised.  His  lordship  hesi- 
tated to  prosecute  his  claims  before  a  committee 
of  privileges,  as  he  was  apprehensive  that  govern- 
ment would  throw  obstacles  in  the  way  of  de- 
mands which  might  have  arisen  had  his  title  been 

It  was,  therefore,  not  to  be  wondered  at  that 
the  earl  took  no  steps  under  the  remit  from  the 
Crown  to  the  House  of  Lords,  May  2,  1759  j  and 
that  upon  the  order  subsequently  issued  to  lay 
down  the  title,  of  March  10, 1762,  he  renounced 
all  connection  with  the  country  of  his  origin,  and 
ultimately  took  up  arms  for  the  insurgents. 

An  interesting  life  of  Lord  Stirling  was  pub- 
lished for  the  New  Jersey  Historical  Society  in 
1847,  written  by  his  grandson,  William  Alexan- 
der Btier,  LL.D.,  containing  selections  from  the 
earl's  correspondence.  As  his  lordship  left  no 
sons,  the  title  in  this  line  of  the  Alexanders  has 
failed.  It  is  still  open  to  any  collateral  heir  male 
proving  his  pedigree  to  claim  the  honours.  Had 
matters  been  adjusted  by  the  Crown  with  the 
American  earl  as  to  the  rights  arising  out  of  the 
peculiar  terms  of  the  original  royal  charters  to  the 
old  earls,  it  may  be  presumed  that  the  demands 
made  by  the  person  claiming  at  present  the  earl- 
dom of  Stirling  would  never  have  been  heard  of. 
J.  M. 

FREE  PUBLIC  LIBRARIES. — In  Triibner's  Ame- 
rican and  Oriental  Literary  Record,  dated  July  2, 
1866,  I  find  the  following :  — 

"  Until  the  passing  of  Mr.  Ewart's  Act  in  1850,  for  en- 
abling town  councils  to  establish  public  libraries  and 
museums,  England  had  the  unhappy  pre-eminence  of 
being  without  a  single  strictly  free  public  library." 

^  This  statement  is  entirely  destitute  of  founda- 
tion. The  Chetham  Library  was  established  in 
1655  as  a  free  public  library,  having  been  founded 
by  Humphrey  Chetham,  a  Manchester  merchant, 
and  endowed  with  a  sum  of  money  which  was 
invested  in  real  property,  now  amounting  to  about 

6007.  per  annum  ;  and  has  continued  so  ever  since, 
being  the  first  free  public  library  in  the  British 
Empire,  and,  as  far  as  my  inquiries  have  ascer- 
tained, the  first  in  Europe. 


"  What's  not  destroyed  by  Time's  unsparing  hand  ? 
Where's  Troy  ?   and    where's  the    Maypole    in    the 
Strand  ?  "—Art  of  Politics. 

I  was  lately  much  amused,  while  reading  Wil- 
son's Memoirs  of  Defoe,  by  the  remarks  of  the 
latter  on  Maypoles.  He  says  :  — 

"  Immediately  on  the  Restoration,  one  of  the  first  de- 
monstrations the  people  gave  of  the  liberty  they  enjoyed, 
in  all  manner  of  excesses,  was  the  erecting  of  Maypoles 
all  over  the  kingdom.  What  riot  and  revelling  ensued 
is  a  melancholy  tale,  and  I  choose  rather  to  bury  than 
revive  the  memory  of  it.  I  am  far  from  arguing  against 
innocent  diversions  and  the  ordinary  sports  and  pastimes 
of  the  people ;  recreations  are,  without  doubt,  as  lawful 
in  themselves  as  labours,  and  in  some  cases  as  useful; 
but  the  Maypole  recreation  was  generally  the  excursions 
of  the  flagon.  I  omit  very  willingly  the  profaneness  of 
its  original,  and  believe  the  country  lads  and  lasses  may 
as  innocently  dance  around  a  Maypole  as  anywhere 
else  ;  but  the*  objection  is  that,  when  the  extravagances 
of  church  exultation  appear,  they  generally  show  them- 
selves in  giving  a  greater  swing  to  immorality  than  any 
other  people  ;  rather  prompting  vice  than  conniving  at  an 
innocent  diversion." — Life  and  Memoirs  of  Defoe,  vol.  L 
p.  36. 

In  the  above,  Defoe  slightly  glances  at  the 
Pagan  origin  of  Maypoles,  and  at  the  emblematic 
worship  supposed  to  have  been  connected  with 
them.  Those  who  have  any  curiosity  on  this 
point  may  consult  the  Celtic  Druids,  by  Godfrey 
Higgins,  Esq.  Defoe  forgets  that  there  were 
originally  Maypoles  all  over  the  kingdom  till  they 
were  pulled  down  by  the  Puritans. 

A  lofty  Maypole  formerly  stood  at  Hurstbourne 
Tarrant/  near  Andover,  but  whether  it  is  there 
now  I  do  not  know.  W.  D. 

REV.  THOMAS  WAGSTAFFE. — It  is  not,  I  think, 
generally  known  that  the  Chevalier  de  St.  George 
and  his  son  Charles  Edward  maintained  a  Church 
of  England  chaplain  at  their  court.  The  object 
probably  was  to  satisfy  their  supporters,  who  were 
not  of  their  own  faith,  that  they  had  no  hostility 
to  the  church  of  this  country.  The  following* 
passage  occurs  in  Nichols'  Literary  Anecdotes, 
vol.  i.  p.  36 :  — 

"Dec.  3,  1770,  died  at  Rome,  in  the  78th  year  of  his 
age,  the  Kev.  Mr.  Thomas  Wagstaffe,  a  clergyman  of 
the  Church  of  England.  He  had  resided  there  many 
years  in  the  character  of  Protestant  chaplain  to  the  Che- 
valier de  St.  George,  and  afterward  to  his  son ;  a  fine,, 
well-bred  old  gentleman,  and  what  is  still  infinitely  more 
valuable,  a  sincere,  pious,  exemplary,  good  Christian,  so- 
conspicuously  so,  that  the  people  there  were  wont  to  say, 
'  Had  he  not  been  a  heretic,  he  ought  to  be  canonized ! ' 
Besides  this,  he  was  well  known  among  the  literati  of 
that  great  city,  to  be  an  universal  scholar,  both  in  the 
Belles  Lettres  and  Divinity,  being  a  perfect  master  of  the 
keys  of  knowledge  to  those  sciences,  the  antient  and 

3«*  S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66.] 



modern  languages,  being  conversant  (besides  his  own 
mother  tongue)  in  Hebrew,  Chaldee,  Arabic,  Greek,  Latin, 
Italian,  and  French." 

Mr.  Wagstaffe  was  the  son  of  a  clergyman  of 
the  same  Christian  name,  who  refused  to  take  the 
oaths  at  the  [Revolution,  and  who  was  consequently 
ejected  from  his  preferments;  and  was  in  1693 
consecrated  suffragan  Bishop  of  Thetford  by 
Lloyd,  Turner,  and  White,  the  deprived  Bishops 
of  Norwich,  Ely,  and  Peterborough.  H.  P.  D. 

WEATHER  AND  HEALTH  NOTES. — The  following 
have  been  sent  me  from  an  old  MS.  The  last  is  a 
very  pretty  sentiment :  — 

"  If  in  the  fall  of  the  Leaf  in  October  many  of  them 
wither  on  the  Bows  and  hang  there,  it  betokens  a  Frosty 
Winter  with  much  Snow.  If  the  year  enters  on  Monday, 
it  is  observed  that  the  Winter  will  be  mild,  not  afflicted 
with  sharp  Frosts,  or  black  Winds ;  yet  somewhat  rainy, 
so  that  great  overflowings  shall  happen  and  much  harm 
be  done  by  Floods.  The  Summer,  however,  shall  be  tem- 
perate, but  Blasts  in  the  Spring,  and  Caterpillars  (brought 
with  the  East  Wind)  much  spoil  the  Fruits  of  the  Earth  : 
many  Shipwrecks  will  be  heard  of,  and  some  great  Men 
promoted  to  Higher  Dignities  and  Honours  for  their  good 
Services.  And  this  year  more  Women  will  Die  than 
Men.  Pasture  will  be  scarce,  yet  plenty  of  Corn  and 
provisions  reasonably  cheap  enough." 

"  The  dews  of  the  evening  industriously  shun, 
They're  the  tears  of  the  skv  for  the  loss  of  the  sun." 

A.  A, 

Poets'  Corner. 

ANCIENT  SUPERSTITION.  —  The  superstition  to 
which  the  following  paragraph  refers  is  common, 
I  believe,  to  all  parts  of  England,  but  a  sore 
tongue,  arisingfrom  whatever  cause,  is  considered  a 
punishment  for  some  falsehood  uttered.  It  is  quite 
possible  that  a  matter  of  such  general  knowledge 
may  have  been  noticed  in  "  N.  &  Q.,"  but  I  do  not 
recollect  it :  — 

"  Probably  it  is  not  known  to  all,  and  therefore  may  be 
somewhat  interesting  to  many,  to  know  the  origin  of  a 
well  known,  though,  perhaps,  not  a  very  credible  saying 
at  the  present,  day — namely,  that  if  a  little  white  pimple 
appears  on  the  tip  of  the  tongue,  *  You  are  guilty  of  a 
falsehood.'  This  is  a  very  ancient  superstition,  and  was 
regarded,  indeed,  by  the  ancients,  as  a  punishment  in- 
flicted on  them  by  the  gods  for  perjury,  theft,  and  all  false- 
hoods. The  phrase  is  found  quite  as  a  common  one  in 
books  written  B.C.  270.  Swellings  on  the  nose  were  also 
looked  upon  as  punishments  for  similar  offences.' 


PROPER  NAMES. — The  number  of  distinguished 
names  which  circumstances  lead  to  float  in  the 
newspapers  of  the  present  day  has  brought  me  to 
notice  the  curious  uncertainty  that  attends  their 
popular  pronunciation.  Some  are  abbreviated,  and 
some  are  spoken  with  a  difference  so  as  to  be 
hardly  recognisable :  thus  we  have  Chumly  and 
Marchbanks  for  Cholmondely  and  Marjoribanks. 
Then  for  Villiers  it  may  be  Vil-yers  or  Villars  j 
for  Burghley,  Burly  or  Burghly;  for  Cowper, 
Cooper  or  Cow-per ;  for  Willes,  Wills  or  Will- 
is; for  Forbes,  For-bis,  or  Forbs;  for  Annesley, 

Annesley  or  Annsly;  for  Malcolm,  Mafco/m  or 
Mackum;  for  Anstruther,  Anster,  &c.  &c.  We 
have  not  yet  settled  whether  it  should  be  B3r-ron 
or  Be-ron.  BUSHEY  HEATH. 

anxious  to  recover  the  words  of  an  old  song  written 
against  the  inclosure  of  commons.     It  was  very 
popular   here  at  the   beginning  of  this  century. 
The  following  fragments  are  all  I  ever  heard  :  — 
"  The  lawyer  he  up  to  London  is  gone 
To  get  the  act  passed  before  he  return. 

But  now  the  commons  are  ta'en  in, 

The  cottages  pulled  down, 
And  Moggy's  got  na  wool  to  spin 
Her  Lindsey-woolsey  gown." 

Bottesford  Manor,  Brigg. 

DR.  BIRKET.  —  Lord  Bacon  is  reported  to  have 
said  in  "a  letter  of  advice  to  the  Earl  of  Essex  " — 

"  These  advertisements  which  your  Lordship  imparted 
to  me,  and  the  like,  I  hold  to  be  no  more  certain  to  make 
judgment  upon  than  a  patient's  water  to  a  physician, 
therefore  for  me  upon  one  water  to  make  a  judgment 
were  indeed  like  a  foolish  bold  mountebank,  or  Dr. 
Birket."  * 

Who  was  Dr.  Birket?  D. 

JOHN  BULL. — The  following  lines  seem  to  have 
been  written  about  the  time  of  the  short  peace, 
sixty  years  ago.  Is  the  author  known?  —  •  ^ 

"  JOHN   BULL. 

"  Are  the  troubles  of  Johnny  Bull  never  to  cease  ? 
First  he's  ruined  by  war,  then  he's  ruined  by  peace. 
Wherever  he  turns,  in  his  front  or  his  rear, 
A  foe  or  a  budget  will  always  appear ; 
And,  Sisyphus  like,  as  he  toils  up  the  hill, 
The  weight  of  his  burden  precipitates  still. 
Of  something  or  other  he's  always  afraid  : 
Now  he  fears  for  his  cash,  now  he  fears  for  his  trade ; 
He  fears  for  the  state,  if  provisions  are  dear ; 
If  cheap,  for  the  land  and  the  farmers  his  fear. 
He  fears  for  the  Catholic  question ;  the  Church 
May  be  swallow'd  up  quick,  or  be  left  in  the  lurch  ; 
And  'tis  only  when  danger  assaults  him  too  near. 
That  he  ceases  to  grumble,  and  ceases  to  fear." 

A.  A. 
Poets'  Corner. 

CLIFTON  OF  CLIFTON,  NOTTS.  —  The  testament 
dative  of  Sir  Gervase  Clifton  of  Clifton  is  regis- 
tered in  the  Commissary  Kegister  of  Edinburgh, 
Sept.  8,  1735,  the  cautioner  being  William  Clif- 
ton, Solicitor  of  Excise  there.  In  1750,  the  testa- 
ment dative  of  David  Clifton,  son  of  the  above 
William,  is  registered,  in  which  is  mentioned  his 
brother  William,  "  minister  of  the  Gospel  at  Not- 

*  The  Letters  and  the  Life  of  Francis  Bacon,  by  James 
Spedding,  ii.  98.  When  will  this  most  interesting  and 
important  work  be  continued  ? 



[3«-a  S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66. 

These  facts  seem  to  prove  that  these  Cliftons 
(see  3rd  S.  vii.  257,  and  3rd  S.  yiii.  39)  were  near 
cadets  of  the  family  of  Sir  Gervase.  Can  any  of 
your  Nottinghamshire  genealogical  readers  help 
me  to  the  pedigree  ?  Thoroton's  Notts  gives  but 
a  meagre  pedigree  of  the  family,  and  moreover  has 
no  William  Clifton  amongst  the  lists  of  incum- 
bents of  the  various  churches  in  Nottingham. 

£.  M.  S. 

CURE  FOR  ANTS.  —  Perhaps  you  will  allow  me 
•to  make  inquiry,  through  the  columns  of  your  useful 
publication,  if  any  of  your  numerous  readers  can 
suggest  a  remedy  against  the  plague  of  ants.  I 
live  in  the  wide  part  of  Sussex  Gardens,  Hyde 
Park,  and  during  the  summer  months  the  base- 
ment storey  of  my  house  is  infested  everywhere 
by  myriads  of  small  red  ants  !  To  keep  any  food 
in  the  larder  is  impossible,  and,  were  it  not  for  a 
large  ice-box  which  is  used,  I  should  be  badly  off 
as  to  daily  rations,  as  I  am  not  an  ant-eater  or  ant- 
catcher.  My  servants  have  tried  tar,  turpentine, 
boiling  water,  but  "  the  cry  is  still,  They  come !  " 
What  is  to  be  done  ?  The  soil  is  gravel  and  sand. 


BERWENTWATER  ESTATES.  —  Can  any  of  your 
correspondents  inform  me  in  what  year  and  in 
what  manner  the  Wilston  and  Langley  Castle 
estates  (in  Northumberland)  came  into  the  pos- 
session of  the  Derwentwater  family  ?  J.  W.  T. 

DIOCESS. — Can  any  correspondent  of  "  N.  &  Q." 
•suggest  any  reason  why  The  Times  newspaper 
spells  the  word  diocese  —  "diocess"?  Thus,  I 
find:  — 

"  Diocess  of  York. — The  Archbishop  of  York  has  ad- 
mitted the  following  gentlemen  to  appointments  in  his 
diocess."  —  The  Times,  Friday,  August  10,  1866,  p.  8, 

This  question  has  been  twice  started  in  The 
Saturday  Review,  but  no  solution  was  attempted, 
it  being  given  up  as  hopeless.  Can  any  one  say 
whence,  or  why,  or  how  it  arose ;  and  why  it  is 
so  carefully  persisted  in?  Can  any  instance  of 
this  spelling  be  adduced  from  any  known  author  ? 

FAMILY  or  JOHN  BUNCOMBE. — Can  any  of  your 
many  readers  assist  me  in  tracing  the  descent  of 
John  Buncombe,  the  Civil  Engineer,  1740—1810, 
who  was  associated  with  Telford  in  the  construc- 
tion of  the  Ellesmere  canal,  &c. ;  made  surveys 
for  the  Highland  roads,  and  published  several 
scientific  works,  amongst  others  a  Treatise  upon 
the  Dendrometer  (Lond.  1769  and  1771,  8vo),— an 
instrument  for  measuring  trees,  of  which  he  was 
the  inventor  ? 

He  is  reputed  to  be  descended  from  the  old 
family  at  Barley  End,  Buckinghamshire,  but  I 
cannot  find  his  name  in  any  of  the  printed  pedi- 
grees. G.  F.  B. 

GAINSBOROUGH. — Mr.  North,  in  his  interesting 
Chronicle  of  the  Church  of  St.  Martin  in  Leicester, 
pp.  173,  174,  informs  us  that  a  place  of  confine- 
ment in  the  south-east  part  of  the  market-place 
at  Leicester,  which  consisted  of  an  underground 
dungeon,  and  shops  on  the  ground  floor  with  a 
chamber  over  them  wherein  the  justices  met,  was 
called  the  ic  Gainsborough  "  or  "  Genensbrowe." 

What  is  the  meaning  of  this  term,  and  from 
what  is  it  derived  ?  EDWARD  PEACOCK. 

JOHN  BRIGHT,  M.P.).— The  late  Professor  Aytoun 
published  in  one  of  the  daily  London  papers,  to- 
wards the  close  of  1861,  a  poetical  jeu  d1  esprit  on 
the  occasion  of  the  Messrs.  Bright  of  Cronkey- 
shaw  reducing  the  wages  of  their  carpet-weavers. 
A  reference  to  it  will  greatly  oblige.  INQUIRER. 

HISTORICAL  PICTURE. — Permit  me  to  inform 
you  that  I  have  had  in  my  possession,  for  the  last 
six  years,  an  ancient  painting,  representing  the 
following  historical  event :  — 

"  Le  comte  Welf  d'Althorp,  frere  de  Henri-le-Superbe, 
combattait  toujours  centre  la  maison  d'Autriche,  et  non 
sans  succes.  Mais  ayant  ose,  en  1140,  se  mesurer  avec 
Pempereur  lui-meme,  aupres  de  Weinsberg,  il  fut  com- 
pletement  battu.  C'est  dans  cette  bataille  qu'on  entendit 
pour  la  premiere  fois  le  nom  de  Welfs  et  de  Gibelins 
comme  noms  de  partis ;  car  le  cri  de  guerre  des  deux 
cotes  fut :  Welfs !  Weiblingen !  Apres  la  bataille,  la 
ville  de  Weinsberg,  assiegee  deja  depuis  longtemps,  fut 
obligee  de  se  rendre.  L'empereur,  irrite  de  la  longue 
re'sistance  de  cette  ville,  avait  resolu  de  la  mettre  &  feu  et 
a  sang ;  cependant,  il  permit  aux  femmes  de  cette  ville  de 
sortir  auparavant,  et  d'emporter  avec  elles  leur  plus  chers 
bijoux.  Alors,  au  point  du  jour,  quand  les  portes  furent 
ouvertes,  on  vit  de  longues  lignes  de  femmes  qui  sortaient 
emportant  chacun  sur  leurs  epaules,  soit  leur  mari,  soit 
tout  autre  parent  qui  leur  etait  cher.  Ce  spectacle  toucha 
1'empereur  a  un  tel  point  qu'il  pardonna  non  settlement 
aux  hommes,  mais  &  la  ville  entiere." 

This  extract  is  from  the  — 

"  Histoire  d'Allemagne,  depuis  les  temps  les  plus  re- 
cule's  jusqu'k  Pannee  1838.  Par  Kohlrausch,  ancien 
professeur,  inspecteur-ge'neral  de  toutes  les  ecoles  supe'- 
rieures  du  royaume  de  Hanovre.  Traduit  de  PAllemand 
sur  la  onzieme  edition  par  A.  Guinefolle,"  vol.  i.  p.  395. 

Can  you,  or  any  of  the  readers  of  "N.  &  Q.," 
give  me  any  information  upon  the  subject,  as  to 
who  the  painter  might  be,  and  the  time  when 
painted  ?  Apparently,  the  painting  is  of  an  an- 
cient date,  and  exhibits  the  hand  of  a  master. 

The  picture  can  be  seen  at  my  house  any  day 
between  ten  and  five.  W.  S.  PROBERT. 

129,  Tottenham  Court  Road. 

cently perusing  some  legal  documents  from  the 
United  States  of  Colombia  (better  known  as  New 
Granada),  I  found  it  certified  of  two  persons, 
who  had  taken  a  certain  oath,  that  "  the  former 
made  oath  by  God  our  Lord,  and  a  sign  of  the 

3*d  S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66.] 



cross,  and  the  latter  by  God  and  his  word  of 
honour"  :  — 

"  El  primero  por  Dios  nuestro  Senor,  i  una  seHal  de 
Cruz,  i  el  segundo  por  Dios,  i  su  palabra  de  honor." 

The  name  of  the  second  of  these  persons 
(Blum),  is  a  German  one.  Is  the  second  form  of 
oath  a  Protestant  one,  usual  in  Germany  ? 


41,  Bedford  Square. 

I  shall  feel  obliged  for  any  information  respecting 
Peter  Pett,  master-shipwright  to  Deptford  Yard 
for  twenty-three  years,  who  died  in  1652.  Fisher 
Harding,  Esq.,  master-shipwright  of  the  Royal 
Yard  at  Harwich  during  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne, 
and  who  married  Catherine,  daughter  of  Sir  Lionel 
Walden,  of  Huntingdonshire  (no  date  of  death 
given  on  monument).  And  John  Hughes,  A.M.,  of 
Jesus  College,  Cambridge,  who  died  Nov.  1710, 
and  who  all  lie  buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas, 
Deptford.  ESTEFORT. 

QUOTATIONS  WANTED. — From  whence  comes  the 
following  ?  — 

"  Rusticus  es ;  Justus  esto  :  beatus  eris. 
Philosophus  Varro,  Petrus  Piscator ;  et  ecce 
Philosophus  cinis  est ;  nomen  inane  manet." 

K.  P.  D.  E. 

Who  is  the  author  of  the  following  quotation  ? 
It  occurs  in  Mores  Catholici,  vol.  iii.  p.  482  :  — 
"  Not  of  these  days,  but  long  ago  'twas  told 
~By  a  cavern  wind  unto  a  forest  old." 

A.O.  V.  P. 

STRAND  MAYPOLE.  —  How  is  this  passage  ex- 
plained? In  what  possible  way  can  a  Maypole 
(even  if  built  up  like  mast  and  topmast)  be  useful 
for  an  observatory  ?  — 

"  The  new  church  in  the  Strand,  1712,  being  built,  the 
aforesaid  memorable  May -pole,  reckoned  somewhat  in- 
commodious, standing  near  the  West  thereof,  was  bought 
by  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  Knight,  the  great  mathematician, 
and  Ap.  1718,  carried  on  a  carriage  unto  Wansted,  to  the 
Rector,  Mr.  Pound,  who  obtained  leave  of  Sir  Richard 
Child  (now  Lord  Castlemain)  to  set  it  up  in  his  Park  at 
Wansted  House,  in  a  place  of  advantage,  for  the  better 
use  of  a  fine  telescope  to  be  raised  on  it,  which  is  125  foot 
long,  and  was  given  to  the  Royal  Society  by  Mons. 
Hugon,  a  member  thereof." — Stow's  London,  vol.  ii. 
book  iv.  p.  106,  ed.  1720. 


To  WHOM  DID  SORREL  BELONG  ? — In  3rd  S.  ix. 
258  of  "N.  &  Q.,"  it  is  stated  that  William  III. 
broke  his  collar-bone  whilst  riding  on  the  favourite 
sorrel  pony  of  the  unfortunate  Sir  John  Fenwick. 
Sir  Walter  Scott,  who  was  generally  very  accu- 
rate on  such  points,  says,  in  Redgauntlet,  "  he  had 
adopted  the  party  opinion,  that  the  monarch,  on 
the  day  he  had  his  fatal  accident,  rode  upon  a 
horse  once  the  property  of  the  unfortunate  Sir 
John  Friend."  Is  there  good  authority  for  the 
belief  that  the  horse  belonged  to  either  of  these 

gentlemen;  and,  if  so,  to  which  of  them?  Sir 
Walter  implies  that  the  story  was  an  invention  of 
William's  enemies  rather  than  a  fact.  Sorrel  was 
certainly  toasted  and  praised  in  song  by  the  Jaco- 
bites, and  they  were  pleased  to  think  that  the 
cause  of  the  usurper's  death  was  connected  with- 
his  crime.  That  such  was  the  case  I  have  always 
devoutly  held  as  a  pious  opinion,  but  I  should 
like  to  have  some  contemporary  authority  of 
weight  for  the  truth  of  it,  if  such  exist. 

H.  P.  D. 

Being  now  at  work  at  a  new  edition  of  the  poem 
best  known  as  Piers  Plowman,  I  venture  to  appeal 
to  the  readers  of  "N.  &  Q.,"  for  the  love  of  their 
mother  tongue,  to  aid  me  generously  in  this 
matter.  The  poem  contains  many  Latin  quota- 
tions which  are  still  untraced,  and  Whitaker's 
edition  of  it  (which,  by  the  way,  has  many  mis- 
prints) abounds  in  most  interesting  old  English 
words,  which  he  has  left  mostly  unexplained.  I 
am  convinced  there  is  many  a  student  who  has 
made  copious  notes  on  many  a  point,  theological, 
philological,  and  historical,  connected  with  this 
poem,  which  are  far  too  important  to  be  ignored. 
The  present  is,  I  hope,  my  opportunity  for  secur- 
ing some  of  these  valuable  notes,  and  I  have  no 
doubt  all  will  be  ready  to  help  me  when  I  assure 
them  that  I  intend  to  spare  no  effort  to  secure  ac- 
curacy, and  that  the  edition  is  not  undertaken  on 
my  own  account,  but  for  the  Early  English  Text 
Society.  Having  examined  nearly  thirty  MSS.,  I 
see  clearly  that  there  are  three  distinct  types  or 
forms  of  the  poem  ;  and  I  propose  to  publish  one 
of  each  in  order  (with  various  readings),  beginning- 
with  the  earliest  and  shortest  form,  as  exhibited 
in  the  Vernon  MS.,  Harl.  875,  and  elsewhere. 
Farther  information  is  contained  in  a  short  tract 
just  published  by  the  E.  E.  T.  S.,  entitled  Parallel 
^Extracts  from  Twenty-nine  MSS.  of  Piers  Plow- 
man, with  Comments,  #c.,  and  I  shall  be  glad  to 
send  a  copy  of  this  to  those  who  give  me  help. 

22,  Regent  Street,  Cambridge. 

Dated  1572,  set,  s.  22."  (See  No.  282,  Exhibi- 
tion of  National  Portraits.) — According  to  the 
above  dates,  Frances  Walsingham  would  have 
been  four  years  older  than  Sir  Philip  Sidney 
(born  in  1554)  ;  seventeen  years  older  than  the 
Earl  of  Essex  (born  in  1567)  ;  forty  years  of  age 
when  she  became  his  wife,  in  1590;  and  little 
short  of  fifty  when,  during  Essex's  first  captivity 
(after  his  return  from  Ireland  in  the  autumn  of 
1599),  she  gave  birth  to  her  youngest  child.  The 
facts  involved  by  these  dates  are  not  impossible ; 
but,  to  deal  only  with  one  of  them,  it  seems  im- 
probable, without  strong  corroborative  evidence, 
that  the  Earl  of  Essex  at  twenty-three  should 



S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66. 

have  braved  the  anger  of  his  royal  mistress  (as  he 
certainly  did)  to  espouse  a  woman  old  enough  to 
be  his  mother.  Does  such  evidence  exist  ?  Also, 
what  evidence  is  there  that  this  portrait  does  re- 
present Frances  Walsingham,  wife  of  Sir  Philip 
Sidney,  of  the  Earl  of  Essex,  and  subsequently  of 
the  Earl  of  Clanricarde  ?  The  very  plain  woman 
therein  depicted  could  indeed  hardly  have  been 
under  twenty-two  (she  looks  fifty-J:wo) ;  but  I 
would  fain  learn  whether  the  traditions  of  Pens- 
hurst  furnish  any  other  ground  than  the  dates  on 
this  painting,  for  believing  that  Frances  Walsing- 
ham  was  in  truth  born  as  early  as  1550  ? 


SIR  BICHARD  ELLYS.  —  Sir  Kichard  Ellys  was 
the  author  of  a  work  called  Fortuita  Sacra,  a 
commentary  on  certain  words  and  passages  in  the 
New  Testament,  published  at  ^Rotterdam,  1727, 
and  exhibiting  considerable  learning  and  research. 
He  was,  I  believe,  of  a  Lincolnshire  baronetage, 
now  extinct.  Is  anything  known  of  his  history, 
and  did  he  compose  any  other  works  ? 


[The  Ellys  family  of  Wyham  is  of  old  standing  in  the 
county  of  Lincoln.  Sir  Thomas  Ellys,  who  was  knighted 
by  Queen  Elizabeth,  was  great  grandfather  of  the  first 
baronet,  created  June  30,  1660.  Sir  William  Ellys,  the 
second  baronet,  married  the  granddaughter  of  "the  cele- 
brated John  Hampden.  Sir  Richard  Ellys,  the  author 
of  Fortuita  Sacra,  was  the  third  and  last  baronet,  and 
mostly  resided  at  Nocton,  co.  Lincoln ;  his  town  residence 
was  in  Bolton  Street,  Piccadilly.  He  was  returned  mem- 
ber to  parliament  twice  for  Grantham,  and  thrice  for 
Boston.  Sir  Eichard  died  Feb.  21, 1741-2,  entailing  his 
estates,  after  the  death  of  Lady  Ellys  (subsequently 
Baroness  Le  Despenser),  on  the  Hobarts  and  Trevors. 
William  Strode,  Esq.,  of  Barrington,  co.  Somerset,  was 
the  heir-at-law  of  Sir  Richard  Ellys,  and  made  a  fruitless 
effort  in  the  Court  of  Chancery  to  invalidate  the  will,  and 
wrest  the  property  from  the  noble .  families  on  which 
it  had  been  settled.  At  the  time  of  his  death  Sir  Richard 
appears  to  have  had  on  hand  a  work  on  Ionia ;  for  Mr. 
John  Mitchell,  who  resided  with  him  in  Bolton  Street, 
writing  to  Dr.  Ward  of  Gresham  College  in  March, 
1741-2,  says,  "  As  to  the  library  it  is  left  to  Lady  Ellys, 
who,  I  may  venture  to  assure  you,  will  not  permit  it  to 
be  distracted,  as  the  Dutch  call  it.  And  as  to  the  Ionia 
it  is  amongst  the  rest  of  the  books ;  but  what  will  be  done 
with  it  I  cannot  pretend  to  say,  for  it  is  yet  a  great  deal 
too  soon  to  determine  anything  particularly  about  it." 
(Addit.  MS.  6210,  p.  61,  British  Museum.)  The  library, 
it  appears,  was  bequeathed  to  John  Hobart,  the  son  of  the 
Earl  of  Buckinghamshire. 

Sir  Richard  Ellys  figures  among  the  characters  in  Sir 
Charles  Hanbury  Williams's  satire  of  Peter  and  my  Lord 
Qmdam :  — 

"  For  many  a  year,  tho'  now  he's  dead  and  gone, 
Sir  Richard  liv'd  the  fairest  mark  in  town ; 
A  long  disease  foretold  his  certain  fate ; 
No  near  relations,  and  a  vast  estate  ; 
What  numbers  courted,  who  with  eager  eyes 
Beheld  and  wish'd  to  gain  the  golden  prize ; 
But  far  beyond  the  rest  to  gain  his  love, 
Horace  and  Hampden  diligently  strove  ; 
But  Horace  flatt'ry  was  too  thick  and  coarse, 
And  Hampden's  conversation  ten  times  worse." 
Richard  Hampden,  one  of  the  expectants,  was  only 
collaterally  descended  from  Sir  Richard  Ellys.    Horatio, 
brother  of  Sir  Robert  Walpole,  the  other  candidate  for 
Sir  Richard's  wealth,  wrote  a  Latin  ode  to  him  to  flatter 
his  pretensions — gave  his  portrait  to  Sir  Richard — and 
had  Sir  Richard's  in  his  own  library — but  all  in  vain ! 

There  is  one  thing  very  remarkable  in  the  Ellys  family. 
The  last  Sir  William  kept  open  house  each  day  in  the 
week  for  all  coiners,  and  had  twelve  dishes  every  day  for 
their  entertainment,  and  the  same  table  was  constantly 
kept  up  whether  any  one  were  present  or  not.  Sir  Richard, 
the  last  baronet,  allowed  800/.  per  annum  to  a  steward 
and  his  wife,  who  resided  at  his  splendid  mansion  at  Noc- 
ton, to  keep  up  this  old  English  hospitality.  This  has 
been  considered  the  last  family  in  England  which  kept 
open  house  to  any  one  that  would  come.  ] 

0.  K. — What  is  the  origin  of  this  bit  of  slang  ? 
I  append  an  example  (the  first  printed  one  I  have 
seen)  of  its  use :  — 

"  VALKNTIA,  July  27. — The  following  telegram  has 
been  received  from  Mr.  R.  A.  Glass,  Managing  Director 
of  the  Telegraph  Construction  and  Maintenance  Company 
(Limited)  :  — «  0.  K.,'  (all  correct)."  —  Sounder's  News 
Letter,  July  28th,  1866. 


[Our  apology  for  the  following  reply  to  this  query 
must  be  that  of  Sir  Walter  Scott :  — 

"  I  cannot  tell  how  the  truth  may  be, 

I  say  the  tale  as  'twas  said  to  me," — 
which  is,  that  an  ignorant  official  connected  with  the 
American  Congress,  whose  duty  it  was  to  check  the  ac- 
counts, and  after  examination  finding  them  accurate, 
affixed  the  initials  O.  K.  to  the  document.  The  subor- 
dinates were  of  course  curious  to  know  the  precise  mean- 
ing of  these  hieroglyphics,  when  they  were  informed  that 
they  were  the  first  letters  only  (for  brevity's  sake)  of  the 
words  Oil  JSbrrect !  that  is,  «  All  Correct."  In  Hotten's 
Slang  Dictionary  we  read  :  "  O.  K.,  a  matter  to  be  0.  K. 
(Oil  Korrect,  i.  e.  all  correct,)  must  be  on  the  '  square,' 
and  all  things  done  in  order."] 

OUS WAY,"  ETC. — One  of  the  Olney  hymns  begin- 
ning "  God  moves  in  a  mysterious  way  His  wonders 
to  perform,"  I  heard  a  few  days  ago  was  written 
by  the  poet  on  his  return  home,  having  left  it 
with  the  intention  of  committing  suicide,  but  re- 
turned repentant.  Can  you  or  any  of  your  readers 
inform  me  if  there  is  any  truth  in  the  statement  ? 

3«*  S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66.] 



I  do  not  remember  any  mention  of  such  a  cir- 
cumstance in  Southey's  Life  of  Cowper. 


[The  statement  made  to  our  correspondent  is  probably 
a  mere  traditional  misrepresentation  of  what  actually 
took  place.  Mr.  Bruce  relates  the  fact  thus  in  his  edition 
of  Cowper,  iii.  38 :  "  Mr.  Greatheed  alluded  to  the  com- 
position of  this  hymn  in  the  following  manner  in  his 
sermon  preached  on  Cowper's  death.  After  stating  '  that 
the  poet  had  conceived  some  presentiment '  of  his  second 
attack  of  lunacy,  « as  it  drew  near,'  he  adds,  « during  a 
solitary  walk  in  the  fields,'  he  composed  this  hymn, «  so 
expressive  of  that  faith  and  hope  which  he  retained  as 
long  as  he  possessed  himself.' "] 

MEANING  OF  COTJTHLT. — I  met  with  a  word  in 
North  Staffordshire  a  few  days  ago  which  was 
new  to  me — couthly.  Visiting  a  parishioner  who 
had  just  lost  her  husband  by  a  dreadful  boiler 
explosion,  I  observed  one  of  her  sisters  in  great 
trouble ;  she  too  had  lost  her  husband  a  few  years 
before  by  a  mining  accident.  "  Ah !  "  said  I  to  her 
mother,  (( this  seems  to  have  opened  her  wounds 
afresh."  "Aye,"  replied  the  mother,  "she  feels 
it  couthly." 

In  Webster's  Dictionary  I  find  "  couth  =  ac- 
quainted, familiar  "  (obsolete).  The  opposite,  of 
course,  is  uncouth.  I  apprehend,  therefore,  that 
what  was  meant  was  this — that  the  similarity  of 
her  sister's  trouble  to  her  own  brought  it  home  to 
Tier;  she  could  sympathise  with  sorrow  with 
which  she  had  been  familiar.  In  fact,  she  was  ac- 
quainted with  her  yrief.  I  should  be  glad  to  know 
if  any  of  your  contributors  have  ever  met  with 
this  word/  I  think  it  is  Saxon,  yet  I  don't  recol- 
lect having  heard  it  during  twenty-six  years'  re- 
sidence in  Cheshire,  where  Saxon  abounds.  P. 

["  Couth  commeth  of  the  verb  conne,  that  is,  to  know 
or  to  have  skill ;  as  well  interpreteth  the  same  Sir  T. 
Smith,  in  his  booke  of  government."  (E.  K.  on  Spen- 
ser's Shephearde 's  Calendar.)  Vide  also  Jamieson's 
Scottish  Dictionary,  "  COUTHILY,  (1.)  Kindly ;  familiarly. 
S.  Ross.  (2.)  Comfortably ;  agreeably,  in' regard  to  situa- 
tion. Ross."  But  the  word  couthly  as  used  by  our  corre- 
spondent's parishioner  seems  to  be  a  corruption  of  cutely, 
or  acutely,  that  is,  she  felt  it  keenly  or  sharply.] 

SALAD. — What  is  the  derivation  of  this  word  ? 
The  question  is  asked  by  a  reviewer  in  The 
Athenceum  of  July  28  :  where  he,  inadvertently,  I 
suppose,  repeats  almost  verbatim  Cade's  interest- 
ing soliloquy  in  the  garden  of  the  Kentish  Squire. 
A  word,  t(  born  to  do  Jack  Cade  good,"  ought  to 
have  its  genealogical  chart  duly  exhibited  in 
"  N.  &  Q."  J.  WETHERELL. 

[According  to  Webster,  revised  by  Goodrich,  "Salad  is 
derived  from  Fr.  salade  ;  D.  salaade  ;  G.,  SAV.  salat ;  Dan. 
salad ;  a  name  given  to  raw  herbs,  usually  dressed  Avith 
salt,  vinegar,  oil,  or  spices,  and  eaten  for  giving  a  relish 
to  other  food."  Consult  also  Richardson's  Dictionary.'} 

(3rd  S.  x.  88.) 

I  am  glad  that  this  subject  has  been  started  in 
the  columns  of  "  N.  &  Q."  It  wants  ventilation. 
Some  years  ago  a  very  interesting  pamphlet,  The 
Tippets  of  the  Canons  Ecclesiastical  (Bell,  Fleet 
Street,  1850),  which  had  been  read  before  a 
meeting  of  the  British  Archaeological  Society,  was 
published  by  Mr.  Gilbert  French,  of  Bolton-le- 
Moors,  of  which  I  shall  make  use  in  the  following 
remarks :  — 

The  tippet  or  liripipe  formed  in  the  middle 
ages  "  a  curious  and  conspicuous  part  of  the  hood 
or  capucium,  which  was  then  worn  almost  uni- 
versally by  both  sexes  and  all  ranks  as  a  covering 
for  the  head  and  shoulders."  The  tail-like  ap- 
pendage, or  tippet,  "varied  in  its  length  and 
breadth  according  to  the  fluctuating  fashions  of  the 
time.  One  of  its  purposes  appears  to  have  been  to 
indicate  the  rank  of  the  wearer."  Though  fastened 
to  the  hood,  it  could  be  separated  from  it ;  and 
when,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.,  hats  came  into 
fashion,  and  the  hood  was  discarded,  the  tippet 
was  retained  as  an  ornament,  and  worn  in  various 
ways — sometimes  suspended  from  the  hat  (a  cus- 
tom still  observed  at  funerals) ;  sometimes  fastened 
to  the  shoulder  or  round  the  waist  (the  origin 
perhaps  of  the  military  sash),  and  sometimes  hung 
round  the  neck.  In  the  hoods  of  Oxford,  Cam- 
bridge, and  Dublin,  the  tippet  or  liripipe  may  be 
still  seen,  especially  in  the  two  latter,  and  if  the 
hoods  be  laid  flat  it  is  the  more  noticeable.  When 
the  hood  ceased  to  be  used  as  a  covering,  it  was 
retained  as  a  badge  of  academic  rank.  When 
the  tippet  went  out  of  fashion  amongst  the  laity, 
it  continued  to  be  used  as  a  part  of  the  dress  of 
the  clergy.  Of  this  latter  vesture  Mr.  French 

"  There  are  three  separate  ornaments,  having  different 
origins,  and  applicable  to  different  uses,  which  appear  to 
be  included  under  this  general  name — a  circumstance 
which  has  caused  no  slight  confusion." 

In  the  middle  ages  both  the  ecclesiastical  and 
lay  barons  had  in  their  service  numerous  persons 
of  all  ranks  to  whom  they  gave  their  liveries,  i.  e. 
hoods  of  their  own  c.olours.  The  chaplains,  rank- 
ing above  the  ordinary  retainers,  wore,  with  the 
livery  hoods,  tippets  or  liripipes  of  more  imposing 
length,  by  which  they  were  specially  distinguished. 
This  mark  of  distinction  remained  when  the 
clergy  no  longer  wore  the  livery  of  their  patrons, 
and  became  the  black  scarf  formed  in  three  folds 
now  worn  by  the  chaplains  of  spiritual  and  tem- 
poral peers,  which  "should  be  worn  over  the 
black  gown  only,  and  (though  the  arrangement  is 
seldom  attended  to)  not  over  the  surplice,  because 
it  then  usurps  the  place  of  other  tippets  of  at 
least  equal  if  not  greater  importance." 



S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66. 

The  clergy  of  cathedral  and  collegiate  churches 
were  in  past  ages  accustomed,  when  sitting  in  the 
choir,  to  wear  over  the  surplice,  partly  as  a  dis- 
tinction and  partly  as  a  protection  from  the  cold, 
a  kind  of  fur  hood  with  long  ends  or  tippets  which 
hung  down  in  front.  This  was  called  the  almuce, 
aumess,  or  amys,  and  must  not  be  confounded  with 
the  amice,  a  vestment  of  an  entirely  different 
character,  which  was  only  used  by  the  officiating 
priest :  — 

"The  hood  portion  of  this  vesture  appears  to  have 
been  early  disused,  and  in  its  stead  a  square  cap  was  worn 
in  choir,  which  could  with  greater  ease  be  lifted  from  the 
head  when  the  sacred  name  occurred  in  the  services." 

In  some  foreign  cathedrals,  however,  a  kind  of 
hood,  varying  in  colour,  without  the  ends,  is  still 
used  by  the  chapter ;  but  in  England,  this  hood 
being  discarded  and  its  place  supplied  by  the  aca- 
demical hood,  the  ends  or  tippets  were  retained, 
and,  black  silk  being  used  instead  of  fur,  the  an- 
cient almuce  or  choir-tippet  is  still  worn  by 
bishops,  prebends,  and  canons  over  the  surplice 
irrespective  of  any  appointment  as  chaplain  or  of 
their  university  rank.  In  form  the  chaplain's 
scarf  or  tippet,  and  the  almuce  or  choir-tippet,  are 
not  now  to  be  distinguished  from  each  other,  but 
their  origin  is  different ;  and  their  use  denotes  in 
the  one  case  a  connection  with  a  nobleman's 
family,  and  in  the  other  with  a  cathedral  esta- 
blishment :  — 

"  They  may  both  be  worn  as  a  part  of  the  everyday 
and  outdoor  costume  of  the  clergy,  neither  of  them  being 
essential  to  the  offices  of  the  church,  nor  intended  to  be 
used  in  administering  her  more  solemn  services." 

"  The  stole  in  the  earliest  days  of  the  Christian  church 
was  called  the  orarium  ;  it  then  consisted  of  a  strip  of 

linen  hung  over  the  neck It  is  a  part  of  the 

sacerdotal  costume  which  has  always  been  held  of  the 
highest  importance  by  both  the  Greek  and  Latin  churches. 
Its  purpose  was  to  symbolise  the  priestly  office  and  au- 
thority; for,  though 'worn  by  deacons,  it  was  over  one 
shoulder  only,  as  indicating  the  limited  powers  of  that 

For  the  purpose  of  identifying  "  the  tippet  of 
the  Reformed  Church  "  with  the  orarium  or  stole, 
Mr.  French  quotes  from  Bingham  (book  xin. 
chap.  viii.  2),  who  translates  a  passage  of  St.  Chry- 
sostom,  with  an  explanatory  gloss,  upon  the  word 
"  veils:"  — 

"  They  (the  deacons)  resemble  the  wings  of  angels  with 
their  veils  or  tippets  on  their  left  shoulders,  running  about 
the  church,  and  crying  out,  Let  none  of  the  catechumens 
be  present  at  the  celebration  of  the  mysteries." 

Let  us  now  examine  the  canons  with  respect  to 
these  various  tippets.  The  74th  canon  treats  of 
the  everyday  apparel  of  the  clergy  without  refer- 
ence to  their  ministrations,  and  directs  deans  and 
other  members  of  cathedral  and  collegiate  churches 
to  wear  gowns  with  hoods  or  tippets  of  silk  or 
.sarcenet  and  square  caps  ;  this  tippet  being  evi- 
dently the  ancient  almuce  which  was  peculiar  to 
the  members  of  such  establishments.  But  further, 

Doctors  in  Divinity,  Law,  and  Physic,  Bachelors 
in  Divinity,  Masters  of  Arts,  and  Bachelors  of 
Law,  having  any  ecclesiastical  living,  are  directed 
to  wear  the  same  costume.  The  reason  of  this  is 
not  clear.  Mr.  French  thinks  that  the  tippet  thus 
allowed  to  be  worn  may  be  either  the  chaplain's 
scarf  or  the  almuce,  and  that  it  is  a  permission 
granted  by  the  church  to  these  persons  "in 
compliment  to  their  academic  rank,  irrespective 
of  connection  with  any  cathedral  church  or  any 
appointment  as  chaplain."  I  am,  however,  in- 
clined to  think  that  the  choir-tippet  alone  is 
meant,  and  that  it  is  permitted  to  these  graduates 
as  members  of  the  governing  body  of  the  univer- 
sities which  are  collegiate  establishments,  for  it  is 
observable  that  the  lower  ranks  of  graduates,  such 
as  Bachelors  of  Arts,  are  excluded.  The  canon 
continues:  "And  that  all  other  ministers  ad- 
mitted or  to  be  admitted  into  that  function,  shall 
also  usually  wear  the  like  apparel  as  is  aforesaid, 
except  tippets  only ;  "  i.  e.  non-graduates  are  only 
to  wear  tippets  with  their  gowns,  not  hoods.  But 
what  tippets?  Certainly  not  the  almuce,  for  they 
have  neither  cathedral  nor  academic  rank.  Mr. 
French  says :  — 

"  The  tippet  permitted  to  these  non-graduates  is  pre- 
sumed to  be  the  scarf  presented  by  patrons  to  their  chap- 
lains, and  which  may  be  worn"  by  priests  or  deacons-, 
whether  graduates  or  otherwise." 

If  this  presumption  be  correct,  the  canon  must 
in  this  respect  be  only  permissive,  allowing  the 
tippet  to  non-graduates  provided  they  are  chap- 
lains, if  they  have  not  that  position  directing  the 
gown  only  to  be  worn.  I  am  disposed,  however, 
to  differ  from  Mr.  French  on  this  point,  as  will  bo 
seen  presently. 

The  58th  canon,  whch  treats  of  the  dress  of  the 
clergy  when  officiating,  forbids,  under  pain  of  sus- 
pension, any  minister  being  no  graduate  to  wear  a 
hood ;  but  allows  "  such  ministers  as  are  not  gra- 
duates to  wear  upon  their  surplices  instead  of 
hoods  some  decent  tippets  of  black,  so  it  be  not 
silk."  Mr.  French  says  :  — 

"  It  is  presumed  that  this  particular  tippet  does  not 
refer  to  the  chaplains'  or  canons'  scarfs,  neither  of  which 
would  be  applicable  under  such  circumstances  according 
to  the  ancient  usages  of  the  Christian  church,  but  rather 
to  the  orarium  or  stole." 

I  entirely  disagree  with  the  view  that  the  tip- 
pet of  the  58th  canon  refers  to  the  stole.  The 
hood  is  academical,  the  stole  sacerdotal.  They 
are  so  distinct  in  the  rank  and  office  they  sym- 
bolise, that  to  permit  the  one  to  be  used  instead 
of  the  other  can  never  have  entered  into  the  mind 
of  the  writer  of  the  canon.  The  stole  has  from 
time  immemorial  been  made  of  the  richest  mate- 
rials, and  was  often  elaborately  embroidered.  To 
direct  a  non-graduate  to  wear  it  of  some  stuff  not 
silk  would  have  been  to  lower  the  priestly  office, 
because  the  holder  had  not  academic  rank.1  And, 

3"»  S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66.] 


again,  the  colour  of  the  stole  has  never,  except  by 
recent  custom,  been  confined  to  black,  which  is 
directed  to  be  the  hue  of  the  tippet  worn  instead  of 
the  hood.  I  agree  with  Mr.  French  that  this 
tippet  can  be  neither  the  chaplain's  scarf  nor  the 

We  may  perhaps  find  another  form  of  tippet. 
The  expression  of  the  canon  must  be  noted  :  "  in- 
stead of  hoods  some  decent  tippets  of  black."  In 
the  Latin,  "  loco  caputiorum  liripipia  permittimus 
ex  nigro ;  "  i.  e.  tippets  to  take  the  place  of  hoods. 
When  the  canons  were  promulgated  the  hood 
was  not  worn  in  the  incorrect  way  it  now  com- 
monly is,  hanging  down  the  back  from  a  narrow 
strip  round  the  neck,  but  was  drawn  up  behind, 
laid  full  upon  the  shoulders,  and  fastened  on  the 
chest.  Remove  from  the  vesture  thus  worn  the 
hood  part,  and  there  remains  a  flat  cape,  which, 
being  joined  behind,  is  not  unlike  the  tippet  which 
forms  part  of  the  dress  of  some  ancient  female 
charity  schools,  and  which  is  itself  doubtless  a 
form  of  the  yet  more  ancient  tippet  of  the  middle 
ages.  A  tippet  of  this  character  is,  if  I  mistake 
not,  worn  by  some  foreign  ecclesiastics  j  and  such 
is,  I  believe,  the  decent  tippet  of  black  allowed  to 
non-graduates  in  place  of  the  hood  by  the  58th 
canon.  It  is,  I  am  inclined  to  think,  the  same 
ornament  which  is  prescribed  to  non-graduates  by 
the  74th  canon.  That  in  the  one  case  silk  is  for- 
bidden, in  the  other  permitted,  may  be  perhaps 
an  oversight.  But  if  this  be  thought  unlikely, 
it  would  not  be  difficult  to  show  some  reasons 
which  may  have  caused  this  difference  in  the 
directions  of  the  two  canons.  Space,  however,  is 
too  limited  to  allow  me  to  enter  farther  on  this 

But  whatever  be  the  form  of  tippet  which  the 
58th  and  74th  canons  allow  to  those  who  are  not 
graduates,  it  is  clear  it  is  not  a  hood,  which,  on  the 
contrary,  is  stringently  forbidden.  Yet  in  the 
face  of  this  literates  usurp  a  vestment  to  which 
they  have  no  more  right  than  to  the  mantle  of  a 
Knight  of  the  Garter.  The  hoods  which  they  wear 
are  black,  of  fancy  pattern,  and  are  made  of  stuff 
instead  of  silk ;  but  at  a  little  distance  the  exact 
form  and  material  can  scarcely  be  distinguished, 
and  these  gentlemen  therefore  often  pass  for  Cam- 
bridge Masters  of  ten  years'  standing,  or  for  Bache- 
lors of  Divinity.  They  not  only  violate  the  plain 
directions  of  the  canons  which  they  are  bound 
to  obey,  but,  by  wearing  a  badge  closely  resem- 
bling that  of  a  rank  to  which  tney  have  not  at- 
tained, allow  themselves  to  be  thought  other  than 
they  are.  If  this  be  honest,  it  is,  at  least,  not 
noble.  Let  it  be  decided  what  is  the  form  of  the 
tippet  allowed,  and  let  them  wear  it,  and  leave  to 
graduates  the  hood  to  which  they,  and  no  others, 
have  a  right.  H.  P.  D. 


(3rd  S.  x.  61.) 

ME.  SCFAEF  kindly  presented  to  the  members 
and  visitors  of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  during 
their  late  annual  meeting  in  London,  a  list  of  the 
most  noteworthy  pictures  on  view  in  the  National 
Portrait  Exhibition   at   South  Kensington.      A 
second  impression  of  the  same,  which  he  has  just 
placed  in  my  hands,  contains  an  additional  para- 
graph which  suggests  to  me  to  make  some  trifling 
amendment  to  the  remarks  which  were  printed  in 
"  N.  &  Q."  of  the  28th  July  relative  to  the  Duke 
of  Sutherland's  picture  (No.  27),  formerly  at  Straw- 
berry Hill,  in  which  Horace  Walpole  imagined 
that  he  discovered  the   portraits  of  Humphrey, 
Duke  of  Gloucester,  and  others.     I  have  been  able 
to  visit  the  Exhibition  so  much  less  than  I  could 
have  wished,  that  I  wrote  to  "  N.  &  Q.' '  upon  my 
earlier  impressions  of  this  picture  without  having 
examined  it  in  its  present  position.     Thus  it  was 
that  I  was  led  to  write  of  a  triptych,  imagining 
that  the  whole-length  figures  of  St.  Ambrose  and 
St.  Jerome  were  painted  upon  the  exterior  of  its 
folding   doors.     But   the  picture  in  question,  or 
series  of  pictures,  really  consists   of  four  oblong 
panels,  all  of  uniform  size,  and  all  open  to  view  to- 
gether.    I  find  the  critic  in  The  Times  (April  16) 
suggesting  that  these  panels    "probably  formed 
wings  of  two  distinct  triptyches,"  though  the  work 
of  one  painter.    But  ME.  SCHAEE  has  removed 
this  difficulty.     He  says  they  were  "  compartments 
of  the  reredos  of  an  altar."     No  pictures  are  visible 
on  the  reverse  side  of  any  of  the  panels,  as  is  the 
case  in  triptyches.     If  these  four  panels,  therefore, 
are  but  disjointed  pieces  of  a  reredos,  we  may 
reasonably  presume  that,  when   complete,  that 
reredos  comprised  several  other  compartments.    It 
may  have  exhibited  others  of  the  Fathers  of  the 
Church,  as  well  as  St.  Ambrose  and  St.  Jerome,  who 
now  occupy  two  panels  and  have  been  regarded  as 
Archbishop  Kempe  and  Cardinal  Beaufort.    The 
two  other  remaining  panels  are  undeniably  por- 
tions of  an  Adoration  of  the  Magi :  one  of  them 
contains  two  of  the  Three  Kings,  in  the  personage 
attributed  by  Walpole  to   Humphrey   Duke  of 
Gloucester,  and  the  figure  standing  behind  him. 
But  I  perceive  that  I  was  wrong  in  supposing  that 
the  third  King  remains  on  the  other  panel.     The 
third  King,  who  is  usually  represented  as  an  Ethi- 
opian, no  doubt  knelt  immediately  before  the  Holy 
Infant  in  the  centre  of  the  design,  which  is  now 
deficient.     The  figure  in  the  remaining  panel  is 
Saint  Joseph,  delineated  in  the  attitude  of  com- 
placent meditation  usual  in  this  subject.     Behind, 
by  the  manger,  are  an  ox  and  an  ass,  both  also  the 
ordinary  accessories  of  the  Adoration  of  the  Three 
Kings. " 



AUG.  18,»66. 

I  may  add  to  these  remarks  my  conviction  that 
another  purely  religious  picture  is  presented  to  us 
as  an  English  portrait,  in  the  same  Exhibition,  as 

"  No.  183. — LADY  JANE  GREY." 
It  is  attributed  in  the   Catalogue  to  Lucas  de 
Heere,  and  described  as  a 

«  Half-length  miniature,  seated  in  a  room  near  a  win- 
dow :  rich  crimson  dress,  with  square-cut  low  body ;  r. 
hand  turning  leaves  of  a  missal  open  on  a  desk  beside  her  ; 
tall,  gilt-covered  cup  on  table  to  her  1.  Panel,  21  x  15 

It  belongs  to  Earl  Spencer,  and  will  be  remem- 
bered by  two  very  excellent  line  engravings  that 
have  been  made  from  it,  and  published — both  as 
Lady  Jane  Grey— by  Dr.  Dibdin  in  his  AZdes  Al- 
thorpiance,  and  by  Pickering,  the  bookseller,  in 
his  annual  called  The  Bijou. 

I  entertain  no  doubt  that  this  was  intended  to 
represent  Saint  Mary  Magdalene  ;  which  intention 
the  painter  considered  he  sufficiently  implied  by  her 
symbol  of  the  Cup,  or  Box  of  Spikenard,  placed 
beside  her.  JOHN  GOTJGH  NICHOLS. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  345.) 

Dr.  Polidori's  father  was  certainly  the  C.  Poli- 
dori,  who  was  a  teacher  of  languages  in  London ; 
he  presented  a  copy  of  his  Dictionary  to  a  friend  of 
mine,  who  still  retains  it.  The  Doctor  was  born 
and  educated  in  England,  but  he  took  his  degree 
of  medicine  at  Edinburgh.  I  have  now  before 
me  his  printed  Disputatio  medica  inauguralis,  com- 
posed for  his  examination  for  the  degree  of  M.D. 
on  August  1,  1815.  The  subject  is  an  extraor- 
dinary one,  and  the  more  so  when  viewed  in  con- 
nexion with  his  Vampyre  tale,  which  appeared  two 
years  later.  It  is  on  Oneirodynia,  or  nightmare. 
Bound  up  with  it  is  an  Essay  on  the  Punishment 
of  Death,  by  John  William  Polidori,  M.D.,  dated 

1816,  but  without  any  printer's  name  or  place. 
It  is  remarkable  that   in  this  tract  the  author 
speaks  very  decidedly  in  condemnation  of  suicide : 
u  All  must  agree,  that  our  being  here  originating 
from  God,  it  is  not  allowable  to  take  into  our  own 
hands  our  own  dismissal.     All  nations  in  their 
laws  have  condemned  the  suicide."     Yet,  after 
writing  this,  he  made  that  attempt  at  poisoning 
himself  which   Lord  Byron   happily  prevented, 
if  he  did  not  commit  the  same  crime  four  years 

Dr.  Polidori  left  Lord  Byron  in  the  spring  of 

1817,  with  the  intention  of  going  out  to  Brazil  in 
his  medical    capacity  with  the  Danish   consul. 
This  intention,  however,  he  soon  abandoned,  and 
went  to  try  his  fortune  as  a  physician  at  Norwich, 
where  he  received  much  kindness  and  encourage- 
ment from  Dr.  Rigby.     By   a  recommendation 
from  Lady  Westmoreland  he  was  introduced  to 

Sir  George  and  Lady  Jerningham,  and  was  fre- 
quently invited  to  their  seat  at  Cossey  Hall,  near 
Norwich.  On  his  return  in  a  gig  from  dining 
there  one  dark  night  in  September,  1817,  he  missed 
a  turn  in  the  park  not  far  from  the  hall,  drove 
against  a  tree,  and  was  thrown  out  of  the  gig  with 
great  violence.  He  was  taken  up  insensible,  and 
carried  back  to  the  hall  apparently  lifeless,  but  a 
few  minutes  after  leaving  it.  A  surgeon  was  im- 
mediately sent  for,  and  Dr.  Rigby  arrived  with 
him  as  soon  as  possible.  Polidori  was  most 
kindly  nursed  and  attended,  but  several  weeks 
elapsed  before  he  was  sufficiently  recovered  to 
leave  Cossey  Hall.  His  father  came  from  London 
to  visit  him  during  his  confinement  from  the  acci- 
dent, and  wrote  an  Italian  sonnet  in  the  album 
at  the  hall,  signed  Gaetano  Polidori — that  is  in 
English  Cajetan.  His  son,  on  his  recovery,  wrote 
two  other  sonnets  in  English;  all  three  being 
highly  complimentary,  and  full  of  gratitude  to  the 
worthy  baronet  and  his  lady  for  the  great  kind- 
ness and  attention  which  the  sufferer  had  received 
during  his  illness. 

Lord  Byron  heard  of  this  accident,  and  wrote 
thus  of  it  to  Mr.  Murray  from  Venice,  Nov.  15, 
1817:  — 

"  I  am  as  sorry  to  hear  of  Dr.  Polidori's  accident  as 
one  can  be  for  a  person  for  whom  one  has  a  dislike,  and 
something  of  contempt.  When  he  gets  well,  tell  me,  and 
how  he  gets  on  in  the  sick  line.  Poor  fellow  !  how  came 
he  to  fix  there  ? 

"  I  fear  the  Doctor's  skill  at  Norwich 
Will  hardly  salt  the  Doctor's  porridge." 

This  fear  was  but  too  well  founded :  Polidori 
met  with  little  success  during  his  stay  at  Nor- 

On  leaving  Norwich  he  settled  in  London,  where 
he  spent  the  short  remainder  of  his  life.  He  took 
chambers,  and  began  to  study  the  law  under  the 
Counsellor  Charles  Butler,  of  Lincoln's  Inn.  His 
Essay  on  the  Source  of  Positive  Pleasure  appeared 
in  1818,  and  received  a  just  castigation  in  the 
Literary  Gazette,  closing  with  the  following  able 
summing  up  of  the  author's  character  and  capa- 
bilities :  — 

"  With  too  much  fancy  for  a  philosopher,  too  little 
fineness  of  intellect  for  a  metaphysician,  too  limited  a 
perception  of  the  sublime  pleasures  of  nature  and  of  reli- 
gion for  the  enjoyment  of  true  happiness, — he  has  floun- 
dered through  a  treatise  on  a  subject  above  his  capacity 
and  comprehension,  and,  after  displaying  his  acquirements, 
lost,  himself  in  the  end  at  the  very  point  in  the  labyrinth 
of  error  whence  he  set  out." 

The  reviewer  was  assured  subsequently  that 
this  essay  was  rather  a  joke  than  the  enforcement 
of  the  genuine  opinions  of  Polidori ;  but  he  well 
observed  in  his  review  of  another  of  the  author's 
productions:  "It  was  too  grave  to  pass  muster  in 
that  way,  and  we  do  not  regret  that  our  strictures 
have  induced  Dr.  Polidori  to  be  more  guarded,  if 
not  more  moral."  Certainly  not  more  moral,  for 

S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66.] 



the  tale  ofErnestus  Berchtold,  published  in  1819,  is 
a  very  revolting  compound  of  horrors  and  infamy. 
The  same  reviewer  thus  introduced  his  notice  of 
it:  — 

"  This  is  another  of  the  semi-sentimental,  semi-super- 
natural productions  to  which  we  are  now  so  prone, — the 
prose  Byroniads  which  infect  the  times.  The  style  is 
good,  and  the  story  as  horrible  as  the  greatest  lovers  of 
raw-head  and  bloody  bones  can  desire." 

I  have  but  little  more  to  add  concerning  Dr. 
Polidori.  He  was  found  dead  in  his  bed  one 
morning,  in  the  year  1821,  at  his  chambers  in 
London,  Nothing  was  discovered  near  him  but  a 
glass  of  water.  But  I  know  those  to  whom  he 
said  long  before,  that  he  always  kept  by  him  a 
very  powerful  poison,  as  if  he  contemplated  some 
time  committing  suicide.  F.  C.  H. 

(3rd  S.  ix.  491,  541.) 

This  mystical  word  first  occurs,  if  I  mistake  not, 
in  the  Carmen  de  Morbis  et  Remediis  of  Q.  Serenus 
Sammonicus,  a  favourite  of  the  Emperor  Severus, 
in  the  second  and  third  centuries,  and  subsequently 
put  to  death  by  Caracalla.  It  is  generally  sup- 
posed to  be  derived  from  the  word  Abraxas,  the 
corresponding  Greek  letters  composing  which, 
being  interpreted  according  to  their  numerical 
power,  signify  365,  the  number  of  the  days  in  the 
year.  This  word  is  also  explained  as  resulting 
from  the  combination  of  the  Hebrew  words,  sig- 
nifying Father,  Son,  Spirit,  One,  and  the  Greek 
words  for  Christ,  Man,  Saviour;  thus  resembling 
in  its  origin  the  mystic  word  'ix&'s.  The  inven- 
tion of  the  word  Abraxas  is  by  some  attributed 
to  Basilides,  who  believed  that  there  were  365 
heavens ;  and  by  others  to  the  sect  of  Gnostics. 
See  Eschenburg,  Man.  of  Class.  Lit.  ("  On  the 
Gem  Engraving  of  the  Egyptians  ")  p.  403,  8vo, 
Philadelphia,  1844.  Pegge  stvles  it  a  "  horrible 
word"  (Anonymiana,  Cent.  vi.  Ixxxv.),  and  thinks 
the  orthography  wrong,  and  that  it  should  be 
written  Abrasadabra,  "for  the  Greeks  having  no 
C,  that  character  was  2."  Pettigrew  gives  the 
triangle  in  two  different  ways,  and  says  that 
<(  Abracadabra  was  a  god,  and  worshipped  as  such 
by  the  Tyrians."  (On  Superstitions  connected  with 
the  Hist,  and  Pract.  of  Med.  and  Surg.  8vo,  1844, 
p.  54.)  The  learned  Selden,  or  whoever  wrote 
the  book,  for  Dr.  Parr  asserts  that  Selden  did  not 
(Sib.  Parr,  p.  386),  in  his  Dissertation  De  Diis 
Syris,  Lugd.  Bat.  1629,  gives  the  same  derivation 
as  Eschenburg :  — 

"  Certe  vix  dubito,  quin  amuletum  illud  ad  hemitritfcum 
sanandum,  in  quo  conscribi  debet,  ad  Magorum  pracepta, 
Abracadabra,  ab  Abraxa  primum  fluxerit.  Kominis  enim 
vestigia,  in  portento  illo  vocabulorum,  satis  parent,  &c." 

A.     llo. 

A  third  method  of  writing  the  mystic  triangle 
will  be  found  in  Cornelius  Agrippa,  De  Occulta 
Philosophia,  lib.  in.  cap.  xi.,  but  he  adds  nothing 
as  to  the  derivation  of  the  word.  Some  curious 
particulars  relating  to  the  word  are  given  by 
Jacques  d'Autun,  in  his  very  curious  work,  L1  In- 
credulite  Sqavante  et  la  Credulite  ignorante,  4to, 
Lyon,  1671 :  — 

"  Quintus  Serenus,  Precepteur  du  jeune  Prince  Gordien, 
ordonnoit  pour  un  remede  assure'  centre  la  fievre  demy- 
tierce,  d'ecrire  sur  un  papier  le  mot  de  Abracadabra,  de  le 
plier  dans  un  linge,  le  porter  au  col,  et  chaque  jour  en 
diminuer  une  lettre,  commencant  par  la  fin  du  mot.  Mais 
qui  ne  voit  que  ces  circonstances  ridicules  sont  plutost 
des  Superstitions  de  la  Magie,  qu'un  remede  de  la  mede- 
cine  ?  Car  quel  rapport  de  ce  mot  barbare  &  la  guerison 
d'une  fievre  demy-tierce,  dont  1'accez  retourne  en  trente- 
six  heures,  plus  ou  moins,  et  qui  ne  dure  pas  tout  le  jour 
que  le  malade  en  est  afflige'  ?  Certes  il  y  a  appareuce  que 
le  mot  Abradacabra  a  este  puise  dans  la  mesme  source, 
ou  1'He're'tique  Basilides  avoit  pris  son  *Aj8pa£ay,  qu'il 
adoroit  comme  une  divinite,  a  laquelle  il  avoit  impose  ce 
nom,  parce  qu'il  contient  le  nombre  des  jours  qui  com- 
posent  1'annee,  prenant  chacune  de  ces  Lettres  pour  le 
nombre,  a  quoy  les  Grecs  les  font  servir.  Saint-Hierosme 
a  cru  que  cet  Vlj8pa£ay  estoit  le  Mithra  des  Perses,  c'est  a 
dire  le  Soleil,  qui  dans  sa  course  marque  le  nombre  de 
trois  cent  soixante-cinq  jours  ;  de  maniere  que  ceDieu  de 
Basilides  estoit  le  Soleil,  ou  le  Prince  des  De'mons  qui  se 
faisoit  adorer  sous  ce  Planete,  comme  1'ont  fort  bien  re- 
marque'  Saint-Ire'nee,  Tertulien  et  Saint-Epiphane."  — 
Page  300. 

Aubrey,  in  his  Miscellanies,  8vo,  1784,  p.  138, 
has  the  following  :  — 

"  In  Moreri's  Great  Historical,  Geographical,  and  Poetical 
Dictionary, '  Abracadabra,'  a  mysterious  word  to  which  the 
superstitious  in  former  times  attributed  a  magical  power 
to  expel  diseases,  especially  the  tertian-ague,  worn  about 
the  neck,  runs  in  this  manner.    Some  think  that  Basilides, 
the  inventor,  intends  the  name  of  God  by  it.    The  method 
of  the  cure  was  prescribed  in  these  verses  :  — 
"  Inscribes  chartee  quod  dicitur  ABRACADABRA 
Saepius,  et  subter  repetes,  sed  detrahe  summam, 
Et  magis  atque  magis  desint  elementa  figuris 
,  Singula,  quae  semper  capies  et  caetera  figes, 
Donee  in  angustum  redigatur  Litera  conum  : 
His  lino  nexis  collo  redimire  memento. 
Talia  languentis  conducent  Vincula  collo, 
Lethalesque  abigent  (miranda  potentia)  morbos.' 

"  ABRACADABRA,  strange  mysterious  word, 
In  order  writ,  can  wond'rous  cures  afford. 
This  be  the  rule  :  —  a  script  of  parchment  take, 
Cut  like  a  pyramid  revers'd  in  make. 
Abracadabra,  first  at  length  you  name, 
Line  under  line,  repeating  still  the  same  : 
But  at  its  end,  each  line,  one  letter  less, 
Must  then  its  predecessor  line  express; 
'Till  lessening  by  degrees  the  charm  descends 
With  conic  form,  and  in  a  letter  ends. 
Round  the  sick  neck  the  finish'd  wonder  tie, 
And  pale  disease  must  from  the  patient  fly." 

I  have  transcribed  the  foregoing  from  old 
Aubrey,  not  as  bearing  upon  the  derivation  of  the 
word,  but  as  giving  the  very  hexameters  of  Serenus 
Sammonicus,  in  which  the  word  is  supposed  to 
make  its  first  appearance. 



s.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66. 

In  the  letter  on  Freemasonry,  attributed,  no 
doubt  falsely,  to  John  Locke,  and  which  will  be 
found  in  the  Gentkman's  Magazine  for  July,  1753, 
the  writer,  whoever  he  may  have  been,  professes 
himself  to  be  "  utterly  in  the  dark  "  as  to  what 
is  meant  by  {{ the  way  of  wynnynge  the  facultye 
of  Abrac,"  which  the  Freemasons  were  accused 
of  concealing,  in  the  ancient  document  which  he 
professed  to  have  transcribed  and  commented  on. 
This  ignorance,  on  the  part  of  "so  profound  & 
master  of  the  English  language  as  Locke,"  is 
thought  by  Mr.  Soane  to  be  conclusive  against 
the  authenticity  of  the  document,  as,  with  regard 
to  the  word  "  Abrac  "  (or,  "  Abrax,  i.  e.  Abraxis, 
another  name  for  Abracadabra  "  —  Note),  "  any 
moderately  informed  school-boy  could  have  told 
him  that  it  was  an  abbreviation  of  abracadabra." 
New  Curiosities  of  Lit.,  vol.  ii.  p.  87. 

A  good  deal  of 'unimportant  matter  might  doubt- 
less be  added  :  most  writers  on  occult  philosophy 
have  something  on  the  subject;  but  they  repeat 
one  another,  and  few  touch  upon  the  uncle  deri- 
vatur  of  the  word.  WILLIAM  BATES. 


(3rd  S.  ix.  53,  72,  92.) 

J.  M'C.  B.  has  sent  to  me,  through  your  pub- 
lisher, what  is  appended  hereto.  It  pleases  me  to 
interpret  this  honour  into  a  desire  to  shake  hands; 
and,  in  my  capacity  of  an  humble  contributor,  I 
beg  leave  heartily  to  do  so  through  your  columns. 

My  notions  of  Tasmania  are,  I  regret  to  say, 
very  limited: — generally,  that  it  is  destined  to 
become  a  great  and  wealthy  country ;  and  spe- 
cially, that  our  Zoological  Gardens  contain  some 
remarkable  specimens  of  its  animal  productions. 

This  communication,  therefore,  has  given  me 
great  pleasure,  for  several  reasons;  and  I  hope 
will  do  so  to  many  of  your  readers. 

First,  that  our  English  Notes  and  Queries  is 
read  in  that  far  distant  land.  Second,  that  early 
English  newspapers  exist  and  are  treasured  there. 
Third,  that  a  Literary  and  Scientific  Society  has 
been  established.  And  fourthly,  that  the  founders 
have  placed  the  word  (l  Royal  "  on  the  fore-front 
of  such  society.  Permit  me  to  suggest  that,  in 
your  editorial  capacity,  you  wish  them  "God 
speed."  * 

As  to  the  early  newspapers  contained  in  Mr. 
J.  M'C.  B.'s  list  below,  I  was  aware  of  their 
existence;  and  examined  them  all  when  pre- 
paring my  account.  My  aim,  as  stated  in  the  pre- 
liminary remarks,  was  to  give  a  complete  list  of 
all  the  newspapers  whose  first  numbers  were  pub- 
lished between  1712  and  1732,  and  the  dates, 

[*  We  have  much  pleasure  in  cordially  complying  with 
our  correspondent's  suggestion. — ED.  ] 

where  possible,  of  such  first  numbers.  I  added, 
that  at  the  end  of  1711,  there  were  about  thirty 
papers  circulating  in  London  alone.  These  I  did 
not  include  in  my  list.  W.  LEE. 

ME.  W.  LEE'S  notice  of  early  newspaper  pub- 
lications, «  N.  &  Q."  3rd  S.  ix.  53,  72,  92,  was 
read  here  about  the  time  when  some  early  Eng- 
lish newspapers,  &c.  were  presented  to  the  Royal 
Society  of  Tasmania,  by  a  resident  of  Hobart 
Town,  who  accidentally  acquired  them.  Besides  a 
number  whose  titles  appear  in  ME.  LEE'S  memo- 
randa, there  are  the  following :  — 

The.  British  Apollo,  No.  10.  17  March,  1708,  and  suc- 
cessive Nos.  Performed  by  a  Society  of  Gentlemen, 
printed  for  the  Authors  by  J.  Mayo,  at  the  Printing  Press 
against  Water  Lane,  in  Fleet  Street. 

The  British  Mercury,  No.  241.  October  8, 1711.  Printed 
by  H.  Meere  at  the  Black  Fryer,  in  Black  Fryers,  where 
advertisements  are  taken  in,  and  also  at  the  Sun  Fire 

' "  Aaaaaa,  The  Daily  Courant,"  No.  3,166.  December  5, 
1711.  Printed  by  James  Buckley,  at  the  Dolphin  in 
Little  Britain,  and  sold  by  A.  Baldwin  in  Warwick  Lane. 

The  British  Journal,  No.  25.  March  9,  1723,  and  suc- 
cessive Nos.  Printed  for  T.  Warner  at  the  Black  Boy,  in 
Paternoster  Row. 

The  London  Journal,  No.  88.  April  1,  1721,  some  for 
1722.  Printed  for  and  sold  by  J.  Peele  at  Locke's  Heady 
in  Paternoster  Row." 

J.  M'C.  B. 

Hobart  Town,  Tasmania. 


(3rd  S.  x.  89.) 

A  transatlantic  lover  of  numismatics  may  find, 
if  not  a  complete  answer,  much  information  on 
this  rare  coin  in  Thoresby's  Catalogue  of  Anti- 
quities, &c.,  at  the  end  of  his  History  of  Leeds, 
1714  (2nd  edition,  by  Whitaker,  1816).  The  date 
on  the  reverse,  1602,  indicates  that  it  may  have 
been  the  base  money  the  queen  then  coined  for 
paying  the  arrears  of  her  army  in  Ireland,  with 
the  Irish  harp  upon  it.  For  to  such  meanness 
her  majesty  then  resorted,  although  in  the  begin- 
ning of  her  reign  (1558),  Stow  says,  "she  call'd 
in  the  bad  money  of  her  sister  Mary,  refining  the 
coinage,  and  putting  a  new  stamp  upon  it." 
Thoresby  adds,  that  "neighbouring  princes  and 
states  had  copper  halfpence  and  farthings  some 
time  before  the  death  of  Queen  Elizabeth,"  and 
that  he  had  seen  a  piece  (1601)  with  "E.R.," 
a  crowned  harp,  and  a  legend  similar  to  that  your 
correspondent  describes  as  being  inscribed  on  the 
farthing  in  his  possession.  The  identity  of  the 
two  coins  may  almost  be  said  to  be  complete, 
though  the  dates  differ  by  a  year.  Elizabeth's 
successor  coined  no  farthings  nor  other  small 
pieces,  as  groats,  threepences,  &c.  On  the  con- 
trary, the  coinage  in  her  long  reign  was  more 

3'd  S.  X.  AUG,  18,  '66.] 



varied  and  extensive  than  in  that  of  any  pre- 
ceding sovereign  in  England ;  e.  g.  she  struck  a 
three-halfpenny  piece,  and  a  three-farthing  piece 
She  was  the  first  and  last  sovereign  who  coined 
pieces  of  this  denomination.  And  some  of  her 
emblems  to  mark  the  pieces  were  as  unique  as 
the  value  of  her  coins :  e.  g.  the  dove  and  drake 
were  symbolical  birds  to  explain  the  beneficial 
result  to  the  English  nation  of  the  voyages 
of  Sir  Francis  Drake,  and  other  famous  naviga- 
tors, in  her  glorious  reign.  The  most  rare  piece 
struck  by  Elizabeth  was  the  portcluse  (cullis) 
shilling:  —  Ob.  The  royal  arms,  crowned.  Rev. 
A  portcullis,  crowned:  "Posui  .  Deum  .  Adju- 
torein  .  Meum."  The  milling  in  her  coins  was 
excellent,  and  the  most  famous  were  issued  from 
the  Archbishop's  mint  at  York.  I  must  not  tres- 
pass further  on  your  columns  to-day ;  but  these 
particulars  may  perhaps  be  acceptable  to  the 
transatlantic  lover  of  numismatics,  if  he  should 
not  have  within  reach  the  valuable  work  Ducatm 
Leodinensis,  the  History  of  Leeds,  by  Ralph 
Thoresby,  F.R.S.,  with  "A  Catalogue  of  his 
Musaeum  "  added  at  the  end. 


The  coin  possessed  by  D.  L.  W.  is  not  a  farthing 
of  Elizabeth,  but  an  Irish  penny  or  halfpenny. 
See  Ruding  (1840  ed.),  Sup.  pt.  n.  pi.  5,  No.  6. 
The  description  will  suit  either,  and  the  weight 
will  determine  if  the  former  or  latter.  I  have  a 
very  good  Irish  penny,  identical  in  description. 
It  is  not  rare,  but  perhaps  may  be  called  scarce. 
Humphrey's  allusion  is  to  silver  farthings,  of 
which  I  know  of  no  specimen.  Refer  to  Simon's 
7mA  Coins,  plate  vi.,  Nos.  122,  123,  edition  1810. 



D.  L.  W.  may  procure  farthings  of  Elizabeth 
at  Lincoln  and  Son's,  Numismatists,  462,  New 
Oxford  Street,  W.C.,  fine  2s.  6d.,  others  Is.  each. 
The  legend  is  in  full:  " Posui  Deum  Adjutorem 
Meum," — "  I  have  set  the  Lord  as  my  helper." 
This  motto  was  first  placed  on  coins  by  Edward' 
III.,  and  may  be  observed  on  his  groat.  The 
coins  of  Mary,  after  her  unhappy  marriage  with 
Philip  of  Spain,  bear  the  legend  in  the  plural, 
viz. :  "  Posuimus  Deum  Adjutorem  Nostrum." 

A  SHAKESPEARE  SCHOLARSHIP  (3rd  S.  x.  64.) 
Having  read  MR.  BLAIR'S  communication  in 
"N.  &  Q.,"  I  venture  to  inform  you  that  a  like 
foundation  in  connection  with  Owens  College, 
Manchester,  has  recently  been  established,  the 
particulars  of  which,  from  the  College  Calendar 
for  the  ensuing  session,  I  enclose  for  your  perusal. 
If  you  can  make  any  use  of  it  in  your  interesting 

and  valuable  publication,  you  are  at  liberty  to  do 
so,  and  I  shall  be  glad  to  see  the  notice  in  your 
next  monthly  part :  — 

"  IV.  SHAKSPEARE  SCHOLARSHIP.    Annual  value 
about  407. 

"  In  the  autumn  of  1863  a  Committee  was  formed  in 
Manchester  to  promote  some  celebration  of  the  300th 
anniversary  of  Shakspeare's  birth,  which  fell  in  the  spring 
of  1864.  The  Committee  resolved  to  employ  the  fund 
that  had  been  raised  in  the  endowment  in  Owens  College 
and  in  the  Free  Grammar  School  of  Scholarships,  to  be 
called  SHAKSPEARE  SCHOLARSHIPS  for  '  the  promotion 
of  the  study  of  the  English  Language  and  Literature.' 
The  Shakspeare  Scholarship  in  Owens  College  was  en- 
dowed accordingly  with  the  sum  of  10717.  The  following 
are  the  conditions  of  competition  and  tenure  :  — 

"  1.  The  first  competition  is  fixed  for  the  10th  and  llth 
of  October,  1866. 

"2.  The  competition  will  be  open  to  all  candidates, 
whether  previously  students  of  Owens  College  or  not ; 
but  no  person  will  be  allowed  to  compete  whose  age  shall 
have  exceeded  21  years  on  the  1st  of  January,  1866. 

"  3.  Each  candidate  must  give  to  the  Registrar,  on  or 
before  the  1st  of  October,  1866,  written  notice  of  his  in- 
tention to  compete,  accompanied  by  a  certificate  of  age, 
and  (if  he  have  not  been  previously  a  student  of  Owens 
College)  by  a  testimonial  of  good  character  satisfactory 
to  the  Principal. 

"  4.  Candidates  will  be  required  to  pass  a  satisfactory 
preliminary  written  examination  in  the  Elements  of 
Classics  and  Mathematics.  The  subjects  of  examination 
will  be  those  given  out  by  the  University  of  London,  in 
Classics  and  Mathematics,'for  the  Matriculation  Examina- 
tion in  June,  1866.  This  examination  will  be  held  on  the 
8th  of  October,  1866. 

"  5.  Candidates,  having  satisfied  the  requirements  of 
the  preliminary  examination,  will  then  be  examined  — 

(a)  In  the  Grammatical  Structure  of  the  English 

Language,  including  its  earlier  stages. 

(b)  In  the  History  of  English  Literature  during  the 

reigns  of  Elizabeth  and  James  I. 

(c)  In  the  following  works :   Shakspeare,  Macbeth  ; 

Bacon,  Essays  ;  Milton,  Areopagitica ;  Marsh, 
Origin  and  History  of  the  English  Language 
and  of  the  Early  Literature  it  embodies. 
An  Essay  will  also  be  required  on  some  subject  sug- 
gested by  the  works  named,  or  the  History  of  the  Period 

'  6.  The  Scholarship  is  tenable  for  two  years. 
'  7.  If  the  successful  candidate  shall  not  previously 
have  been  a  student  of  Owens  College  for  at  least  one 
session,  attending  either  one  of  the  Regular  Courses  there 
or  not  fewer  than  three  classes,  of  which  a  class  of  the 
English  Language  or  Literature  shall  have  been  one,  he 
will  be  required  to  pass  both  years  of  the  term  of  the 
Scholarship  at  the  College,  attending  one  of  the  Regular 
Courses  with  such  modifications  (if  any)  as  the  Principal 
shall  sanction,  a  class  of  the  English  Language  or  Litera- 
ture being  in  each  session  one  of  the  classes  attended. 
If  the  successful  candidate  shall  previously  have  been  a 
student  of  Owens  College,  as  defined  above,  he  will  be 
required  to  pass  only  the  first  year  of  his  term  at  Owens 
College  in  the  manner  aforesaid,  and  may  pass  the  second 
year  either  at  Owens  College  or  at  some  other  college,  to 
je  approved  of  by  the  Trustees." 

JNO.  HILL,  Sub-Librarian. 
Owens  College,  Manchester. 

THE  POEM,  "Mr  MOTHER"  (3rd  S.  x.  25,  97.) 
I  am  nattered  by  the  approval  expressed  by  MRS. 



S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66. 

GILBERT  of  the  two  verses  which  I  had  the  plea- 
sure to  submit,  as  an  appropriate  conclusion  to  her 
poem,  which  has  been  so  long  a  favourite  with 
the  public.  I  wish  only  to  observe  that  niy  objec- 
tion to  the  concluding  verse  of  the  original  is  not 
grounded  on  its  allusion  to  the  Divine  displeasure 
and  vengeance,  which  would  justly  follow  the  sin 
of  despising  a  parent ;  but  on  the  crude  and  abrupt 
introduction  of  that  sentiment,  and  the  implied 
supposition  that  a  child  represented  as  so  dutiful 
in  all  the  preceding  poem,  should  on  a  sudden  be 
supposed  to  contemplate  the  contingency  of  be- 
coming, not  merely  neglectful  or  indifferent,  but 
absolutely  contemptuous  towards  the  mother :  "  if 
I  should  ever  dare  despise  my  mother." 

F.  C.  H. 

TESTAMENTARY  BURIAL  (3rd  S.  x.  68.)— When 
a  person  desires  in  his  will  to  be  buried  in  a  cer- 
tain church,  churchyard,  or  other  burial  ground, 
and  the  interment  takes  place  according  to  the 
directions  in  such  testament,  it  is  called  a  testa- 
mentary burial.  As  there  is  the  strongest  reason 
to  believe  that  such  directions  have  been  acted 
upon  by  the  executors  or  survivors  of  deceased 
persons,  the  order  for  burial  in  the  will  is  usually 
considered  a  proof  that  the  obsequies  did  take 
place  where  and  as  directed.  K.  P.  D.  E. 

[In  our  note  on  testamentary  burials  (p.  115)  we  find 
the  word  not  was  omitted.  The  sentence  as  it  was  writ- 
ten should  read,  "  The  direction  of  the  testator  on  his  will 
as  to  the  place  of  burial  is  not  conclusive  evidence  that 
his  wishes  were  carried  out  by  his  executors." — ED.] 

532.)  —  The  following  lines  occur  in  the  Rev.  C. 
Colton's  powerful  satire  Hypocrisy,  8vo,  Tiverton, 
1812 :  — 

"  Ye  could,  to  Ferney  banished,  teach  Voltaire 
To  change  his  notions,  when  he  changed  his  air ; 
His  honied  flatteries  for  satiric  stings 
To  quit,  and  caned  from  Courts,  to  rail  at  Kings." 

P.  91. 

To  this  passage  is  appended  the  following 
note  :  — 

"  Voltaire  flattered  kings  to  their  faces,  and  lampooned 
them  behind  their  backs.  When  at  Berlin,  he  wrote  this 
epigram  on  his  patron  and  host,  the  King  of  Prussia  :  — 

*  King,  Author,  Philosopher,  Hero,  Musician, 
Free-mason,  (Economist,  Bard,  Politician, 
How  had  Europe  rejoiced  if  a  Christian  he'd  been, 
If  a  Man,  how  he  then  had  enraptured  his  Queen  ? ' 

"  For  this  effort  of  wit,  Voltaire  was  paid  with  just 
thirty  lashes  on  his  bare  back,  administered  by  the  king's 
Sergeant-at-Arms,  and  was  actually  obliged  to  sign  the 
following  curious  receipt  for  the  same  : — '  Received,  from 
the  right  hand  of  Conrad  Bachoffner,  thirty  lashes  on  my 
naked  back,  being  in  full  for  an  Epigram  on  Frederick 
the  Third,  King  of  Prussia.  I  say,  received  by  me, 
VOLTAIRE.  Vive  le  Roi ! ! ! '  " 

One  suspects  the  good  faith  of  any  statement 
about  Voltaire  coming  from  a  priest ;  and  although 

poor  Colton  was  a  different  guess  sort  of  a  parson, 
;he  question  still  remains — What  is  the  authority 
for  all  this  ?  WILLIAM  BATES.' 


THE  WORLD'S  BIRTHDAY  (3rd  S.  x.  90.)—  To 
fix  the  minute  when  time  began  in  this  world 
with  the  world  itself  is  to  offer  open  defiance  to 
all  human  calculation.  Therefore,  W.  H.  S.  may 
despair  of  finding  authority  for  that  extremely  re- 
mote date  (October  23),  as  it  is  engraven  onThomas 
Dawson's  tombstone.  Chevreau,  in  his  Histoire  du 
Monde  (1686),  mentions  one  "authority,"  who 
declares  that  the  shortest  day  in  the  year  sufficed 
for  the  formation  of  this  earth — December  21. 
Another  more  exact  "  authority  "  traces  it  back, 
with  bold  precision,  to  Friday,  September  6,  at 
four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  The  French  idiom, 
"a  quatre  heures  d.eFapres-dinee,"  signifying  that 
the  creation  of  the  world  was  a  postprandial 
achievement  is  very  comical,  in  spite  of  a  certain 
irreverence.  W.  H.  W. 

:( All  the  Year  Round  "  Office. 

Archbishop  Usher  fixes  the  world's  birthday  on 
Sunday,  October  23,  4004,  in  his  work  on  the 
Chronology  of  the  Bible,  written  when  he  was  only 
16 ;  i.  e.  about  the  year  1596.  This  book  was 
the  origin  of  his  great  work,  afterwards  published 
under  the  title  of  Annals  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testament.  In  the  inscription  at  Sandwich,  quoted 
by  W.  H.  S.,  "  learned  annals,"  may  possibly 
allude  to  the  latter  work.  Usher  died  at  Reigate, 
Surrey,  in  1656,  or  eighteen  years  before  the  date 
of  the  inscription.  JOHN  PIGGOT,  JTJN. 

The  origin  of  the  lines  mentioned  in  connection 
with  the  above  heading  I  should  think  is  very 
self-evident.  One  of  the  most  important  festivals 
of  the  Hebrew  Church  is  that  of  the  New  Year, 
which  commemorates  the  birth  of  the  world. 
The  first  of  the  month,  Pishri:  the  day  of  this 
celebration  is  this  year  equivalent  with  Sept.  10 ; 
in  1865  it  was  with  Sept.  21  j  in  1864  with  Oct.  1  j 
and  in  1863  with  Sept.  14,  varying  with  the  modern 
computation,  in  consequence  of  the  difference  be- 
tween the  solar  and  lunar  year,  which  latter  is 
maintained  by  the  Jews  in  religious  matters. 

This  festival  has  been  devoutly  kept  by^  the 
Israelites  on  the  first  of  Tishri  since  their  origin, 
and  next  month  they  will  count  5627,  A.M.  ;  and 
it  is  held  by  some  that  Adam,  Noah,  and  Shem 
celebrated  this  day  before  the  original  Divine  dis- 
pensation. Whether  exactly  — 

"  Upon  October's  three-and-twentieth  day, 
The  world  began,  as  learned  annals  say," 

I  am  not  prepared  to  admit,  but  the  first  of 
Tishri  being  very  near  this  date,  it  has  some 


3rd  S.  X.  AUG.  18,  '66. ] 



ANDREA  FERARA  (1st  S.  iii.  62 ;  2nd  S.  i.  73 ; 
3rd  S.  viii.  157.)  —  It  is  true  that  Andrea  Ferara 
was  an  Italian,  but  when  "the  Andrea  Ferara  "  is 
mentioned  as  a  famous  sword,  it  means  one  made 
at  the  manufactory  established  by  him  at  Zara- 
goza.  The  water  of  the  Ebro  was  supposed  to 
have  the  same  virtue  in  tempering  steel  that  the 
water  of  the  Tagus  is  still  said  to  possess.  The 
rival  of  Andrea  Ferara  was  Juan  del  Rey,  called 
(( el  Moro,"  who  was  established  at  Toledo  on  the 
latter  river.  HOWDEN. 

ROYAL  ASSENT  (3rd  S.  x.  97.)  —  Will  your  cor- 
respondent F.  0.  H.  give  his  authority  for  his 
statement  that  George  IV.  refused  his  assent  to 
the  Emancipation  Bill  in  1829  ?  and  where  any 
statement  is  to  be  found  that  the  ministers 
had  resigned  after  the  Bill  had  passed?  It  is 
an  important  point  in  the  character  of  King 
George  IV.  VERAX. 

ST.  JULIANA  OF  NORWICH  (3rd  S.  x.  111.) — 
The  editor's  answer  has  left  me  very  little  to  add 
in  reply  to  CANON  DALTON'S  query.  The  anchoress 
Juliana  was  never  canonized  ;  but  is  usually  called 
the  Lady  Juliana,  and  sometimes  Mother  Juliana. 
There  is  a  copy  at  Thorndon  Hall,  the  seat  of 
Lord  Petre,  of  the  old  book  of  her  revelations,  of 
which  the  title  is  given  in  full  in  Dodd's  Church 
History  (vol.  iii.  p.  309),  as  follows  :  — 

"  Sixteen  Revelations  of  Divine  Love  to  a  devout  Ser- 
vant of  Our  Lord,  called  Mother  Juliana,  an  Anchorite 
of  Norwich,  who  lived  in  the  Days  of  King  Edward  3rd  ; 
revived  from  an  ancient  copy,  and  dedicated  to  Mary, 
Lady  Blount,  of  Sodington,  Widow  of  Sir  George  Blount, 
8vo,  1670." 

The  ancient  copy,  thus  u  revived "  by  Hugh 
Cressy,  was  no  doubt  the  one  referred  to  by 
Blomefield  as  having  been  in  the  possession  of  the 
Rev.  Francis  Peck.  Nothing,  however,  is  known 
of  this  recluse  except,  as  Cressy  observes,  "what 
she  occasionally  sprinkles  "  in  her  book  of  revela- 
tions. He  mentions  that,  when  she  was  favoured 
with  these  in  1373,  she  was  about  thirty  years  of 
age.  Mr.  Peck's  old  vellum  MS.  speaks  of  her 
in  1442  as  one  who  "  yitt  ys  on  life ;"  so  that 
Mother  Juliana  must  have  lived  to  be  near,  if  not 
quite,  a  hundred  years  old.  F.  C.  H. 

et  ante.) — By  the  "coarseness"  of  Warburton's 
conversation,  J.  S.  W.  declares  that  he  meant 
"  nothing  more  than  that  he  was  frequently  rude, 
abrupt,  unpolite,  not  very  choice  about  the  sort 
of  phraseology  in  which  he  expressed  himself." 
And  he  repeats  that  "  there  is  nothing  in  any  re- 
cords which  we  have  of  his  conversation,  and 
nothing  in  his  writings  epistolary,  or  other,  to  in- 
timate a  propensity  in  him  to  such  sort  of  dis- 
course," as  Gibbon's  note  would  impute. 

In  the  Literary  and  Miscellaneous  Memoirs  of 

J.  Cradock,  published  in  1828,  occurs  the  fol- 
lowing :  — 

"  Warburton,  when  tired  of  controversy,  would  send  to 
the  circulating  libraries  for  basketsful  of  all  the  trash  of 
the  town,  and  the  bishop  would  laugh  by  the  hour  at  all 
the  absurdities  he  glanced  at.  The  learned  world  could 
never  guess  from  whence  the  bishop  obtained  so  many  low 
anecdotes;  for  his  conversation,  as  well  as  some  of  his 
letters,  were  at  times  complete  comedy."  (Under  the 
heading  of  "  Bishop  Hurd.") 

The  reader  who  will  compare  what  I  have 
placed  in  italics  with  the  assertions  of  J.  S.  W., 
will  see  some  reason  to  believe  that  Warburton 
went  beyond  his  explanation  of  coarseness,  and 
would  be  quite  capable  of  what  Gibbon  professes 
to  have  heard  of  some  prelate  unnamed. 

F.  C.  H. 

"MAJESTIC  REVIAH"  (3rd  S.  ix.  218.)— I  sent  a 
reply  to  this  inquiry  on  the  day  of  its  appearance 
in  "  N.  &  Q.,"  but  which  has  not  been  inserted, 
nor  has  any  other.  I  now  repeat  that  there  are 
ten  words  in  the  Law  marked  with  these  dots, 
having  no  accentual  value :  — Gen.  xvi.  5,  xviii.  9, 
xix.  33,*  xxxiii.  4,  xxxvii.  12;  Num.  iii.  39,  ix.  10, 
xxi.  30,  xxix.  15  j  and  Dent.  xxix.  28.  There  are 
four  in  the  Prophets :— 2  Sam.  xix.  20;  Is.  xliv.  9  j 
Ezech.  xli.  20,  xlvi.  22.  And  one  in  the  Hagio- 
grapha,  Ps.  xxvii.  13.  In  all  fifteen  places.  The 
term  majestic  Reviah  is  not  so  correct  as  nj1jM7 
nekuda,  pointed,  used  by  Bechai,  who  says  these 
points  indicate  something  peculiar.  (See  Bux- 
torff's  Thes.  Gram.  i.  6.)  T.  J.  BTJCKTON. 

Streatham  Place,  S. 

SAINT  MICHAEL  (3rd  S.  x.  34.) —Although  I 
have  neither  the  desire  nor  the  ability  to  sustain 
a  ideological  argument — even  assuming  that  re- 
li;  •  >us  polemics  are  not  by  their  very  nature  ex- 
cL.ded  from  these  pages  —  I  may  yet  attempt  a 
brief  and  temperate  rejoinder  to  F.  C.  H.  Those 
can  scarcely  be  called  "  private  views  "  which  are 
held  by  the  Church  of  England  in  one  of  her 
Articles,  in  which  she  requires  no  man  to  believe 
what  "  is  not  read  in  Holy  Scripture,  nor  may  be 
proved  thereby."  Try  the  plurality  of  archangels 
by  this  test,  and  the  result  is  plain. 

With  regard  to  the  other  matter,  I  admit  that, 
on  a  detail  of  church-building  and,  much  more, 
on  a  question  of  symbolism,  the  voice  of  antiquity 
is  all-powerful  to  my  mind.  From  the  tone  of 
your  correspondent's  remarks,  it  would  seem  that 
personal  discourtesy  lurks  in  something  I  have 
written.  If  I  have  stepped  a  line  beyond  the  limit 
of  fair  discussion,  I  have  done  so  most  unconsci- 
ously; and  for  that  unwitting  offence  nothing 
remains  but  to  offer  a  frank  apology.  I  intended 
to  abstain  from  anything  like  criticism  on  his 
suggestion  for  a  symbol  of  St.  Michael,  and  the 

*  The  extraordinary  points  in  this  place  are  mentioned 
by  St.  Jerome. 



X.  AUG.  18,  ?66. 

little  I  did  say  was  honestly  meant  to  be  appreci- 
ative :  and,  I  might  add,  complimentary,  were  it 
not  that  his  position  and  learning  are  too  well 
assured  to  need  compliments  from  any  quarter. 
My  reticence  has  evidently  availed  me  so  little 
that  I  might  as  well  have  said  out  at  once  that, 
whereas  I  was  seeking  a  single  and  an  existent 
emblem  of  the  archangel,  the  suggestion  made  to 
me,  inasmuch  as  it  presented  a  novelty  and  a 
group,  was  the  exact  reverse. 


I  feel  sure  that  the  representation  of  St.  Michael 
is  not  very  uncommon.  He  is,  as  far  as  I  remem- 
ber, figured  as  slaying  the  dragon  with  the  pointed 
end  of  a  cross.  Unless  my  memory  fails  me, 
Martin  Schon  has  a  beautiful  print,  which  was 
reproduced  by  Ottley.  There  is  also  a  somewhat 
similar  representation,  possibly  derived  from  the 
same  example,  in  the  Hortulus  Animce,  by  Schaf- 
fener,  early  in  the  sixteenth  century.  J.  C.  J. 

ALMACK'S  (3rd  S.  ix.  416.)— Not  a  few  persons, 
I  am  ashamed  to  say,  have  desired  to  conceal  their 
origin,  when  either  Scotch  or  Irish,  on  becoming 
residents  in  London.  David  Mallet  in  order  to  do 
so  changed  his  name  from  Malloch  ;  and  Macklin 
the  actor  was  originally  Mac  Laughlin.  In  the 
same  manner  we  are  told  "a  sturdy  Celt  from 
Galloway  or  Atholl,  called  Mac  Gaul,  well  known 
in  the  fashionable  end  of  the  town  by  keeping  a 
famous  subscription-house  in  Pall  Mall,  nearly 
opposite  the  Palace  of  St.  James's,  by  a  slight 
transposition  of  his  name  gave  birth  to  Almack's." 
This  circumstance  is  mentioned  in  Delicice  Lite- 
rarice  (Lond.  1840,  p.  121),  the  author  of  which 
refers  to  KBIT'S  Memoirs  of  Smellie,  vol.  i.  pp.  436, 
437,  Edin.  1811.  JEPHSON  HUBAND  SMITH. 

SABBATH  QUERIES  (3rd  S.  x.  78.) — In  replying 
to  the  above,  F.  0.  H.  asserts  that  "  the  word 
sabbath  ought  not,  strictly  speaking,  to  be  applied 
to  the  Lord's  Day,  or  Sunday,"  because  "  it  "  (the 
word  sabbath)  "  signifies  Saturday."  This  strange 
assertion  should  scarcely  have  found  place  in 
"  N.  &  Q."  Every  one  who  has  any  acquaintance 
with  Hebrew  knows  that  DUE?,  <ra3/8aTOj>,  signifies 
cessation  from  labour,  or  rest,  as  is  explained  in 
Genesis  ii.  2,  3.  It  has  no  essential  connection 
with  any  one  of  the  seven  days  more  than  another, 
and  probably  owed  its  identification  with  what  we 
now  call  Saturday  to  the  fact  (recorded  in  Deute- 
ronomy v.  15)  that  it  was  on  that  day  that  the 
children  of  Israel  were  brought  out  of  Egypt. 
The  Christian  Sunday  is  just  as  truly  a  rest,  or  a 
"sabbath,"  as  the  Jewish 'Saturday  was;  the  only 
difference  being  that  the  latter  commemorates  the 
deliverance  from  Egypt,  and  the  former  the  resur- 
rection of  the  Saviour.  Which  of  the  seven  days 
was  kept  as  a  sabbath  before  the  Exode  we  have 
no  means  of  knowing  j  nor  can  the  matter  be  de- 

cided until  we  are  informed  on  which  day  of  the 
week  the  incidents  recorded  as  happening  on  the 
"  first  day  "  of  Genesis  i.  5,  took  place.  There  is 
nothing  in  the  Mosaic  narrative  to  identify  that 
"  first  day  "  with  our  present  Sunday,  and  conse- 
quently there  is  nothing  to  identify  the  "  seventh 
day  "  of  chap.  ii.  3,  with  the  modern  Saturday. 
The  patriarchs,  so  far  as  we  can  ascertain,  kept 
one-seventh  part  of  their  time  sacred,  or  "  sancti- 
fied," as  a  day  of  rest,  and  called  it  a  sabbath;  and 
this  being  precisely  what  we  do  now,  there  can  be 
no  objection  to  our  also  calling  our  day  of  rest  by 
this  significant  and  time-honoured  name.  That 
this  was  the  idea  attached  to  the  word  sabbath  by 
the  early  Christian  Church  is  sufficiently  indicated 
by  the  use  of  the  word  o-ajS^cmo-juby  in  the  Epistle 
to  the  Hebrews,  iv.  9.  M. 

THE  "ROUNDING"  SYSTEM  (3rd  S.  x.  87)  was  in 
vogue  in  Andover  some  thirty  years  since,  but  it 
differed  from  that  described  in  "N._&  Q."  The 
surplus  able-bodied  labourers  were  billeted  on  the 
farmers  and  tradesmen  in  proportion  to  their  several 
assessments,  so  that  while  a  large  farmer  might  have 
five  or  six  labourers  appointed  to  him  solely,  one 
labourer  might  be  appointed  to  seven  or  fourteen 
tradesmen,  serving  a  day  each  in  a  week  or  fort- 
night. It  was  done  to  prevent  the  labourers  be- 
coming chargeable  to  the  parish  funds.  It  was  in 
operation  one  or  two  winters,  not  more,  but  it  was 
never  popular  either  with  the  paupers  or  the  rate- 
payers. SAM.  SHAW. 


A  custom  not  very  unlike  this  was  prevalent  in 
North  Lincolnshire  some  years  ago.  I  do  not 
think  it  is  entirely  discontinued  yet.  It  was  called 
going  by  house  roiv.  When  there  were  persons 
belonging  to  a  parish,  or  township,  who  could 
not  get  work,  the  farmers  would  in  vestry  agree 
to  find  them  work  at  a  rate  of  wages  considerably 
below  that  of  their  regular  labourers,  on  condition 
that  the  time  they  should  work  for  each  man 
should  be  in  proportion  to  the  land  he  occupied, 
or  to  the  sum  at  which  he  was  assessed  to  the 
poor's  rate.  K-  P.  D.  E. 

(3rd  S.  x.  83.)— A  slight  alteration  of  MR.  COL- 
LIER'S emendations  renders  this  passage  perfectly 
clear.  It  should  be  read  thus :  — 

"  ....  If  the  midnight  bell 
Did,  with  his  iron  tongue  and  brazen  mouth, 
Sound  wo£  into  the  drowsy  ear  of  night  " 

that  is,  if  it  were  now   the  deep  stillness  of 

midnight,  when  the